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Two species of dirivultid copepod (Siphonostomatoida), Stygiopontius senckenbergi Ivanenko & Ferrari, 2013 and Dirivultus kaiko sp. nov., were discovered from hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough, the western North Pacific. Since S. senckenbergi was originally described based on two adult males from the New Ireland Fore-Arc system, Papua New Guinea, the discovery here represents the second record. This species was attached on ventral setae covered with filamentous bacteria of the deep-sea squat lobster Shinkaia crosnieri (Decapoda: Munidopsidae). The female of S. senckenbergi is described for the first time as well as the nauplius I and the copepodid IV. Sexual dimorphism is shown on several appendages (i.e. antennule, leg 2 and leg 5). The nauplius I shows typical lethithotrophic characteristics. Dirivultus kaiko sp. nov., which was found on the tentacular crown of the siboglinid tubeworm Lamellibrachia columna, differs from its two congeners by the antennule, maxilliped and leg 5 of both sexes. These are the second and third dirivultid species to be reported from Japan.
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in a highly endemic area in Brazil, comparing it to the Kato-Katz (KK) technique for sensitivity, specificity and the intensity of the reaction of the test in relation to the parasitic load. The community in Sergipe, Brazil, participated in the study, providing three stool samples, one of urine (POC-CCA) and fingers tick blood sample was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, kappa coefficient and Spearman's correlation were calculated for the POC-CCA test using the KK as the reference. The prevalence of schistosomiasis by KK testing was 48.82%; POC-CCA (t+) 66.14%; POC-CCA (t−) 45.24%. ELISA results showed 100% agreement in individuals with high and moderate eggs per gram (EPG). POC-CCA presented good diagnostic performance in individuals with medium and high EPG, but there were a high number of false negatives in individuals with low intensity infections. As observed, POC-CCA-filter test improves accuracy and sensitivity compared to a conventional test.
To characterise different meal types by examining the contribution of specific meals to the total intakes and the nutritional quality of each meal.
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted based on dietary data collected using 4-d dietary record. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3.
Adults aged 20–81 years (n 639).
Diet quality was, on average, highest for dinner, followed, in order, by lunch, breakfast and snacks. Breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks, on average, accounted for 21 %, 32 %, 40 % and 11 % of total energy intake, respectively. For many nutrients, the percentage contribution to total intake did not vary within each meal, broadly in line with that for energy: 18–24 % for breakfast, 26–35 % for lunch, 35–49 % for dinner and 4–15 % for snacks. However, intakes of many foods largely depended on one meal type. The foods mainly eaten at dinner were potatoes, pulses, total vegetables, fish, meat and alcoholic beverages (52–70 %), in contrast to noodles (58 %) at lunch and bread (71 %) and dairy products (50 %) at breakfast. The foods mainly eaten at snacks were confectioneries (79 %) and sugar-sweetened beverages (52 %). Conversely, rice and eggs were more evenly distributed across three main meals (19–41 % and 30–38 %, respectively), while fruit and non-energetic beverages were more evenly distributed across all meal types (17–30 % and 19–35 %, respectively).
These findings provide the background information on each meal type in Japanese and may help inform the development of meal-based guidelines and public health messages.
The influence of free sugar intake on nutrient intake remains unclear in Japanese children and adolescents with relatively low free sugar intake. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between free sugar and selected nutrient intakes using data from the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, based on the WHO recommendations (<5 % or <10 % of energy (%E)) for free sugar intake. A 1-d weighed dietary record was assessed in Japanese children and adolescents (aged 1–19 years; n 2919). Mean intakes for selected nutrients and food groups were compared according to free sugar intake categories (<2·5 %E, 2·5 to <5 %E, 5 to <10 %E and ≥10 %E) with adjustment for sex, age and weight status. Inverse associations were observed between intakes of free sugars and twenty-one of twenty-four micronutrients assessed, except for vitamins A and C and Ca. Significantly reduced intakes were identified for twenty-two and fourteen micronutrients in the ≥10 %E and 5 to <0 %E categories, respectively, compared with the lower categories. Mean micronutrient intakes at the <2·5 %E category did not differ from those at the 2·5 to <5 %E category. Free sugar intake had positive associations with intakes of sugars and jams, confectioneries, fruit and vegetable juices, and soft drinks and negative associations with intakes of pulses and nuts and vegetables. This study showed that nutrient dilution was associated with higher free sugar intake among Japanese children and adolescents. The findings suggest that the WHO recommendations might help prevent nutrient dilution in Japanese children and adolescents.
