To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This research was carried out to quantify the effects of a range of variables on milk fat globule (MFG) size for a herd of Holstein-Friesian cows managed through an automatic milking system with year-round calving. We hypothesised that the overall variation in average MFG size observed between individual animals of the same herd cannot sufficiently be explained by the magnitude of the effects of variables that could be manipulated on-farm. Hence, we aimed to conduct an extensive analysis of possible determinants of MFG size, including physiological characteristics (parity, days in milk, days pregnant, weight, age, rumination minutes, somatic cell count) and milk production traits (number of milkings, milk yield, fat yield, protein and fat content, fat-protein ratio) on the individual animal level; and environmental conditions (diet, weather, season) for the whole herd. Our results show that when analysed in isolation, many of the studied variables have a detectable effect on MFG size. However, analysis of their additive effects identified days in milk, parity and milk yield as the most important variables. In accordance with our hypothesis, the estimated effects of these variables, calculated using a multiple variable linear mixed model, do not sufficiently explain the overall variation between cows, ranging from 2.70 to 5.69 µm in average MFG size. We further show that environmental variables, such as sampling day (across seasons) or the proportion of pasture and silage in the diet, have limited effects on MFG size and that physiological differences outweigh the effects of milk production traits and environmental conditions. This presents further evidence that the selection of individual animals is more important than the adjustment of on-farm variables to control MFG size.
Rapid growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) poses a challenge for timely management of this weed. Dose response studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 under field and greenhouse conditions near Garden City and Manhattan, KS, respectively, to evaluate the efficacy of dicamba to control ≤10 cm, 15 cm, and 30 cm tall-Palmer amaranth that mimics three herbicide application timing: on time application (Day 0), and 1 (Day 1) and 4 days (Day 4) delay. Visual injury rating and reduction in shoot biomass (% of non-treated), and mortality were assessed at four weeks after treatment using a three- and four-parameter log-logistic model, in R software program. Increasing dicamba doses increased A. palmeri control regardless of plant height both in the field and greenhouse studies. The results suggest that delaying application one (15 cm) and four days (30 cm), resulted in a two- and 27-fold increase in the effective dose of dicamba on A. palmeri, respectively, under field conditions. However, in the greenhouse, for the same level of A. palmeri control, more than one- and two-fold increase in dicamba dose, respectively was required. Similarly, the effective dose of dicamba required for 50% reduction in A. palmeri shoot biomass (GR50) increased more than four- and eight-fold or more than one- and two-fold when dicamba application was delayed by one (15 cm) and four days (30 cm), in the field or in the greenhouse, respectively. To understand the basis of increased efficacy of dicamba in controlling early growth stage of A. palmeri, dicamba absorption and translocation studies were conducted. Results indicate a significant reduction in dicamba absorption (7%) and translocation (15%) with increase in A. palmeri height. Therefore, increased absorption and translocation of dicamba results in increased efficacy in improving A. palmeri control at early growth stage.
This article presents the results of a program of radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modeling from the precontact Yup'ik site of Nunalleq (GDN-248) in subarctic southwestern Alaska. Nunalleq is deeply stratified, presenting a robust relative chronological framework of well-defined individual house floors abundant in ecofacts suitable for radiocarbon dating. Capitalizing on this potential, we present the results of one of the first applications of Bayesian statistical modeling of radiocarbon data from an archaeological site in the North American Arctic. Using these methods, we demonstrate that it is possible to generate robust, high-resolution chronological models from Arctic archaeology. Radiocarbon dates, procured prior to the program of dating and modeling presented here, suggested an approximately three-century duration of occupation at the site. The results of Bayesian modeling nuance this interpretation. While it is possible that there may have been activity for almost three centuries (beginning in the late fourteenth century), occupation of the dwelling complex, which dominates the site, was more likely to have endured for no more than a century. The results presented here suggest that the occupation of Nunalleq likely encompassed three generations beginning cal AD 1570–1630 before being curtailed by conflict around cal AD 1645–1675.
