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The purpose of this study is to investigate if the MDA plasma concentrations are correlated to negative psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenic inpatients.
The sample was comprised by 38 patients who were admitted in the psychiatric ward of the University Hospital of the Canaries. Thirty eight patients were male and 9 were female with medium average age of 37.41±11.23. Exclusion criteria were psychoactive substance use, presence of acute or chronic organic pathology, treatment with immunosuppressive medication, pregnancy and mental retardation or severe cognitive impairment. There were performed two blood extractions following the circadian rhythm, at 12:00 and at 24:00 hours. One hour before night blood collection, each patient was placed in a reclined position in bed, with the eyes closed, in complete darkness and with eyes covered with a mask. Blood was centrifuged at 3.000 rpm for 10 minutes. Specific biological and psychopathological determinations were performed at admission and at discharge. Psychopathology was assessed with PANSS and by the same psychiatrist. Statistical analyses were carried out with the Social Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). MDA was determined spectrophotometrically.
MDA level at night was 1.94±1.54 while MDA level at midday was 2.23±1.36.Mean PANSS negative score was 15.73±6.31.Serum MDA level correlated positively with PANSS negative scores, both at midday and night (midday r=0.39, p< 0.01, midnight r=0.41, p< 0.01).
The total negative subscale score correlated positively with day and night time levels of MDA, therefore we can conclude that MDA may be used as a marker of negative psychopathology.
We present the case of a schizophrenic patient with severe insomnia that had a partial response to high doses of benzodiazepines and sedating antipsychotics. Treatment with agomelatine allowed to suspend benzodiazepine treatment and restore quality of sleep.
Mr. Y is a 36 year old male patient diagnosed with simple schizophrenia that has complained of insomnia since the age of sixteen. During the last three years the treatment that the patient was following was stable and consisted of 100 mg of diazepam, 300 mg of levomepromazine and 120 mg of clotiapine every night. During the last year 60 mg of duloxetine were added to treat a moderate depression. His mood improved with the prescribed treatment, but eleven months later it worsened. In an attempt to simultaneously treat the mood and the sleep disorder, during a period of 4 days, a dosis of 12.5 mg of aglomelatin at dinner was introduced while the morning dose of duloxetine was reduced to 30mg. On the fifth day, agomelatine was increased to 25 mg at dinner while duloxetine was suspended. The antipsychotic treatment was kept stable while the patient was instructed to reduce 10 mg of diazepam every week until next appointment one month later. In the next appointment the patient had completely suspended diazepam one week before the appointment. The patient referred improved sleep quality and no rebound insomnia.
Agomelatine may be a valid treatment of insomnia in schizophrenia.
Mefloquine is being used as malaria prevention by Plasmodium Falciparum in chloroquine-resistant zones. We describe a woman who developed a manic episode with psychotic symptoms during mefloquine treatment.
Methods and results
A 26-year-old Spanish woman had been working in Mali for the last six months and had started antimalarial prevention with mefloquine. In Mali, the clinical picture had a sudden debut and she related: excessive happiness, incapacity to sleep, and megalomania (she believed to have special powers and to be the mother of all the children). She was admitted in a hospital in Mali for seven days and received treatment with haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Then, she was repatriated to Spain without treatment and she continued suffering the same symptoms. After 15 days, she went to our hospital and she was admitted. Treatment started with risperidone (up to 6 mg/day) and clonazepam (up to 1.5 mg/day). At admission Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) was 25 points. Physical examination and complementary tests were normal, and was orientated as a manic episode with psychotic symptoms secondary to mefloquine. She had a quick symptomatic improvement (after 7 days of treatment YMRS was 5 points) and was discharged after 15 days.
Mefloquine more frequent adverse neuropsychiatric effects are: dizziness, vivid dreams and insomnia. Others are confusion, and auditory hallucinations. Side effects are dose dependent. Psychotic symptoms are frequently auto-limited when mefloquine is suppressed but treatment with atypical antipsychotics is often needed. MDR1/ABCB1 polymorphisms may play a role in neuropsychiatric side effects
Stress and trauma have been reported as leading contributing factors in schizophrenia. And certainly child abuse (neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse among others) has a lasting negative impact, which is well established in literature.
