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Betavoltaics (BV) cells (or nuclear batteries) have long-lasting power and high volumetric energy densities that open a broad range of applications that are not currently available, especially in low-power electronics for the internet-of-things, internal medical devices, and harsh environments. The introduction of very low-power electronics has opened up a market for the wide and accepted use of BV cells. As BVs have potentially decades-long useful lifetimes and are anticipated to be used in harsh environments, a method to describe accelerated contact aging has been developed. Monte Carlo radiation simulations show that energy can be deposited in the interface 10-50 times faster than real-world applications. The models can be used to design contact aging experiments for BV cell deployments.
Germany, and especially its capital city, Berlin, is a multilingual space, with many languages visible and audible in everyday life. Much of this multilingualism comes from immigration into Germany. The Federal Statistical Office puts the population of Germany at 82.2 million in 2015, with 17.1 million residents categorized as being of ‘migrant background’ (Statistisches Bundesamt ‘Federal Office of Statistics’ 2017). While this category is heterogeneous in terms of the languages spoken – many are, of course, German speakers – it is safe to say that many of the 9.1 million classified as ‘foreigners’ (i.e., not German citizens) speak other languages in addition to German, and these languages are in some cases passed down to the next generation. In the linguistic landscape, these languages – for example Turkish, Spanish, Italian, Arabic, Mandarin and Korean – are present in both speech and writing, and are often commodified for use in advertising.
In most societies commensality, the sharing of food, is a way of establishing closeness and refusal to do so is usually seen as a sign of distance or enmity (Bloch 2005: 45), but traditions of what particular foods mean, and how they should be prepared for particular events, differ greatly. Social anthropology and archaeology have long explored food in the ethnographic present or the distant past, but with rather different emphases.
In responding to changing competitive conditions, organizations are adopting increased levels of openness in the form of greater transparency and the inclusion of a larger number and variety of internal and external actors (Whittington et al., 2011; Hautz et al., 2017). Recent societal changes toward more participation in various domains of society (Dobusch et al., 2015) and technological advances in the form of social technologies (Haefliger et al., 2011), in particular, promote increased inclusiveness in strategizing. In this chapter, we pay specific attention to this dimension of inclusiveness in Open Strategy, which involves external and internal consultation to exchange “information, views and proposals intended to shape the continued evolution of an organization’s strategy” (Whittington et al., 2011: 536; Hautz et al., 2017).
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurological illness for which accurate diagnosis is paramount. Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is a prion-specific assay with high sensitivity and specificity for CJD. The Canadian endpoint quaking-induced conversion (EP-QuIC) test is similar, but unlike RT-QuIC there is little data regarding its diagnostic utility in clinical practice. In this exploratory predictive value analysis of EP-QuIC in CJD, the negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) was 100% and 83%, respectively, with one false-positive result identified. Re-testing this sample with an optimized EP-QuIC protocol eliminated this false-positive result, leading to a PPV of 100%.
To develop a conceptual framework that can be used for the integration of community health nursing (CHN) practice, education, and research within a Nursing Centre (NC) model.
New forms of training and support are needed to equip nurses to manage the complex and costly challenges facing health care systems. The NC model provides scope to address these challenges by integrating nursing practice, education, and research. However, there is little information about how these constructs are integrated or how education is constituted within the model.
This study used an embedded single case study design across three Nursing Centres (NCs) in West Java Indonesia. Semi-structured interviews and a review of relevant documents were conducted. Interview participants were recruited purposively to select stakeholders with rich information, including clients, nurses, nursing students and lecturers who have been using the NC model, as well as the head of the co-located Community Health Centres. Data was analysed using thematic analysis, pattern matching and cross-unit synthesis.
Four components relevant to integration in the NC were identified, namely (1) client-centred care as the shared common ground for integration in the NC; (2) nursing education using a service learning approach; (3) the NC as a model for reviving CHN services; and (4) service improvement through research and community service activities. The service learning approach was identified as appropriate because it links services with the learning process and this serves to address the interests of both practice and education institutions. The conceptual framework identified in this study can be used to improve the functionality of NCs in Indonesia and be considered for use internationally.
Semiconductors represent a major building block of high-tech industry. This chapter analyzes the trajectory of China’s rapidly growing semiconductor sector, focusing on the interplay among global technology developments, Chinese government policy, and three groups of firms: purely domestic manufacturers, Chinese operations of multi-national corporations, and hybrid firms based in China but with offshore ownership and financing.
China has pursued policies aiming to build a globally competitive domestic industry. Policy instruments include outlays on technical education, and more focused initiatives that channel investment funds, imported technology and product demand toward domestic firms, mostly state-owned ones. Despite strong government backing, domestic state-owned firms have generally failed to generate technological dynamism. Only the hybrids have delivered substantial technological advance.