Introduction: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common reason for presentation to an emergency department (ED). Although many patients with mild SSTI are managed with oral antibiotics, those with mild-moderate infections are often treated with parenteral antibiotics, managed in EDs as outpatients using once daily intravenous cefazolin combined with oral probenecid. The purpose of our study was to determine if cephalexin 500 mg orally four times daily was non-inferior to cefazolin 2 g intravenously daily plus probenecid 1 g orally daily in the management of uncomplicated mild-moderate SSTIs patients presenting to the ED.. Methods: This was a prospective, multi-center, double dummy-blind, randomized controlled non-inferiority trial conducted at two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Canada. Patients were enrolled if they presented to the ED with an uncomplicated SSTI, in a 1:1 fashion to oral cephalexin or intravenous cefazolin plus oral probenecid for up to 7 days. The primary outcome was failure of therapy at 72 hours. Clinical cure at 7 days, intravenous to oral step-down, admission to hospital and adverse events were also evaluated. Results: 206 patients were randomized with 104 patients in the cephalexin group and 102 in the cefazolin and probenecid group. The proportion of patients failing therapy at 72 hours was similar between the treatment groups (4.2% and 6.1%, risk difference 1.9%, 95% CI (-3.3% to 7.1%), p-value for non-inferiority=0.001). Clinical cure at seven days was not significantly different (100% and 97.7%, risk difference -2.3%, 95% CI (-4.9% to 0.3%), p-value for non-inferiority=0.008). Conclusion: Cephalexin at appropriate doses appears to be a safe and effective alternative to outpatient parenteral cefazolin and probenecid in the treatment of uncomplicated mild to moderate SSTIs who present to the ED.
The determination of Baade-Wesselink radii and luminosities for pulsating stars are long-standing and highly desired goals since they provide the promise of being standard candles. In a modest contribution towards these goals, we have undertaken a programme to determine the radii and luminosities of the large-amplitude δ Scuti stars DY Herculis, EH Librae and DY Pegasi from optical and infrared photometry and cross-correlated radial velocity data. We use Fourier representations for V, I and J light curves and for the radial velocity curves in Baade-Wesselink analyses to derive minimum radii over the pulsation cycles. These radii and their errors and the mean bolometric luminosities and absolute magnitudes will be discussed here and in papers to follow. As a check, we also apply our method to the data and results of other groups.
Increasing the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of ruminant products is widely accepted as a potential means of reducing the incidence of cardio-vascular disease in man. However, after ingestion dietary PUFAs are extensively hydrogenated in the rumen. Whole linseed is particularly high in a-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and the feeding of whole seeds with an intact seed coat has been reported to double the duodenal supply of C18:3 in wether lambs (Wachira et al. 1998). This supply may be further enhanced by treating the whole seed with formaldehyde (Gulati et al. 1997). The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of untreated and formadehyde treated whole linseed on the performance and fatty acid composition of milk produced by Friesland ewes.
To explore the factors affecting intra-household food allocation practices to inform the development of interventions to prevent low birth weight in rural plains of Nepal.
Qualitative methodology using purposive sampling to explore the barriers and facilitating factors to improved maternal nutrition.
Rural Dhanusha District, Nepal.
We purposively sampled twenty-five young daughters-in-law from marginalised groups living in extended families and conducted semi-structured interviews with them. We also conducted one focus group discussion with men and one with female community health volunteers who were mothers-in-law.
Gender and age hierarchies were important in household decision making. The mother-in-law was responsible for ensuring that a meal was provided to productive household members. The youngest daughter-in-law usually cooked last and ate less than other family members, and showed respect for other family members by cooking only when permitted and deferring to others’ choice of food. There were limited opportunities for these women to snack between main meals. Daughters-in-law’ movement outside the household was restricted and therefore family members perceived that their nutritional need was less. Poverty affected food choice and families considered cost before nutritional value.