To consider the presence of infant trauma and its relationship with psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenics.Methods. 37 patients (mean age 29±6.3; years from onset 9.20±4.7), meeting DSM IV paranoid schizophrenia criteria, undergoing treatment in a university hospital are studied. The PANSS is administered in order to rate psychopathology.
27 patients had infant trauma (55.8%). Main traumas are: sexual abuse (12.8%), child abuse (7.7%), both sexual and child abuse (5.18%), parental separation (7.7%), extra-rigid parents (2.6%), alcoholic parents (18.2%), child abuse and mother's death in childhood (2.6%). Infant trauma and psychopathology showed a significant relationship concerning Hostility (No 1.75±1.209, Yes 2.26±1.759), Unnatural Movements and Posture (No 1.55±0.945, Yes 1.16±0.545), Depression (No 1.25±0.550, Yes 1.74±1.284) and Preoccupation (No 2.75±1.410, Yes 3.26±1.996).
Infant trauma is common in paranoid schizophrenia and our findings give some evidence to a relationship with psychopathology, especially with dimensions as Hostility, Unnatural Movements and Posture, Depression and Preoccupation. Despite sample size, a high proportion (55.8%) of the patients presented infant trauma and future research is needed in order to open new avenues in this field, particularly studies concerning infant trauma and symptomatology specificity will be greatly appreciated as well as the plausible link to personality traits and personality disorders.
There is a significant incidence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis, the most common after receiving the diagnosis. We describe a man who was admitted for a first episode psychosis and a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made moreover.
A 24-year-old man was admitted with a paranoid delusion, auditory hallucinations with emotional response and the believe that their thoughts were being interfered. Blood test and cranial CT were normal. Risperidone was started. He developed ataxia and sensitive disturbances on the right arm. A cranial and spinal cord MRI revealed multiple T2 and FLAIR hyperintense lesions located in supra and infratentorial white matter, lesions in C3, and one lesion in right basal ganglia that enhanced with gadolinium. CSF analysis showed oligoclonals bands. Three years ago the patient had had transient sensitive symtoms. A diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was made and was started methyl-prednisolone intravenously. Risperidone was changed for amisulpride 800 mg/day because lack of response. He was discharged after 25 days. Six months later he has attenuated psychotic symptoms without news lesions in MRI. Glatiramer acetate has been started.
Results and conclusions
The most frequent disorder associated to multiple sclerosis is depression (prevalence of 20%). Psychosis is unusual, transient, sometimes as the onset relapse followed by remission. There's evidence of correlation between psychosis in multiple sclerosis and multiple lesions in temporal periventricular area. We suggest that in our case these two disorders are two separated entities since the enhanced lesion does not correpond with clinical findings.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease. Several etiopathogenic aetiologies have been posed, among them the existence of cerebral inflammation. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, that mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Serum S100B levels have been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain inflammation.
The aim of this research is to study if the serum level of the protein S100B has relationship with positive psychopathology.
31 paranoid schizophrenic inpatients (22 male and 9 female, 36.7±10.3 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria participated in the study. Blood was sampled by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours. Blood extractions were carried out during the first 48 hours after hospital admission. Psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum S100B levels were measured by sandwich ELISA techniques.
Correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and PANSS positive scores are shown in the following table. The first figure corresponds to the Pearson's correlation coefficient, while the figure in brackets corresponds to its statistical significance.
Total Positive Score
Serum levels of S100B protein may be used as a biological marker of positive psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenia.Acknowledgement
The aim of this research is to study whether serum melatonin level is related with positive psychopathology in a sample of paranoid schizophrenia patients.
32 acutely paranoid schizophrenia patients admitted to the psychiatric ward of the University Hospital of the Canary Islands took part in the study. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for paranoid schizophrenia. 22 were males and 9 females. The mean age was 36.7 ± 10.3 (standard deviation). Blood was sampled by venipuncture at 12:00 and 24:00 hours after having rested in bed one hour. This was done to avoid the body postural effect on melatonin levels. Blood extractions were carried out during the first 48 hours after admission. Psychopathology was assessed by the positive subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Melatonin serum levels were measured by ELISA techniques. Pearson correlations between melatonin serum levels and PANSS positive scores at 24:00 and 12:00 hours at admission and discharge were carried out.