Recent research supports the importance of PUFA intake in children, particularly of EPA and DHA; however, few verified methods to assess whether PUFA intake is adequate are available.
We assessed the correlation between serum PUFA and lipid concentrations with seafood and PUFA intake measured using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children (BDHQ3y).
Single centre birth cohort in Japan.
A total of 152 36-month-old Japanese children.
Average dietary intake of daily seafood, EPA and DHA was 13·83 (sd 10·36) g, 49·4 (sd 43·5) mg and 98·3 (sd 64·6) mg, respectively. Significant weak-to-moderate correlations were observed between dietary intake and serum EPA (Spearman rho = 0·41, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·44, P < 0·001); DHA (Spearman rho = 0·40, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·42, P < 0·001) and AA (arachidonic acid) (Spearman rho = 0·33, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·32, P < 0·001), whereas no significant correlation was observed for dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) (Spearman rho = 0·06, P = 0·484; Pearson r = 0·07, P = 0·387). Correlations between seafood intake and serum EPA and DHA were also moderate (0·39–0·43). A negative correlation between serum TAGs and serum EPA, as well as positive correlations between serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) with serum EPA and DHA were observed, whereas no significant correlations between seafood intake and serum lipid profiles. Based on this model, we estimated 61–98 g/week of seafood intake is required to meet current EPA/DHA intake recommendations by the WHO (100–150 mg/d).
For children of 2–4 years of age, weekly intake of 61–98 g of seafood is required to meet WHO recommendations of EPA/DHA intake.
Few studies have reported associations between the Na:K ratio and risk factors related to CVD among the general population in Asian countries. This study aimed to investigate the dietary Na:K ratio association with CVD risk factors among Japanese adults. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 48 800 Japanese participants (19 386 men and 29 414 women) aged ≥20 years, registered in the 2003–2017 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Multivariate OR and 95 % CI for risk of hypertension, high glycated HbA1c levels, hypercholesterolaemia, low serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and high non-HDL-cholesterol levels according to the Na:K ratio were estimated using logistic regression models. Dietary Na:K ratio decreased for both men and women from 2003 to 2017. Higher Na:K ratio and higher hypertension prevalence were observed (multivariate OR (fifth v. first quintiles) 1·27, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·40; Pfor trend < 0·001 for men and 1·12, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·23; Pfor trend = 0·007 for women). Higher Na:K ratio was associated with higher prevalence of high HbA1c levels in men (multivariate OR 1·56, 95 % CI 1·24, 1·96). Prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol levels was increased with higher Na:K ratio (Pfor trend =0·002 for men and <0·001 for women). No significant associations were found between Na:K ratio and hypercholesterolaemia in men or high non-HDL-cholesterol levels in both men and women. Our findings suggest that dietary Na:K ratio is associated with several CVD risk factors among Japanese adults.
