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Ethics has been considered among the core domains of health technology assessment (HTA), but there are still disputes regarding ethical analysis. This study aimed to examine full final reports of the European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) in terms of their compliance with the ethical methodology and ethical perspective of the HTA Core Model®.
The study examines seven full final HTA reports of EUnetHTA written based on the methodology proposed in the HTA Core Model®. The reports were analyzed using the following parameters: competency of the person/group who conducted ethical analysis, assessment elements, and the methodology of ethical analysis.
The results show that, although the HTA Core Model® helped to standardize the final reports of the assessment, there are still concerns regarding the competency of the ethical analysis team, the perspectives on the purpose of ethical analysis, data sources and viewpoints of various stakeholders, use of ethical analysis methodology, and the evaluation of the ethical appropriateness of the entire HTA process.
The HTA Core Model® helped to standardize the final reports on the HTA; however, not all issues with the content and outcomes were solved. The lack of expertise in ethics and insufficiency of the teams regarding ethical analysis are other existing problems. This study also demonstrated that stakeholder viewpoints in general and patient perspectives, in particular, have been overlooked in the HTA process.
In this paper, the (G'/G)-expansion method is suggested to establish new exact solutions for fractional differential-difference equations in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. The fractional complex transform is proposed to convert a fractional partial differential difference equation into its differential difference equation of integer order. With the aid of symbolic computation, we choose nonlinear lattice equations to illustrate the validity and advantages of the algorithm. It is shown that the proposed algorithm is effective and can be used for many other nonlinear lattice equations in mathematical physics and applied mathematics.
How well do parents’ education, earnings, income, and wealth predict the same outcomes for their children? Scientists have been trying to answer this question for a long time. Francis Galton (1822–1911) was the first to apply statistical methods to tackle this question. Centuries earlier, the great Arab scholar Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) famously observed that the prestige lasted at best four generations in one lineage.
Dendrochronological research in North-Central Europe and the East Mediterranean has produced networks of long regional oak (Quercus sp.) reference chronologies that have been instrumental in dating, provenancing, and paleoclimate research applications. However, until now these two important tree-ring networks have not been successfully linked. Oak forests and historical/archaeological sites in southeastern Europe provide the key for linking the North-Central European and East Mediterranean tree-ring networks, but previous dendrochronological research in this region has been largely absent. This article presents the initial results of a project, in which we have built oak tree-ring chronologies from forest sites and historical/archaeological sites along a north-south transect between Poland and northwestern Turkey, with the aim of linking the North-Central European and East Mediterranean tree-ring networks and creating a new pan-European oak data set for dendrochronological dating and paleoclimatic reconstruction. Correlation among tree-ring chronologies and the spatial distribution of their teleconnections are evaluated. The southeastern European chronologies provide a solid bridge between both major European dendrochronological networks. The results indicate that a dense network of chronologies is the key for bridging spatial and temporal gaps in tree-ring records. Dendrochronological sampling should be intensively continued in southeastern Europe because resources for building long oak chronologies in the region are rapidly disappearing.
This paper studies scheduling problems which include a combination of
nonlinear job deterioration and a time-dependent learning effect. We use
past sequence dependent (p-s-d) setup times, which is first introduced by
Koulamas and Kyparisis [Eur. J. Oper. Res.187 (2008) 1045–1049]. They considered a new form of setup times
which depend on all already scheduled jobs from the current batch. Job
deterioration and learning co-exist in various real life scheduling
settings. By the effects of learning and deterioration, we mean that the
processing time of a job is defined by increasing function of its execution
start time and a function of the total normal processing time of jobs
scheduled prior to it. The following objectives are considered: single
machine makespan and sum of completion times (square) and the maximum
lateness. For the single-machine case, we derive polynomial-time optimal solutions.
Prefrontal and/or temporo-limbic abnormalities associated with antisocial personality disorder (APD), high psychopathy scores and violent behaviours can readily be evaluated by neuroimaging methods.
In this study, we compared the brain metabolites in adult male military conscripts with APD, high psychopathy scores and serious violent crimes (n = 15) with age- and educational-level-matched healthy controls (n = 15) by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
All cases were diagnosed by means of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV APD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) semistructured questionnaire in Turkish. The psychopathy scores were evaluated by means of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised translated into Turkish (PCL-R). PCL-R is a 20-item, reliable and valid instrument for assessment of psychopathy, both in categorical and dimensional natures. All patients had a total score of 29 (of possible 40) or higher from PCL-R, indicating a high degree of psychopathy.
Our results showed no significant differences in ratio of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline-related compounds in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and amygdala–hippocampus regions of cases compared with controls. ACC NAA/Cr was significantly negatively correlated with both the PCL-R total score and the PCL-R factor I score (interpersonal/affective problems) among the cases.
As ACC plays an important role in decision-making and emotional information processing, we postulate that the lower NAA/Cr ratio, suggesting impaired neural integrity, may increase the severity of interpersonal/affective problems of the psychopathy factor in male subjects exhibiting APD, high psychopathy overall scores and violent crimes.