The only significant correlation, with a positive sign, was the item Conceptual Disorganisation (P2) with serum melatonin at 24:00 h (r = 0.355, p < 0.046).
Serum melatonin levels may be used as a biological marker of conceptual disorganisation in paranoid schizophrenia inpatients.
This study was partly supported by a grant (PI: 08/115) of the Fundacion Canaria de Investigacion y Salud (FUNCIS).
An increase of suicide rates have been associated with periods of economic crisis. Suicide rates in Spain are the first cause of nonnatural death, having surpassed traffic crash rates.
To study if the economic crisis affected the suicide rates and antidepressant consumption.
Suicide rates were extracted from the Spanish Statistic National Institute. Data about antidepressant consumption were extracted from the web page of the Spanish Department of National Health. Mean rate of suicide and mean rate of antidepressant consumption prior (2005–2007) and during the economic crisis (2008–2010) were compared. Data on antidepressant consumption are presented as antidepressant units per 100 people/year. Suicide rates are presented as rate per 100.000 people/year. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation.
Unemployment mean rate was 9.2 ± 1.4 before the economic crisis, while it was 17.7 ± 20.5 during the economic crisis (p = 0.03). Mean rate of suicide before the economic crisis was 7.7 ± 0.19 while during the crisis was 7.2 ± 0.14 (p = 0.15). Antidepressant consumption increased significantly (p = 0.02) before the crisis (48.5 ± 11.9) compared to the crisis period (59.7 ± 16.7).
Our data show that during the Spanish economic crisis there was not an increase in the suicide rate but the antidepressant consumption increased significantly. Our results point to the fact that the Spanish population in time of economic crisis tend to take antidepressants instead of committing suicide.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin fundamentally involved in the differentiation and growth during brain development. BDNF has pathogenically been linked to the schizophrenia neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Several studies have found lower BDNF blood levels in chronic schizophrenia than controls. Few studies suggest that BDNF levels in first-episode psychosis (FEP) are lower than in healthy controls (HC).
Comparing serum BDNF levels in a group of antipsychotic-naive FEP with HC and determining the serum BDNF pattern during the first year illness evolution.
Serum BDNF levels at admission of 28 inpatients with FEP were compared with 28 age/gender matched HC. BDNF was also measured at discharge, three, six, nine and twelve months. After discharge, antipsychotics were gradually decreased. Results are presented as mean±sd. and BDNF levels in ng./ml.
At admission, patients BDNF levels were significantly lower than controls (18.06±4.06 vs 26.55±3.22, p>0.001). At discharge FEP levels increase until HC levels without significant differences between gropus (25.95±3.93 vs 26.55±3.22, p=0.539). Upon the following determinations, BDNF FEP levels progressively decreased, reaching the admission values, and being significantly lower than the controls and that levels at discharge (patients: three months: 19.68±3.88; six months: 19.02±4.13; nine months: 17.64±5.24; twelve months: 17.51±3.45 vs controls: 26.55±3.22, all p>0.001).
Our results confirm the studies that found lower BDNF levels in chronic schizophrenia. Serum BDNF levels could be considered as a biological marker of treatment and evolution of FEP. Further studies with FEP patients with and without treatment are warranted.
S100B is a calcium-binding protein produced by the astrocytes that has been used as a biomarker of brain inflammation. S100B has been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology, being considered a marker of state and prognosis.
Studying the relationship between serum S100B levels and psychopathology in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
At admission and discharge, serum S100B levels were measured in 20 never-medicated FEP in-patients and 20 healthy controls. Psychopathology was assessed with the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). The total, positive, negative and general psychopathology scores were assessed. Results are presented as mean±sd. and S100B levels in pg./ml.
At admission, patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations than healthy subjects (39.2±6.4 vs. 33.3±0.98, p<0.02). S100B levels increased from admission to discharge (39.2±6.4 vs. 40.0±6.8, p=0.285) but they do not reach statistical significance. There were no correlations between PANSS (total, positive, negative and general) scores and S100B at admission and discharge. Individual item by item PANSS correlations with S100B elicited a positive correlation with P5 (grandiosity) (r=0.486, p=0.030) and G5 (mannerisms/posturing) (r=0.514; p=0.02) at discharge. There also was a positive trend with G7 (motor retardation) (r=0.409; p=0.073) at discharge.