Recent policy initiatives continue to lavish resources on state-owned firms while limiting the capacity of potentially more innovative hybrid and domestic private operators to expand and upgrade. As a result, China’s semiconductor industry appears locked into a path that combines quantitative expansion with low financial returns and limited qualitative improvement. This trajectory offers little prospect for attaining China’s long-term objective of propelling domestic semiconductor manufacture toward the global frontier of technology and innovation.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This study aims to identify genetic biomarkers of GDM and facilitate the understanding of its molecular underpinnings. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We identified a cohort of mothers diagnosed with GDM in our longitudinal birth study by mining Electronic Health Records of participants utilizing PheCode map with ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. We verified each case using ACOG’s GDM diagnosis criteria. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) data were available for 111 confirmed cases (out of 205) and 706 controls (out of 1,429) from different ancestries (412 EUR, 256 AMR, 56 EAS, 26 SAS and 18 AFR; 49 OTHER). SAS had the highest incidence of GDM at 38.46% and EUR had the lowest at 6.55%. We performed logistic regression using computed ancestry, age and BMI as covariates to determine if any variants are associated with GDM. The top variant (rs139014401) was found in an intron of DFFB gene, which is p53-bound and regulates DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. We will investigate the robustness of 49 identified variants and will separate the cohort by ancestry to detect population-specific differences in the top loci. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Identification of molecular biomarkers in GDM across different ancestral backgrounds will address a gap in current GDM research. Findings may enhance screening and enable clinicians to identify those at risk for developing GDM earlier in the pregnancy. Early management of mothers at risk may lead to better health outcomes for mother and baby.
Temporal and spatial scarcity of water in semi-arid and seasonal ecosystems often leads to changes in movements and behaviour of large vertebrates, and in the neotropics this dynamic is poorly understood due to logistical and methodological limitations. Here we used camera trapping to elucidate variation in patterns of seasonal use of waterholes and pathways by 10 large-mammal and four large-bird species in the dry forest of north-western Costa Rica. From 2011 to 2015, we deployed trail cameras at 50 locations, including waterholes and three types of pathway (roads, human trails and animal paths). We used Generalized Linear Models to evaluate the effect of location and seasonality on the rates at which independent photographs were taken. We found interacting effects of location and seasonality for the capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus), the tiger heron (Trigrisoma mexicanum), the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and the tapir (Tapirus bairdii) suggesting that these species were the most influenced by waterholes during the dry season. Comparison of waterhole sites and specific types of pathways (roads, animal paths and human trails) showed that location influenced photo-capture rates of almost all species, suggesting a useful insight to avoid and account for bias in camera trap studies. Furthering our ecological understanding of seasonal water regimes and large vertebrates’ behaviours allow for better understanding of the consequences of climate change on them.
Adults with congenital heart disease face psychological challenges although an understanding of depression vs. anxiety symptoms is unclear. We analyzed the prevalence of elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression and explored associations with demographic and medical factors as well as quality of life.
Adults with congenital heart disease enrolled from an outpatient clinic completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and two measures of quality of life: the Linear Analogue Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Medical data were obtained by chart review.
Of 130 patients (median age = 32 years; 55% female), 55 (42%) had elevated anxiety symptoms and 16 (12%) had elevated depression symptoms on subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Most patients with elevated depression symptoms also had elevated anxiety symptoms (15/16; 94%). Of 56 patients with at least one elevated subscale, 37 (66%) were not receiving mental health treatment. Compared to patients with 0 or 1 elevated subscales, patients with elevations in both (n=15) were less likely to be studying or working (47% vs. 81%; p=0.016) and reported lower scores on the Linear Analogue Scale (60 vs. 81, p<0.001) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (14 vs. 28, p<0.001).
Among adults with congenital heart disease, elevated anxiety symptoms are common and typically accompany elevated depressive symptoms. The combination is associated with unemployment and lower quality of life. Improved strategies to provide psychosocial care and support appropriate engagement in employment are required.
Lying on the north-west coast of Sri Lanka, the ancient port of Mantai was ideally situated as a ‘hub’ for trade between East and West from the first millennium BC onwards. Excavations at the site were interrupted by civil war in 1984, delaying publication of these results and leading to the underestimation of Mantai's importance in the development of Early Historic Indian Ocean trade. Renewed excavations in 2009–2010 yielded extensive archaeobotanical remains, which, alongside an improved understanding of the site's chronology, provide important new insights into the development of local and regional trade routes and direct evidence for early trade in the valuable spices upon which later empires were founded.
Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is frequently used in patients with cardiac disease. We evaluated short-term outcomes and identified factors associated with hospital mortality in cardiac patients supported with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
A retrospective review of patients supported with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation at a university-affiliated children’s hospital was performed.
A total of 253 patients with cardiac disease managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were identified; survival to discharge was 48%, which significantly improved from 39% in an earlier era (1995–2001) (p=0.01). Patients were categorised into surgical versus non-surgical groups on the basis of whether they had undergone cardiac surgery before or not, respectively. The most common indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: 96 (51%) in the surgical group and 45 (68%) in the non-surgical group. In a multiple covariate analysis, single-ventricle physiology (p=0.01), duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (p<0.01), and length of hospital stay (p=0.03) were associated with hospital mortality. Weekend or night shift cannulation was associated with mortality in non-surgical patients (p=0.05).
We report improvement in survival compared with an earlier era in cardiac patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Single-ventricle physiology continues to negatively impact survival, along with evidence of organ dysfunction during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and length of stay.