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Marteilia refringens causes marteiliosis in oysters, mussels and other bivalve molluscs. This parasite previously comprised two species, M. refringens and Marteilia maurini, which were synonymized in 2007 and subsequently referred to as M. refringens ‘O-type’ and ‘M-type’. O-type has caused mass mortalities of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis. We used high throughput sequencing and histology to intensively screen flat oysters and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the UK, Sweden and Norway for infection by both types and to generate multi-gene datasets to clarify their genetic distinctiveness. Mussels from the UK, Norway and Sweden were more frequently polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for M-type (75/849) than oysters (11/542). We did not detect O-type in any northern European samples, and no histology-confirmed Marteilia-infected oysters were found in the UK, Norway and Sweden, even where co-habiting mussels were infected by the M-type. The two genetic lineages within ‘M. refringens’ are robustly distinguishable at species level. We therefore formally define them as separate species: M. refringens (previously O-type) and Marteilia pararefringens sp. nov. (M-type). We designed and tested new Marteilia-specific PCR primers amplifying from the 3’ end of the 18S rRNA gene through to the 5.8S gene, which specifically amplified the target region from both tissue and environmental samples.
In 1634, the year before his death, Lope de Vega published an anthology of poetry in the parodic mode, comprising 161 sonnets, 11 rimas sacras, various espinelas and canciones and the seven-silva, feline mock epic La Gatomaquia: the Rimas humanas y divinas del licenciado Tomé de Burguillos. The pseudonym was not a new creation, and the true author of the text was a thinly veiled secret, which raises some interesting questions about authorial intent and subsequent textual interpretations. Why would a poet like Lope de Vega, who sought to be taken seriously as the principal lyric poet of his age, and to reach the pinnacle of Parnassus during his poetic career, turn to parody towards the end of his life? Is it the culminating step in a parodic trajectory as it appears to be in Góngora, or does it carry out some other function? Felipe Pedraza Jiménez highlights Lope's late parodic poetry as a product of his état d'esprit, as well as a reaction to the socio-political forces of seventeenth-century Spain: ‘La poesía que antes le ha servido para expresar entusiasmos (eróticos, patrióticos, etc.), le ha de servir en los últimos años de su vida para “templar tristezas”’. In this chapter I will examine how and why the disillusionment and melancholy so often associated with ‘late’ Lope is manifest in parody, focusing on the poet's use of various ideologies (imperial or religious, for example) and interactions with classical philosophy and mythology. I will also examine the apparent sliding scale of ‘reality’ in relation to Lope's use of a pseudonym or alter ego, particularly concerning a perception of the ‘low’ or vulgar as more realistic than a highly ornate or idealised style.
The subjects of his parody are broad in spite of the uniform genre of Burguillos's Rimas (the sonnet is the dominant form), ranging from what Antonio Carreño calls ‘los ya vacíos referentes de la lírica renacentista’ to the obscure language of Góngora's ‘pájaros nuevos’, and including his own previous works, both dramatic and lyric. Of course, Lope's acerbic wit is not only unleashed against the moribund poetics of Petrarchism and the magniloquent obscurity of gongorine imitators, but frequently operates to propel his poetry firmly up the satirical spectrum.
Hay que tener cuidado al elegir a los enemigos porque uno termina pareciéndose a ellos.
Jorge Luis Borges
The parodic poetry written by Luis de Góngora and Lope de Vega at the end of their professional careers and in the winter of their years unquestionably brings forth something new, built from the bricks of ancient and contemporary poetic monuments. These poets utilise parody as a process that, paradoxically, ends and begins simultaneously in order to engage with the literary past, question its legacy, and redirect future poetics. Góngora's mytho-parodic trajectory and comic culmination, and Lope's final theatrical extravaganza as Tomé de Burguillos, reveal a wealth of common practices. Primarily, against the traditional critical tendency to pit our authors against one another, this comparative study has evaluated the methodologies followed by Góngora and Lope, noting correspondences and assessing whether and how these are paradigmatic of a late style. With this in mind, I will discuss the metapoetics of the performed self, particularly in relation to the apparent presence or absence of a recognisable self in the poetry. One of the most pronounced differences between the poetry of Góngora and Lope is the perceived impersonality or fragmentation of the poetic voice in the work of Góngora, and in Lope, a body of work constructed from the pure, visceral, lived experience of its author. In my view, these competing methods of composition are in fact a false dichotomy. Isabel Torres points out that ‘the generic and rhetorical construction of lyric subjectivity in Góngora's poetry is now generally recognised, but without discounting a connection with history’. In Lope's case, the critical pursuit of biographical material in his poetry is perhaps proof positive of an ostensibly graspable, tangible self, one that is problematised by the ambiguity of Tomé de Burguillos. My interrogation, however, does not merely constitute an argument for the presence of Góngora, or for the absence of Lope, but that both poets work to conjure up a self or selves from a multitude of sources. Their late parodic works are created essentially as living monuments to poetry, buttressed by the self, in which disparate modes of being vie for supremacy, rendering it impossible to identify one single voice. Arguments for Góngora's emotional absence are undermined by assumptions of aesthetic coldness, for the poetic monument is designed to convert aesthetic energy into emotion in the reader.