FEP in-patients have significantly increased serum levels of S100B proteins, suggesting an activation of glial cells that may be associated with a neurodegenerative/inflammatory process. Apart from the study of total scale scores, the analysis of individual item is also recommended. The long-term treatment effect (one year or more) may be relevant to see their relationship to S100B levels.
Although investigation have demonstrated that stimulants are effective medication for the treatment of the symptoms on the ADHD, a commonly described but quite slightly studied side effect of this type of medication, is the effect on the emotional expression of patients.
evaluate the effect of the treatment with Methylphenidate on the affective/emotional expression in children diagnosed with ADHD.
It's a descriptive study of several cases series, from a center and about a unique group, where 'n” will be 15 children diagnosed with ADHD at the University Hospital, who were required beginning treatment with methylphenidate, with a daily dose of at least 0,3mg/Kg. In this study it will be evaluated the emotional expression of the group, according to the scale Expression and Emotion Scale for Children (EESC) making a comparison between the previous moment to the treatment and a subsequent month from its beginning.
The evaluation of the total result of the EESC conducted by the parent didn't show statistically significant differences between scores previously of the treatment and results after a month with it. The dominions (positive emotions, emotional flatness and emotional lability) didn't show differences between both periods of time, nevertheless, the positive emotions showed a tendency of reduction more showy than the rest, without getting to be statistically significant (p=0.0638).
Statistically there haven't been significant changes in the emotional expression of the children caused by the treatment with methylphenidate. Nevertheless, the data show that there is a tendency to an improvement in it.
Recently, a renaissance of interest in ‘negative symptoms’ as emotional withdrawal or blunted affect, has occurred. Some investigators believe that these symptoms are important indicators of outcome, of response to treatment and of a distinct underlying pathologic process.
Research on the negative-symptom syndrome in schizophrenia has been handicapped until recently.
This research aims at studying whether acute phase proteins, precisely, Alpha1-glycoprotein, can be considered as a marker of negativesymptom in Schizophrenia.
29 chronic schizophrenics were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). A routine blood test including Alpha1-glycoprotein levels was carried out.
Alpha1-glycoprotein shows a positive correlation, according to Pearson correlation coefficient, with the Negative Scale at an almost significant level (p=.05), and at a significant level in the following items, Blunted affect (p=.03), Passive/apathetic Social Withdrawal (p=.01) of the Negative spectrum and Poor Attention (p=.02) of the General Psychopathology Scale.
There is a significant correlation with two Negative variables and an almost significant one, spite of the small sample, with the Negative Scale. Further studies with bigger samples are needed in order to consider alpha1-glycoprotein as a schizophrenia negative psychopathology marker.
Circadianity is a characteristic of several human biological variables, such as testosterone, melatonin and cortisol. There is little information whether or not S100B serum protein presents a circadian rhythm.
Material and methods:
44 healthy subjects (24 female and 20 male, age 39.7 ± 9.4) participated in the study. Blood was sampled in July at 09:00, 12:00 and 24:00 h. Blood was centrifuged and serum was aliquot in Eppendorf tubes and frozen at −70° C. Serum S100B was measured by ELISA.
Serum S100B concentrations at 09:00 (56.3 ± 18.1 pg/ml), 12:00 (53.8 ± 23.1 pg/ml) and 24:00 h. (55.3 ± 20.3 pg/ml) were not significantly different.
Our results point to the absence of a circadian rhythm of S100B serum protein concentrations. the lack of the disadvantage may allow researchers on this area to sample subjects at any time of the day.
Biological psychiatric research relies on the determination of biological markers. Cortisol (COR) level is one of peripheral marker frequently used in psychiatric research. COR has a well established circadian pattern of secretion, with levels peaking early in the morning. Studying circadian rhythms in big samples is challenging because of the necessity of sampling blood several times during the day. The aim of this research is to study serum COR levels at three different times of the day.