It is important to work with the whole household, particularly mothers-in-law, to improve maternal nutrition. We present five barriers to behaviour change: poverty; lack of knowledge about cheap nutritional food, the value of snacking, and cheap nutritional food that does not require cooking; sharing food; lack of self-confidence; and deference to household guardians. We discuss how we have targeted our interventions to develop knowledge, discuss strategies to overcome barriers, engage mothers-in-law, and build the confidence and social support networks of pregnant women.
We have obtained common offset, common midpoint (CMP) and borehole vertical (VRP) ground-penetrating radar profiles close to the margin of Falljökull, a small, steep temperate valley glacier situated in southeast Iceland. Velocity analysis of CMP and VRP surveys provided a four-layered velocity model. This model was verified by comparison between the depths of englacial reflectors and water channels seen in borehole video, and from the depths of boreholes drilled to the bed. In the absence of sediment within the glacier ice, radar velocity is inversely proportional to water content. Using mixture models developed by Paren and Looyenga, the variation of water content with depth was determined from the radar velocity profile. At the glacier surface the calculated water content is 0.23–0.34% (velocity 0.166 m ns−1), which rises sharply to 3.0–4.1% (velocity 0.149 m ns−1) at 28 m depth, interpreted to be the level of the piezometric surface. Below the piezometric surface the water content drops slowly to 2.4–3.3% (velocity 0.152 m ns−1) until ∼102 m depth where it falls to 0.09–0.14% (velocity 0.167 m ns−1). The water content of the ice then remains low to the glacier bed at about 112 m. These results suggest storage of a substantial volume of water within the glacier ice, which has significant implications for glacier hydrology, ice rheology and interpretations of both radar and seismic surveys.
To outline the development of a smartphone-based tool to collect thrice-repeated 24 h dietary recall data in rural Nepal, and to describe energy intakes, common errors and researchers’ experiences using the tool.
We designed a novel tool to collect multi-pass 24 h dietary recalls in rural Nepal by combining the use of a CommCare questionnaire on smartphones, a paper form, a QR (quick response)-coded list of foods and a photographic atlas of portion sizes. Twenty interviewers collected dietary data on three non-consecutive days per respondent, with three respondents per household. Intakes were converted into nutrients using databases on nutritional composition of foods, recipes and portion sizes.
Dhanusha and Mahottari districts, Nepal.
Pregnant women, their mothers-in-law and male household heads. Energy intakes assessed in 150 households; data corrections and our experiences reported from 805 households and 6765 individual recalls.
Dietary intake estimates gave plausible values, with male household heads appearing to have higher energy intakes (median (25th–75th centile): 12 079 (9293–14 108) kJ/d) than female members (8979 (7234–11 042) kJ/d for pregnant women). Manual editing of data was required when interviewers mistook portions for food codes and for coding items not on the food list. Smartphones enabled quick monitoring of data and interviewer performance, but we initially faced technical challenges with CommCare forms crashing.
With sufficient time dedicated to development and pre-testing, this novel smartphone-based tool provides a useful method to collect data. Future work is needed to further validate this tool and adapt it for other contexts.
The problem of determining the intrinsic shapes of elliptical galaxies cannot be solved using photometry alone. Measuring rotation on the apparent major and minor axes adds a kinematic constraint, but does not significantly improve the situation. We find that having two more spectra, at the ±45° position angles, gives enough kinematic information that much tighter limits can be placed on the intrinsic axis ratios than are possible otherwise.