In his 1935 introduction to one of the first annotated editions of La Gatomaquia, Francisco Rodríguez Marín makes the case for the relative obscurity of Lope's burlesque masterpiece. He rails against ‘los que imaginan ser innecesaria la exégesis en cuanto a las obras de este autor’, proceeding to give examples of Lope's invented words (‘piramizar’, ‘ñifiñafe’, etc.) and phrases that the uninitiated reader might consider an obstacle to understanding. Despite Burguillos's claims that ‘la vega es llana’ (147, v. 8), my analysis of La Gatomaquia will show that the plain surface dissembles much deeper foundations.
Structured in seven relatively even silvas, in 2,802 verses, Burguillos's Gatomaquia is narrated by an indeterminate voice that oscillates in its identification with Lope, Burguillos of the sonnets, and neither. The central premise of the poem lies in a feline love triangle that purposely and comically echoes the classical Paris–Helen–Menelaus triangle; Marramaquiz, ‘gato romano’ (I, v. 80), woos the beautiful Zapaquilda, who is in turn won over by the foreign novelty of Micifuf, descendant of the biblical Noah's cat, Zapirón (III, v. 207). Marramaquiz, driven in his rage to the rapture of the traitorous feline ‘Helen’ on the day of her wedding to the tardy (and vain) Micifuf, must then face the bellicose retaliation of the foreign cat. The text is littered with mythological images of women being forcefully taken by the gods (the exploits of Jupiter appear most frequently) but these seem to be mostly superficial decor. The depth of the poem, as we will see, lies not in the embellishments of mythological tropes, but in Lope's process of mythologising his own works. Various factors that contribute to this process will feature in the following analysis, including the constantly fluctuating generic consistency of the poem, a carnivalesque ethos and a rhetoric of materialism that grounds displays of lofty erudition, as well as the often complex philosophical threads and the text's preoccupation with time and the stars. The somewhat theatrical aspect of the poem is foregrounded in the Advertimiento al señor lector as the poet claims that an Aristophanic facade obscures Platonic truths; rather than traditional emphasis on the neo-Platonic in Lope's work, my analysis will focus on the Aristophanic connection.
Long before the complex worlds of the Polifemo or Soledades came into being, Góngora displayed a certain precocious ‘alejamiento no-conformista’ in his satirical letrillas that would prove to be the seed of a centuries-long controversy. The neologisms, warped syntax, dazzling surface phenomena and many of the processes that would become intrinsic to gongorine style germinated from the young Góngora's fascination with the precariousness of signs, with the tenuous relation between word and world. For Góngora in these ludic and occasionally vulgar letrillas, the space between signifier and signified is where play is king, where, amid the disguises and misdirections, truths reside. As Robert M. Ford points out, ‘[q]uizá se podría ver en Góngora algo del espíritu carnavalesco del mundo al revés en el cual participa el poeta mismo’, a world whose at once simple and clever humour gives the lie to its intricacies and importance, its gravity. In these early works, Góngora sets about shredding the linguistic veil that covers over the disjunction between official, authoritative, privileged signifiers, and the static meaning that they desire but that eludes them. These ‘códigos degradados’ are representational failures that facilitate the performativity of the poetic voice as other or outside of the convention it deconstructs, a skill that develops and intensifies throughout Góngora's poetic career. There are in the letrillas glimpses of his periphrastic investigation into the processes of the universe and our complex understanding of them: we have ‘leño’ for fire, and ‘piedra’ for death, silence – simple execution of profound thought.