48 drug-free, healthy subjects participated in the study. None of them had a history of medical, neurological or psychiatric disease. Blood was sampled at 09:00, 12:00 and 00:00 hours. After each extraction, blood samples were centrifuged at 3.000 rpm for 10 minutes, and serum was separated and frozen at –30°C until assayed for COR. Serum COR was determined by ELISA methods. Data are presented as mean ± SD in μg/dl.
There were significantly different serum COR levels at the different studied times (F: 131.8, p < 0.0001). Serum COR concentrations were significantly higher at 09:00 h than COR levels at 12:00 and 00:0 h (09:00 h: 11.9 ± 5.1, 12:00: 8.0 ± 3.3, 00:00: 3.9 ± 2.7, all comparisons were significant at the level of 0.05).
Serum COR levels present clear day/night changes. It is strongly advisable to take into account this variability when researching in this field.
Substance-dependent patients(SDP) have more personality disorders(PD) than general population; and they present more frequent and severe levels of depression and anxiety.
To study cluster C personality disorders in SDP.
We included a clinical sample of 822(621 males) SDP according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria seeking treatment in the Outpatient Drug Clinic Vall d’Hebron in Barcelona, Spain.
The assessment process consisted of three interview sessions conducted by trained psychiatrists and psychologists using SCID I and II, BDI, STAI-R/S. Exclusion criteria were:intoxication at baseline examination, severe somatic disease at baseline examination and low language proficiency.
39.2% of the sample presented at least one PD and 9.55% presented a cluster C PD. Of them the found prevalence were Avoidant(44.9%), Dependt(11.5%), Obssessive-compulsive(37.2%), comorbidity (6.4%). The addiction prevalences that Cluster C PD patients show were: dependent of alcohol 9.4%, benzodiazepines 18.5%, opioids 6.1%, cocaine 9.7 and cannabis 12.3%.
70.5% of the PD cluster C group were men, however differences according to the cluster C PD were found, being higher the proportion of men in Obsessive-compulsive PD (85.7%) and fewer in Dependent PD patients (33.7%)(χ2 =12.19, p = .007).
Cluster C PD patients presented more depressive symptoms and showed higher scores in anxiety-trait than patient with Cluster A or B PD, being this difference statistically significant.
There is a high rate of cluster C personality disorders among addicted patients. Higher levels of anxiety depression are detected in these patients. Clinicians should be check systematically this symptoms and traits in addicted patients.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, volition, affectivity and cognition. An imbalance of the oxidant-antioxidant system is one of the proposed etiological factors. There are controversies regarding the effect of antipsychotics on the oxidant-antioxidant balance.
The aim of this research is to study the serum levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in paranoid schizophrenia patients treated with typical and/or atypical antipsychotics.
The sample is comprised by 38 patients admitted to the psychiatric ward of the University Hospital of the Canary Islands. All patients met DSM-IV criteria for paranoid schizophrenia. Some patients were treated only with atypical antipsychotics (N=21) while others were treated with a combination of atypical and typical antipsychotics (N=17).
The next table shows the comparison of serum TAC levels at admission (TAC-A) and discharge (TAC-D) at 12:00 and 00:00 h.
Patients treated with a combination of typical and atypical antipsychotics present at discharge (12:00 hours) significantly higher levels of TAC than patients treated only with typical antipsychotics. The remaining comparisons did not elicit significant results.
The results point out the fact that a combination of typical and atypical antipsychotics is more helpful in reducing the deficits of the antioxidant system than treatments based only on typical antipsychotics.
S100B protein is an astroglial protein that can be measured in peripheral tissues such as blood, urine or saliva. S100B serum concentrations have been proposed as a maker of brain dysfunction. Body Mass Index (BMI) has been reported as a confounding variable in S100B measures.
Material and methods:
44 healthy subjects (24 female and 20 male, age 39.7 ± 9.4) participated in the study. Blood was sampled in July at 09:00, 12:00 and 24:00 h. Blood was centrifuged and serum was aliquot in Eppendorf tubes and frozen at −70° C. Serum S100B was measured by ELISA. S100B serum data are reported as pg/ml.
There were no significant correlations between BMI and any of the three S100B measures (09:00 h. r = 0.150, p = 0.339, 12:00 h. r=0.041, p = 0.794, 24:00 h. r=0.192, p = 0.223).
Our results point to the fact that there are no relationships between BMI and S100B serum concentrations in healthy adult subjects.