Epidemiological evidence on the association between eating frequency and overall diet quality does not represent a consistent picture. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of meal frequency and snack frequency with diet quality, using different definitions of meals and snacks. Based on 4-d weighed dietary record data obtained from 639 Japanese adults aged 20–81 years, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on either the participant-identified or time-of-day definitions. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3). One additional meal per d increased the HEI-2015 total score by 3·6 and 1·3 points based on the participant-identified and time-of-day definitions, respectively. A higher meal frequency was also associated with higher values of some of the HEI-2015 component scores (total vegetables, greens and beans, and total protein foods), irrespective of how meals were defined. Additionally, one additional participant-identified snack per d increased the HEI-2015 total score by 0·7 points. The frequency of participant-identified snacks also showed positive associations with some of the HEI-2015 component scores (total fruits, whole fruits, total vegetables, greens and beans, dairy products, and Na). However, the frequency of time-of-day defined snacks was not associated with the total scores of HEI-2015, although there were some associations for its components. Similar findings were obtained when the NRF9.3 was used. In conclusion, higher meal frequency was consistently associated with higher diet quality, while associations between snack frequency and diet quality varied depending on the definition of snacks.
The neutral beam (NB) fast ion confinement in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is studied for several full field (
) magnetic configurations by a combination of neutron measurement and simulations. To investigate the NB fast ion confinement, we have performed a series of short-pulse NB injection experiments. The experiment results are analysed by the integrated code TASK3D-a. From this investigation, the effective particle diffusion coefficients of the tangential and perpendicular NBs are approximately
in the standard configuration. It is clarified that the NB fast ion confinement improves when the plasmas are shifted inward. Moreover, it is also found that the simulation, which considers the deuteron dilution effect due to the presence of impurity ions, can describe a neutron emission rate consistent with the measurement.
The aim of this study is to examine the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and mental health problems in adolescent offspring. Data were obtained from the population-based Kochi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty (K-CHILD) study in 2016, and participants were 10,810 children in the fifth grade (3,144 pairs), eighth grade (3,497 pairs), and eleventh grade (4,169 pairs) living in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Mothers of participating children were asked about their ACEs, childhood social economic status, current mental and physical health, current social economic status, positive parenting behaviors, child maltreatment, marital status, and child behavior problems using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire. Children reported their depressive symptoms using the Depression Self-Rating Scale. Children of mothers with a larger number of ACEs showed higher levels of behavior problems (p for trend <.001) and depressive symptoms (p for trend <.001), adjusting for potential confounders. In particular, maternal psychological distress mediated the association between maternal ACEs and child mental health. The adverse effects of maternal ACEs may have a direct intergenerational impact on behavior problems and depressive symptoms in adolescent offspring. Further studies to elucidate possible mediators are needed.
This cross-sectional study evaluated the dietary characteristics of snacks, the contribution of snacks to daily nutrient intake and the association of energy intake (EI) from snacks with the prevalence of nutritional inadequacy in Japanese nursery school children.
Foods and nutrients consumed in each eating occasion were assessed by 3-d dietary records. The prevalence of inadequate intake of twenty nutrients assessed by the age- and sex-specific reference values in the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes was compared according to tertile categories of EI from snacks.
A multi-regional dietary survey based on nursery schools in Japan.
A total of 187 boys and 191 girls aged 3–6 years.
EI from snacks accounted for 19·5 % (sd 6·9) of total daily EI. Confectionaries accounted for the largest part of EI from snacks (35·3 %), followed by milk (19·5 %). Relative to their energy contribution, snacks accounted for a small proportion for all nutrients examined, except for free sugar, calcium, SFA and riboflavin. Although a higher EI from snacks was associated with favourable profiles for intakes of calcium, iron, thiamine and riboflavin, excessive intakes of free sugar and Na were more prevalent among children with a higher EI from snacks.
Although snacks are effective in meeting the requirement of some nutrients among Japanese nursery school children, snacks are generally not nutrient-dense and have an impact on excessive intake of some nutrients. There is hence room for improvement in food choices at snack time.
We identified a waterborne pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera in our stem cell transplantation center, which likely resulted from biofilm on the aerators of the handwashing machines in each patient’s room. Regular replacement of faucet parts can prevent biofilm formation and pseudo-outbreaks of M. chimaera through aerators.