Post-letrillas, Góngora moves away from the Horatian or Juvenalian model of social satire, choosing instead to confront the mythology of writing and the writing of mythology. Parody of mythology for Góngora embodies ‘the desire for destruction, change and becoming, may be the expression of overflowing power, pregnant with futurity’, although this process is tentative at first. Robert Ball places ‘Arrojóse el mancebito’ on the fringes of Góngora's primary imitative phase (1580–1600) and ‘Aunque entiendo poco griego’ in the second, transitional phase (1600–11). It is during this time that the poet thrives on the performative jollity of the picaresque poet-jester, poking holes in the social fabric, sometimes with sharp and clever wordplay, sometimes with the brute force of deflationary humour.
Co-Winner of the 2014 Publication Prize awarded by the Association of Hispanists of Great Britain and Ireland Kerr traces the processes and paradoxes at work in the late parodic poetry of Luis de Góngora and Lope de Vega, illuminating the correlations and connections between two poets who have more often than not been presented as enemies. The analysis follows the parallel development of the complex parodic genre through Góngora's late mythological parody, from his 1589 Hero and Leander romance through to his culminating parody, La fábula de Píramo y Tisbe (1618) and Lope de Vega's alter ego Tomé de Burguillos, whose anthology, Rimas humanas y divinas del licenciado Tomé de Burguillos, was published a year before Lope's death, in 1634. Working from the premise that parody provides a Derridean supplément to exhausted, dominant genres (e.g. pastoral, lyric, epic), this study asks: what do these texts achieve by their supplementarity, and how do they achieve it?, and, the overarching question, why do these erudite poets turn to parody in an age of decline? Lindsay Kerr received her PhD in Spanish at Queen's University Belfast.
This study has attempted to pose, and answer, new questions regarding the literary relationship between Luis de Góngora and Lope de Vega, particularly in the twilight of their respective careers. Neither of these poets turned to parody without precedent. That they did turn to parody, however, after their greatest career successes and at the end of their lives, establishes a correlation between lateness, decline, mastery and humour. These texts show an awareness of kairos in the midst of the endless and shapeless chronos, a moment of truth, of reflection; an event that must not simply continue on in the predictable rhythm of masterful creation followed by inevitable decline. Parody after (and incorporating) mastery is shown by Lope and Góngora (and possibly by other artists such as Beethoven or Verdi) to be aware of its terminal position and, as such, both accepts and humorously defies the final tock of the clock. The processes and paradoxes of parody allow these poets to mythologise their own poetry, incorporating the past while simultaneously looking forward to the next leap in poetic progress, even if they are not there personally to experience it. The legacy of Lope's and Góngora's counter-conventional paradigm is the subject of another study, but whatever course lyric poetry might take, it begins at the kairotic moment of parody.
In this book I have attempted to read La fábula de Píramo y Tisbe and the Burguillos anthology in a way that allows a paradigm of late style to emerge, rather than imposing any preconceived theory upon the texts. This study has demonstrated the developmental and parallel intertextual, self-reflexive devices employed by both poets: their metaphors and multiplications of meanings, their challenges of and deference to poetic authorities of the past, and their appreciation of the absurd. What we can glean from the analyses is that, to a large extent, Lope and Góngora use the same methods ‒ regardless of style ‒ in order to renew, to pay homage and to acknowledge the limits of art. Contrary to the standard critical view of these poets as opposites with dissimilar motives, I have illustrated through this evaluation of late style and parody that Góngora and Lope share in a poetics of solidarity.