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disease characterized by recurrent episodes of hypersomnia, hyperphagia and behavioural symptoms, mainly hypersexuality.
We report the clinical course of KLS in a 18-year-old male. The clinical onset and evolution are described.
The boy was diagnosed as having KLS after two episodes of hypersomnia lasting for 13 to 15 days each one. When awake, he was depressed and with megaphagia. He also had phases of hypersexuality. The initial interval between episodes was 6 weeks. After the second episode was treated with lithium and remained free of symptoms for 11 months. He had a third episode that lasted 6 days. Serum lithium level was low. In this third episode he had only hypersomnia. He had a relapse two years later with a duration of 4 days, without further relapses.
KLS is more frequent in young males with a mean duration of 8 years and around 7 episodes that lasted 10 days. The pathogenesis remains unknown. It has been related with functional disturbance in the hypothalamus, viral infections, triggering stimulus...Some authors consider KLS as a variant of bipolar disorder. Treatment includes methylphenidate, neuroleptics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers as lithium. With lithium has been reported fewer relapses, shorter duration of episodes and disappearance of behavioural symptoms.
Despite being a rare disease, is thought to be underdiagnosed, because diagnosis is mainly clinical, and tests such as EEG, PSG and MSLT reinforce the diagnosis but are not pathognomonic. Today, lithium is the best treatment option.
Relationships between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and psychopathology in schizophrenia is controversial. Different methodological approaches may be a bias factor.
The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between psychopathology as individual items and psychopathology as syndromes with the serum TAC concentration in schizophrenic patients.
20 DSM-IV paranoid schizophrenic outpatients were recruited from the psychiatric outpatient's clinic of the University Hospital of the Canary Islands. the severity of schizophrenia symptoms was measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Blood samples were collected at 12:00 and 00:00 hours. Relationships between quantitative variables were assessed with the Pearson's correlation coefficient.
There was a significant correlation between the PANSS positive subscale and the nocturnal TAC levels (r=0.527, p< 0.02). the PANSS negative subscale was not correlated with TAC concentrations. Item by item scores of the positive and negative PANSS correlations with nocturnal and diurnal TAC levels revealed that only item 6 (suspicion) of the positive PANSS subscale was significantly correlated with the nocturnal TAC concentrations (r=0,491, p< 0.03). Only item 3 (poor contact) of the negative PANSS subscale was also significantly correlated with the nocturnal TAC concentrations (r=0,516, p< 0.02).
We strongly recommend analyzing not only global scores of psychopathology but individual items scores when researching on biological markers in schizophrenia.
This study was partly supported by a grant (PI: 08/115) of the Fundacion Canaria de Investigacion y Salud (FUNCIS).
None of the authors have conflict of interest to disclose.
Few studies focus on peripheral biological markers of personality. Melatonin (MLT), the main hormonal product of the pineal gland, has been used both as a diagnostic and therapeutic element and has been related with chronotype, depression and schizophrenia, among other psychiatric conditions. However, there is a paucity of studies on its use as a personality marker. The present work aims to determine whether serum MLT levels are related with the Eysenck's personality extraversion/introversion (E/I) dimension.
A sample of 100 healthy volunteers participated in the study. The E/I personality dimension was evaluated using the EPQ-BV (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Brief Version). Three blood samples were taken (at 09:00, 12:00 and 00:00 h) to measure MLT. MLT was analysed in serum by an ELISA. Serum MLT concentrations are expressed in pg/ml.
MLT levels displayed a clearly circadian pattern, with night levels being significantly higher than day-time levels (00:00: 35.78 ± 23.53 vs. 09:00: 7.78 ± 5.56, 12.00: 3.35 ± 1.94, p < 0.05). Serum MLT levels at 09:00 h were significantly higher than MLT levels at 12:00 h (7.78 ± 5.56 vs. 3.35 ± 1.94, p < 0.05). No significant correlations were found between E/I scores and serum MLT levels at 09:00 (r = – 0.06, p = 0.55) 12:00 (r = – 0.12, p = 0.25) and 00:00 h (r = – 0.01, p = 0.99).
There is no relationship between MLT levels and the E/I personality dimension. Future studies should examine the neuroticism dimension of personality.