Public Health England conducts enhanced national surveillance of tetanus, a potentially life-threatening vaccine-preventable disease. A standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain clinical and demographic details of individuals reported with clinically suspected tetanus. The 96 cases identified between 2001 and 2014 were analysed. The average annual incidence was 0·13/million (95% confidence interval 0·10–0·16) of which 50·0% were male. Where reported, 70·3% of injuries occurred in the home/garden (45/64). Overall, 40·3% (31/77) cases were in people who inject drugs (PWID), including a cluster of 22 cases during 2003–2004. Where known (n = 68), only 8·8% were age-appropriately immunized. The overall case-fatality rate was 11·0% (9/82). All tetanus-associated deaths occurred in adults aged >45 years, none of whom were fully immunized. Due to the success of the childhood immunization programme, tetanus remains a rare disease in England with the majority of cases occurring in older unimmunized or partially immunized adults. Minor injuries in the home/garden were the most commonly reported likely sources of infection, although cases in PWID increased during this period. It is essential that high routine vaccine coverage is maintained and that susceptible individuals, particularly older adults, are protected through vaccination and are offered timely post-exposure management following a tetanus-prone wound.
Entropy maximising spatial interaction models have been widely exploited in a range of disciplines and applications: from trade and migration flows to the spread of riots and the understanding of spatial patterns in archaeological sites of interest. When embedded into a dynamic system and framed in the context of a retail model, the dynamics of centre growth poses an interesting mathematical problem, with bifurcations and phase changes, which may be addressed analytically. In this paper, we present some analysis of the continuous retail model and the corresponding discrete version, which yields insights into the effect of space on the evolving system, and an understanding of why certain retail centres are more successful than others. The slowly developing growths and the fast explosive growths that are of particular concern are explained in detail.
The ICC's Regulation 55, which allows the Trial Chamber to modify the legal characterization of facts in the final judgment, has been used too often and too carelessly. Recharacterization must not exceed the facts and circumstances described in the charges, but material facts and their legal qualification are like communicating vessels; changing the latter affects the former (and vice versa). In their application of Regulation 55 to date, chambers have underappreciated this, treating cases as if they have blurry factual boundaries where material facts can be swapped, neglected, or created at will. This article is not a plea for abolition of Regulation 55, though, but explores which modifications are permissible, and finds that when comparing a change regarding the contextual elements or (sub)categories of crimes to a change regarding the mode of participation the latter is most problematic and often detrimental to the rights of the accused.
We apply the Barnes–Evans variant of the Baade–Wesselink method to Cepheids in the LMC and SMC in an attempt to determine the distance directly to individual stars in these galaxies and to determine the metallicity effect on the Cepheid period–luminosity relation. We now have K-band light curves for a sample of SMC stars as well as for many Cepheids in young clusters in the LMC. Using the FV, (V – K) calibration of Fouqué & Gieren (1997) we find preliminary evidence for a metallicity effect which makes metal poor Cepheids brighter. This is at odds with earlier results based on optical photometry and the reason is not entirely understood yet.
To develop and validate a photographic food atlas of common foods for dietary assessment in southern Nepal.
We created a life-sized photographic atlas of forty locally prepared foods. Between March and June 2014, data collectors weighed portion sizes that respondents consumed during one mealtime and then a different data collector revisited the household the next day to record respondents’ estimations of their previous day’s intakes using the atlas. Validity was assessed by percentage error, Cohen’s weighted kappa (κw) and Bland–Altman limits of agreement.
Dhanusha and Mahottari districts in southern Nepal.
A random sample of ninety-five adults in forty-eight rural households with a pregnant woman.
Overall, respondents underestimated their intakes (mean error =−4·5 %). Rice and dal (spiced lentil soup) intakes were underestimated (−14·1 % and −34·5 %, respectively), but vegetable curry intake was overestimated (+20·8 %). Rice and vegetable curry portion size images were significantly reliably selected (Cohen’s κw (se): rice=0·391 (0·105); vegetable curry=0·430 (0·139)), whereas dal images were not. Energy intake over one mealtime was under-reported by an average of 569 kJ (136 kcal; 4·5 % error) using recall compared with the weighing method.
The photographic atlas is a useful tool for field estimation of dietary intake. Average errors were low, and there was ‘modest’ agreement between weighed and recalled portion size image selection of rice and vegetable curry food items. Error in energy estimation was low but with wide limits of agreement, suggesting that there is scope for future work to reduce error further.