La fábula de Píramo y Tisbe (1618) is, in the vein of Góngora's Hero and Leander poems, a ludic expansion of a myth whose classical origins (Ovid's Metamorphoses) and enduring popularity draw our poet like a moth to a flame. The 508 verses of Píramo y Tisbe tell the tale of two young lovers whose only original mode of communication is through a chink in the wall between their adjoining houses, although Góngora invents an African maid (‘fatal carabela’, v. 137) who ferries notes between them. The two agree to meet at the tomb of Ninus; however, a mountain lion, mouth drenched with the blood of a sheep (possibly merino), frightens Tisbe, who runs and hides, dropping her veil in her haste. The lion drinks from the fountain before tearing at the lost veil, thereby giving Pyramus the impression that Tisbe has been mauled. He then runs himself through in despair, at which point Tisbe arrives and decides also to skewer herself on his sword. Góngora's version broaches the gulf between Ovid and the increasingly stale poetics of the many sixteenth-century versions. Similarly to the myth of Hero and Leander, there was no shortage of poetic interpretations of the story of Pyramus and Thisbe in contemporary Spain. Several of these works constitute Góngora's parodic (but also emulative) targets, from the Ovide moralisé and Silvestre's La fábula de Píramo y Tisbe (1582) to the Historia de los muy constantes y infelices amores de Píramo y Tisbe (1561) attributed to Jorge de Montemayor and Antonio de Villegas’ Historia de Píramo y Tisbe (1565). The Spanish poetic lineage of Pyramus and Thisbe as catalogued by David Garrison and by Antonio Pérez Lasheras indicates that the tradition of rewriting mythology under the precept of imitatio is generally reflective of the epistemological status quo. Góngora's parodies (I include here his unfinished 1604 poem, ‘De Tisbe y Píramo quiero’) seek to redress the stagnating effect of a centuries-long privileging of imitatio over inventio. In Góngora's case, many of his unsuccessful imitators interpret his obscure language without penetrating its surface meaning, ironically reinstating the privilege of imitatio. Misinterpreting the aesthetic then leads to misinterpretation of the mechanisms by which Góngora constructs, and invites his reader to construct, meaning.
Luis de Góngora y Argote and Lope de Vega y Carpio, príncipe de las tinieblas and monstruo de la naturaleza, respectively, are infrequently invoked together outside the realm of poetic belligerence. As the cultural landscape they inhabit bends and shapes to their gravity, these two literary forces collide in violent counteraction. This at least has been the prevailing view of criticism, bolstered by Emilio Orozco Díaz's seminal work Lope y Góngora frente a frente (1973), in which he illuminates the poets’ divergent poetic methodologies and ethos. Although Orozco admits a grudging admiration between Góngora and Lope, my goal is to temper undeniable opposition with a methodology that allows the latent correlations in their poetic methods to emerge. It is at their most evident point of convergence that I conduct this study, a point which is also one of culmination: late parodic poetry. Perhaps the continued relevance of these parodic works lies in the perennial nature of their ethos, that which is projected out of the text, if not necessarily explicitly expounded by it. Parody is that meta ‘rhétorique “noir”’ of which Barthes speaks, the ludic accompaniment and deconstructor of ‘repressive’ institutionalised rhetoric whose real power lies in the playful space between signifier and signified. The atomic structure of these works and the processes instituted by certain combinations of elements are governed by the paradoxical laws of parody: at once authority and transgression. Robert Phiddian's conception of parody as a self-referential, deconstructive, absurd and supplementary entity broadly describes many of the conditions of Lope's and Góngora's parody. This late poetry is a supplément in the Derridean sense, ‘it adds only to replace’; it replicates, it modifies and it amplifies its own generic code to a variety of ends and beginnings. It bears witness, particularly as regards Lope and Góngora, to the struggle between logos and mythos:
Logos had never been able to provide human beings with the sense of significance that they seemed to require. It had been myth that had given structure and meaning to life, but as modernisation progressed and logos achieved such spectacular results, mythology was increasingly discredited. As early as the sixteenth century, we see more evidence of a numbing despair, a creeping mental paralysis, and a sense of impotence and rage as the old mythological way of thought crumbled and nothing new appeared to take its place.