The effects of high stocking density during the dry period on dairy cow physiology, behaviour and welfare were investigated. Holstein Friesian cows (n = 48, calving over a seven month period) were dried-off 60 ± 4 d before their expected calving date, and allocated to either high (H) or low (L) stocking density groups. Cows were housed in cubicles from dry-off to 21 d before calving and then moved to straw yards until calving. In cubicle pens, H and L cows had 0.5 vs. 1.0 feed yokes/cow and 1.0 vs. 1.5 cubicles/cow, respectively, and in straw yards, 0.3 m vs. 0.6 m linear feed-face space and 6 m2vs. 12 m2 lying space, respectively. Video observations of feeding behaviour during the 3 h after feed delivery (3 d/week) and agonistic interactions at the feed-face during peak feeding (2 d/week) were made. Daily lying proportion was measured using an accelerometer device throughout the dry period. Concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCM) at dry-off, d7 and d35 after dry-off and d21 and d7 before calving and the change in energy metabolites (glucose, NEFA, BHB) from dry-off to d7 before calving were measured. H cows were less likely to start feeding within 5 min of feed delivery and spent less time feeding compared to L cows, but they engaged in displacements more frequently and spent more time standing in the feed alley. Irrespective of the treatment groups, FGCM concentrations significantly increased from dry-off to d7 after dry-off and remained higher during the dry period. Stocking density did not affect daily lying proportion, energy metabolites during the dry period and milk yield during subsequent lactation. This study found that whilst high stocking density during the dry period increased competition at the feed-face and altered feeding behaviour, it did not affect stress responses, energy metabolism or subsequent milk yield.
Subjective memory complaints (SMC) have been suggested as an early marker of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the effects of early life conditions on the development of SMC in old age. This study is aimed at investigating the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and SMC in community-dwelling older adults.
We used the data of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, a population-based cohort study of people aged 65 years or older enrolled from 28 municipalities across Japan. Childhood SES and SMC in everyday life were assessed from the self-report questionnaire administered in 2010 (n = 16,184). Poisson regression was performed to determine their association, adjusted for potential confounders and life-course mediators and examined cohort effects.
We identified SMC in 47.4% of the participants. After adjusting for sex, age, and number of siblings, low and middle childhood SES were associated with 29% (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22, 1.36) and 10% higher prevalence of SMC (PR: 1.10, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.17), respectively, compared with high childhood SES (p for trend <.001). The interaction terms between childhood SES and age groups were not statistically significant.
Childhood SES is significantly associated with SMC among community-dwelling older adults. Efforts to minimize childhood poverty may diminish or delay the onset of SMC and dementia in later life.
Crystallization is one of the main separation and purification processes in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, food, microelectronics, fine and bulk chemicals industries. The production of more than 70 percent of all solid products involves at least one crystallization as a key processing step, which can have a significant effect on the overall performance of the entire production process and the properties of the final product. The control of crystallization processes is challenging because of the highly nonlinear dynamics, large variations in length and time scales at which the various simultaneous mechanisms occur, variations in crystallization rates over time owing to variations in the impurity profiles of chemical feedstocks, unexpected polymorphic transformations, and nonideal mixing conditions.
On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck the northeastern coast of Japan with the magnitude nine. Ishinomaki medical zone was affected most severely with 328 evacuation shelters and approximately 50,000 evacuees. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team gathered information directly from all evacuation shelters using assessment sheets. Based on this assessment data, various measures were carried out for environmental improvement of the shelters. To prepare for the next major disaster, a software program called Rapid Assessment System of Evacuation Center Condition - Gonryo and Miyagi (RASECC-GM) was developed, which computerizes the whole process, including entering, tabulating, and managing of shelter assessment data.
To verify the feasibility, usability, and accuracy of RASECC-GM, a verification test was performed using mock shelter data on October 23-26, 2018, to coincide with Logistics Training Course of Medical Logistics for Disasters held by Iwate Medical University.
On October 22, 2018 at four simulated disaster relief and health care branches, participants at each branch were asked to enter two mock shelter data items, submit a closed shelter request, and register a new shelter using RASECC-GM, respectively. The next day participants were asked to enter two mock shelter data items per branch while offline and upload the data to the server when next online. The uploaded data was checked for accuracy and whether it could be viewed on the management screen. After the test, a questionnaire survey was given to participants to verify the feasibility and usability of RASECC-GM.