Monolayer thin films of YbBiPt and YBiPt have been produced with 560 nm and 394 nm thick respectively in house and their thermoelectric properties were measured before and after MeV ion bombardment. The energy of the ions were selected such that the bombarding Si ions stop in the silicon substrate and deposit only electronic energy by ionization in the deposited thin film. The bombardment by 5.0 MeV Si ions at various fluences changed the homogeneity as well as reducing the internal stress in the films thus affecting the thermal, electrical and Seebeck coefficient of thin films. The stoichiometry of the thin films was determined using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, the thickness has been measured using interferometry and the electrical conductivity was measured using Van der Pauw method. Thermal conductivity of the thin films was measured using an in-house built 3ω thermal conductivity measurement system. Using the measured Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity we calculated the figure of merit (ZT). We will report our findings of change in the measured figure of merit as a function of bombardment fluence.
Thermoelectric materials are being important due to their application in both thermoelectric power generation and microelectronic cooling. The thermoelectric power generations convert the heat change to electricity. The waste of heat could be useful if the thermoelectric power generation is applied. Effective thermoelectric materials have a low thermal conductivity and a high electrical conductivity. A high thermal conductivity causes too much heat leakage through heat conduction. The performance of the thermoelectric materials and devices is shown by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S2σT/K, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature and K is the thermal conductivity. ZT can be increased by increasing S, increasing σ, or decreasing K. In this study, we prepared thermoelectric generator devices of SiGe at the thickness of 112 nm using the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) system. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) analysis was used for the elemental analysis. The 5 MeV Si ion bombardment was performed using the AAMU Pelletron ion beam accelerator to make quantum clusters in the film to decrease the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity. To characterize the thermoelectric generator devices before and after Si ion bombardment we measured the cross plane Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity by Van der Pauw method, and thermal conductivity by 3w method for different fluences.
We have deposited 50 nano-layers of 710 nm of SiO2/SiO2+ZrNiSn with a periodic structure consisting of alternating layers where each layer is about 14 nm thick. The purpose of this research is to generate nanolayers of nanostructures of ZrNiSn with SiO2 as host and as buffer layer using a combination of co-deposition and MeV ion bombardment taking advantage of the energy deposited in the MeV ions track to nucleate nanostructures. The performance of the thermoelectric materials and devices is shown by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S2σT/ĸ, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature and ĸ is the thermal conductivity. ZT can be increased by increasing S, increasing σ, or decreasing ĸ. The electrical and thermal properties of the layered structures were studied before and after bombardment by 5 MeV Si ions at seven different fluences ranging from 1014 to 1015 ions/cm2 in order to form nanostructures in layers of SiO2 containing few percent of ZrNiSn. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to monitor elemental analysis of the film.
We have grown 100 periodic SiO2/SiO2+Ag multi-nano-layered systems where the SiO2+Ag layers were 7.26 nm and SiO2 buffer layer were 4 nm, total thickness is 563 nm. Using interferometer as well as in-situ thickness monitoring, we measured the thickness of the layers; using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) measured the concentration and distribution of Ag in SiO2. The electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of the layered structure were measured at room temperature before and after bombardment by 5 MeV Si ions. The energy of the Si ions were chosen such that the ions are stopped in the silicon substrate and only electronic energy due to ionization is deposited in the layered structure. The electrical conductivity measured using Van der Pauw method. Thermal conductivity of the thin films was measured using an in-house built 3ω thermal conductivity measurement system. Using the measured Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity we calculated the figure of merit (ZT). We will report our findings of change in the figure of merit as a function of the bombardment fluence.
Wound healing, epithelial regrowth and collagen synthesis are very important factors in the repair of the traumatised tympanic membrane. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of plasma fibronectine in the aetiopathogenesis of tympanosclerosis.
This prospective study included 58 patients with and 49 without tympanosclerosis. No inflammation or trauma was noted in either patient group. All patients underwent otoscopic and otomicroscopic examination, and the degree of tympanosclerosis was graded from mild (stage I) to severe (stage III). Following otological examination, blood samples were taken for plasma fibronectine measurement.
Following otoscopic and otomicroscopic examinations, patients' tympanosclerosis was graded as follows: 18 patients were stage I; 29 were stage II; and 11 were stage III. Statistical analyses revealed that the plasma fibronectine concentrations were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group (p = 0.031). In addition, fibronectine levels were lowest in the patients with severest tympanosclerosis (p = 0.0001 in each comparison).
The results of the present study show that serum fibronectine is important in the development and severity of tympanosclerosis.
Thermoelectric power generation is a promising technology for increasing the efficiency of electrical and optical electrical devices. We prepared samples by Electron Beam evaporating Zn4Sb3 and CeFe2Co2Sb12 thin films on silicon dioxide (silica) substrates. The materials were co-evaporated and then were prepared for gold over-coating. Following electron deposition we performed post ion bombardment at a constant energy of 5 MeV while varying fluence from 1×1012, 1×1013, 1×1014, 1×1015 ions/cm2, respectfully. The production of nano-clusters generated from the MeV Si ions bombardment modifies the electrical and phonon interactions in the materials. Also, we will report on the fluence dependence of the figure of merit, Seebeck Coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. In addition, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to analyze the elemental composition and the thickness of the deposited material.