The Paramyxida, closely related to haplosporidians, paradinids, and mikrocytids, is an obscure order of parasitic protists within the class Ascetosporea. All characterized ascetosporeans are parasites of invertebrate hosts, including molluscs, crustaceans and polychaetes. Representatives of the genus Marteilia are the best studied paramyxids, largely due to their impact on cultured oyster stocks, and their listing in international legislative frameworks. Although several examples of microsporidian hyperparasitism of paramyxids have been reported, phylogenetic data for these taxa are lacking. Recently, a microsporidian parasite was described infecting the paramyxid Marteilia cochillia, a serious pathogen of European cockles. In the current study, we investigated the phylogeny of the microsporidian hyperparasite infecting M. cochillia in cockles and, a further hyperparasite, Unikaryon legeri infecting the digenean Meiogymnophallus minutus, also in cockles. We show that rather than representing basally branching taxa in the increasingly replete Cryptomycota/Rozellomycota outgroup (containing taxa such as Mitosporidium and Paramicrosoridium), these hyperparasites instead group with other known microsporidian parasites infecting aquatic crustaceans. In doing so, we erect a new genus and species (Hyperspora aquatica n. gn., n.sp.) to contain the hyperparasite of M. cochillia and clarify the phylogenetic position of U. legeri. We propose that in both cases, hyperparasitism may provide a strategy for the vectoring of microsporidians between hosts of different trophic status (e.g. molluscs to crustaceans) within aquatic systems. In particular, we propose that the paramyxid hyperparasite H. aquatica may eventually be detected as a parasite of marine crustaceans. The potential route of transmission of the microsporidian between the paramyxid (in its host cockle) to crustaceans, and, the ‘hitch-hiking’ strategy employed by H. aquatica is discussed.
Almost half of all known microsporidian taxa infect aquatic animals. Of these, many cause disease in arthropods. Hepatospora, a recently erected genus, infects epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas of wild and farmed decapod crustaceans. We isolated Hepatospora spp. from three different crustacean hosts, inhabiting different habitats and niches; marine edible crab (Cancer pagurus), estuarine and freshwater Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and the marine mussel symbiont pea crab (Pinnotheres pisum). Isolates were initially compared using histology and electron microscopy revealing variation in size, polar filament arrangement and nuclear development. However, sequence analysis of the partial SSU rDNA gene could not distinguish between the isolates (~99% similarity). In an attempt to resolve the relationship between Hepatospora isolated from E. sinensis and C. pagurus, six additional gene sequences were mined from on-going unpublished genome projects (RNA polymerase, arginyl tRNA synthetase, prolyl tRNA synthetase, chitin synthase, beta tubulin and heat shock protein 70). Primers were designed based on the above gene sequences to analyse Hepatospora isolated from pea crab. Despite application of gene sequences to concatenated phylogenies, we were unable to discriminate Hepatospora isolates obtained from these hosts and concluded that they likely represent a single species or, at least subspecies thereof. In this instance, concatenated phylogenetic analysis supported the SSU-based phylogeny, and further, demonstrated that microsporidian taxonomies based upon morphology alone are unreliable, even at the level of the species. Our data, together with description of H. eriocheir in Asian crab farms, reveal a preponderance for microvariants of this parasite to infect the gut of a wide array of decapods crustacean hosts and the potential for Hepatospora to exist as a cline across wide geographies and habitats.
This audit cycle aimed to identify deficiencies in medicines management in an adult psychiatric hospital. The original audit in 2009 highlighted that a number of improvements were needed to enhance prescribing standards. Following implementation of these recommendations, two reaudits were performed to assess both the improvements in medicines management along with evaluating the newly introduced drug prescription chart.
Local, national and international guidelines on medicines management were reviewed in 2009, following which an audit tool was designed. Recommendations from the original audit were taken on board with the introduction of a new medication chart. This chart incorporated many of the recommendations from the original audit into it. Two reaudits were then performed, each over 1 day by four assessors and included all inpatient wards.
The initial audit in 2009 outlined a number of recommendations, namely the introduction of an appropriate ‘fit for purpose’ medication chart, the need for regular postgraduate prescribing education and training and the consideration of a prescribing formulary and/or Drugs & Therapeutics Committee. Results from the reaudits revealed that considerable improvement was made in areas such as patient demographics, pharmacist involvement, generic prescribing, BLOCK capitals, inclusion of Medical Council Registration Number, PRN prescribing and discontinuation procedures.
Although significant improvement was noted, further improvement is required with regards to the need for a review date for PRN medication; the need for improved documentation of allergies, height and weight; and the importance of a working group to assess community medicines management and the need for further reaudits to assess continued improvement in all deficient areas.
In addition to the hundreds of known visual-wavelength Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs), a number of DIBs in the near-infrared (NIR) are now also known to exist. We present here high-resolution UKIRT echelle spectroscopy of two of the NIR DIBs toward sightlines exhibiting a range of visual extinctions. Variations in the strengths and profile shapes of the bands are considered in the context of known properties of the narrow DIBs at visual wavelengths.