It was confirmed that RASECC-GM functioned almost correctly. All participants answered that input operation was easy to understand, and 90.9% of participants could input without a mistake and did not feel stress when inputting data.
RASECC-GM appeared to be useful to shelter assessment, but further improvements are needed for practical use.
This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
In endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy, surgeons sometimes have concerns about performing an adequate incision with only a narrow intra-cavital view from one direction. In order to overcome these issues, fluoroscopic radiography was used during endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy.
Peri-operative fluoroscopic radiography was utilised to check the position of the diverticuloscope, and to confirm the extent of the incision during surgery. A balloon catheter was used to determine whether the cricopharyngeal muscle was sufficiently resected. Blood loss, peri-operative complications, and functional oral swallowing scale and penetration aspiration scale scores were evaluated.
In 12 out of 15 patients, intra-operative fluoroscopic radiography showed the diverticuloscope positioned in the post-cricoid area, and the cricopharyngeal muscle was raised and the surgery completed without adverse effect. Swallowing functions improved following surgery.
Intra-operative fluoroscopy might improve endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy by allowing surgeons to confirm the extent of resection, and by reducing peri-operative morbidity and complication rates.
We investigate two weak fragments of the double negation shift schema, which are motivated, respectively, from Spector’s consistency proof of ACA0 and from the negative translation of RCA0, as well as double negated variants of logical principles. Their interrelations over both intuitionistic arithmetic and analysis are completely solved.
Although thiamine deficiency (TD) and Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) are not rare in cancer patients, the cases reported to date developed TD and/or WE after treatment had started.
From a series of cancer patients, we report a patient diagnosed with TD without the typical clinical symptoms of WE at the preoperative psychiatric examination.
A 43-year-old woman with ovarian cancer was referred by her oncologist to the psycho-oncology outpatient clinic for preoperative psychiatric evaluation. Her tumor had been growing rapidly before the referral. Although she did not develop delirium, cerebellar signs, or eye symptoms, we suspected she might have developed TD because of her 2-month loss of appetite as the storage capacity of thiamine in the body is approximately 18 days. The diagnosis of TD was supported by abnormally low serum thiamine levels.
Significance of results
Cancer therapists need to be aware that thiamine deficiency may occur even before the start of cancer treatment. In cases with a loss of appetite of more than 2 weeks’ duration, in particular, thiamine deficiency should be considered if the tumor is rapidly increasing, regardless of the presence or absence of delirium.
Current guidelines provide a universal recommendation on vitamin D intake to prevent insufficiency. However, the relative influence of food, UVB and other factors on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency has been poorly investigated in preschool children. We assessed serum 25(OH)D quantities and their association with vitamin D intake using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for children aged 3–6 years (BDHQ3y), outdoor playing time and background UVB radiation level among 574 36-month-old Japanese children living at latitude 35°N. The average serum 25(OH)D concentration was 23·5 (sd 6·1) ng/ml, and 170 (29·6 %) children had vitamin D insufficiency (<20 ng/ml) despite high consumption of fish. Multiple logistic regression adjusting for social factors showed that when background UVB radiation level was <15 kJ/m2 (monthly average), there was a 1·89 (95 % CI 1·31, 2·74) times higher risk of vitamin D insufficiency, to which vitamin D intake nor time spent outdoors were significantly associated. ANOVA showed that the contribution of the variability in vitamin D intake on the variability of serum 25(OH)D level was 1·8 % of that of UVB exposure. The correlation between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D level was not stronger when limited to measurements in winter. We found that nearly 30 % of 3-year-old Japanese children had vitamin D insufficiency despite high consumption of fish and living at relatively low latitude. We failed to observe an association between vitamin D intake and the risk of vitamin D insufficiency. This may be due to the extremely limited access to vitamin D-fortified food and supplements for children in Japan.