We prepared 8 periodic nano-layers of SiO2/SiO2+Zn4Sb3. The deposited multi-layer films have a periodic structure consisting of alternating layers where each layer is between 1-10 nm thick. The purpose of this research is to generate nanolayers of nanostructures of Zn4Sb3 with SiO2 as host and as buffer layer using a combination of co-deposition and MeV ion bombardment taking advantage of the electronics energy deposited in the MeV ion track due to ionization in order to nucleate nanostructures. The electrical and thermal properties of the layered structures were studied before and after bombardment by 5 MeV Si ions at various fluences to form nanostructures in layers of SiO2 containing Zn4Sb3. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to monitor the stoichiometry before and after MeV bombardments.
We prepared 50 periodic nano-layers of SiO2/AgxSiO2(1-x). The deposited multi-layer films have a periodic structure consisting of alternating layers where each layer is between 1-10 nm thick. The purpose of this research is to generate nanolayers of nanocrystals of Ag with SiO2 as host and as buffer layer using a combination of co-deposition and MeV ion bombardment taking advantage of the electronics energy deposited in the MeV ion track due to ionization in order to nucleate nanoclusters. Our previous work showed that these nanoclusters have crystallinity similar to the bulk material. Nanocrystals of Ag in silica produce an optical absorption band at about 420 nm. Due to the interaction of nanocrystals between sequential nanolayers there is widening of the absorption band. The electrical and thermal properties of the layered structures were studied before and after 5 MeV Si ions bombardment at various fluences to form nanocrystals in layers of SiO2 containing few percent of Ag. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to monitor the stoichiometry before and after MeV bombardments.
Semiconducting â-Zn4Sb3 and ZrNiSn-based half-heusler compound thin films were prepared by co-evaporation for the application of thermoelectric (TE) materials. High-purity solid zinc and antimony were evaporated by electron beam to grow the â-Zn4Sb3 thin film while high-purity zirconium powder and nickel tin powders were evaporated by electron beam to grow the ZrNiSn-based half-heusler compound thin film. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to analyze the composition of the thin films. The grown thin films were subjected to 5 MeV Si ions bombardments for generation of nanostructures in the films. We measured the thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical conductivity of these two systems before and after 5 MeV Si ions beam bombardments. The two material systems have been identified as promising TE materials for the application of thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, but the efficiency still limits their applications. The electronic energy deposited due to ionization in the track of MeV ion beam can cause localized crystallization. The nanostructures produced by MeV ion beam can cause significant change in both the electrical and the thermal conductivity of thin films, thereby improving the efficiency. We used the 3ù-method measurement system to measure the cross-plane thermal conductivity ,the Van der Pauw measurement system to measure the cross-plane electrical conductivity, and the Seebeck-coefficient measurement system to measure the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient. The thermoelectric figures of merit of the two material systems were then derived by calculations using the measurement results. The MeV ion-beam bombardment was found to decrease the thermal conductivity of thin films and increase the efficiency of thermal-to-electrical energy conversion.
An expedition across the Asian part of the Black Sea coast and national parks of Northern Turkey was organized in the summer of 2001 to investigate the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Lyme borreliosis agent, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, in wild mice. A total of 65 Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus epiroticus, Crocidura suaveolens and Mus macedonicus, were captured. Two out of 22 Apodemus sylvaticus specimens were seropositive for B. afzelii by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as confirmed by Western blotting, however cultures of skin and bladder samples from all small mammals in Barbour–Stoenner–Kelly's medium-II remained negative for B. burgdorferi s.l. All sera tested were negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum by indirect immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum is low in wild mice of the Asian part of Northern Turkey.
Gripping of different types of objects with a multi-finger robot hand is a vital task for robot arms. Grippers, which are end effector elements in robot applications, are employed in various industrial operations such as transferring, assembling, welding and painting. However, if a gripper is considered for handling different jobs or to carry different types of parts in an assembly line, a general-purpose robot hand is going to be required. There are various technological actuators of robot hands such as electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic motors, etc. Besides these conventional actuators, it is possible to
include Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) in the category of technological actuators. The SMA can give materials motion by moving to a predetermined position, at a specific temperature. The conversion of this motion to a gripping action of the robot hand is the heart of the matter. In this study, a robot hand is developed using Ni-Ti SMA and a set of experiments were performed in order to check the compatibility of the system in an industrial environment.
An analysis of the 8 published volumes of the Flora of Turkey was made in order to determine if there was a factual basis for the concept of an Anatolian Diagonal affecting plant distribution in Turkey. The data accumulated indicated that a substantial number of species (c. 2600) have distributions associated with the Diagonal this total accounts for c. 32% of the number of species in the 8 volumes: 5% are ± restricted to the Diagonal; 14% are absent from the W of it and 13% from the E. Some suggestions are made for the reasons for this floral break.
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