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In the 1980s, as China transitioned to the post-Mao era, a state-sponsored oral history project led to the publication of local, regional, and national histories. They took the form of written and transcribed personal testimonies of events that preceded the turmoil of both the Cultural Revolution and, in many cases, the Communist victory in 1949. Known as wenshi ziliao, these publications represent an intense process of historical memory production that has received little scholarly attention. Hitherto unexamined archival materials and oral histories reveal unresolved tensions in post-Cultural Revolution reconciliation and mobilization, informing negotiations between local elites and the state, and between Party and non-Party organizations. Taking the northeast Russia–Manchuria borderlands as a case study, Martin T. Fromm examines the creation of post-Mao identities, political mobilization, and knowledge production in China.
Emerging adulthood is a peak period of risk for alcohol and illicit drug use. Recent advances in psychiatric genetics suggest that the co-occurrence of substance use and psychopathology arises, in part, from a shared genetic etiology. We sought to extend this research by investigating the influence of genetic risk for schizophrenia on trajectories of four substance use behaviors as they occurred across emerging adulthood.
Young adult participants of non-Hispanic European descent provided DNA samples and completed daily reports of substance use for 1 month per year across 4 years (N = 30 085 observations of N = 342 participants). A schizophrenia polygenic score was included in two-level hierarchical linear models designed to test associations between genetic risk for schizophrenia, participant age, and four substance use phenotypes.
Participants with a greater schizophrenia polygenic score experienced greater age-related increases in the likelihood of using substances across emerging adulthood (p < 0.005). Additionally, our results suggest that the polygenic score was positively associated with participants’ overall likelihood to engage in illicit drug use but not alcohol-related substance use.
This study used a novel combination of polygenic prediction and intensive longitudinal methods to characterize the influence of genetic risk for schizophrenia on patterns of age-related change in substance use across emerging adulthood. Results suggest that genetic risk for schizophrenia has developmentally specific effects on substance use behaviors in a non-clinical population of young adults.
Introduction: To describe dosing, duration, and pre- and post-infusion analgesic administration of continuous intravenous sub-dissociative dose ketamine (SDK) infusion for managing a variety of painful conditions in the emergency department (ED). Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients aged 18 and older presenting to the ED with acute and chronic painful conditions who received continuous SDK infusion in the ED for a period over 6 years (2010-2016). Primary data analyses included dosing and duration of infusion, rates of pre- and post-infusion analgesic administration, and final diagnoses. Secondary data included pre- and post-infusion pain scores and rates of side effects. Results: 104 patients were enrolled in the study. Average dosing of ketamine infusion was 11.26 mg/hr, the mean duration of infusion was 135.87 minutes with 38% increase in patients not requiring post-infusion analgesia. The average decrease in pain score was 5.04. There were 12 reported adverse effects with nausea being the most prevalent. Conclusion: Continuous intravenous SDK infusion has a role in controlling pain of various etiologies in the ED with a potential to reduce need for co-analgesics or rescue analgesic administration. There is a need for more robust, prospective, randomized trials that will further evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of this modality across wide range of pain syndromes and different age groups in the ED.
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive clinical imaging modality that can be combined with reporter gene expression to enable the specific and repetitive detection of a variety of cellular processes. These cellular processes include transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, protein-protein interactions, and cell trafficking and engraftment. The ability to detect these processes with PET reporter gene/probe systems also enables non-invasive monitoring of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutics and their efficacy in vivo.
The concept of reporter gene imaging emerged from systems designed to image intrinsic enzymatic and metabolic processes and targets leading to the development of the reporter/radiotracer concept. The premise of reporter gene-based expression is based on the irreversible binding or entrapment and accumulation of reporter probes (radiotracers). These reporter probes are labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides. Accumulation of the probes in or at target cells is mediated by the catalytic activity of the reporter gene products (enzymes), their binding affinity to the reporter proteins or transport through reporter proteins. This reporter gene-mediated binding, accumulation, and retention of positron-emitting reporter probes in target cells enables repetitive spatial-temporal dynamic imaging of molecular and cellular events by PET.
Reporter-based imaging requires the transfer and expression of a reporter gene into target cells by transfection, electroporation, or transduction. These reporter genes are encoded within expression cassettes which initiate and control their expression. These control elements fall into two general categories: constitutive and conditional. Constitutively expressed reporters are used to “label” cells ex vivo for studies that require monitoring of trafficking and distribution patterns of the infused cells. The utility of this method has been most routinely illustrated in adoptive immunotherapy applications where T cells are labeled to determine their trafficking, biodistribution, and targeting patterns. It is also used in stem cell therapy applications to determine the long-term viability and therapeutic efficacy of infused stem cells.
Reporter gene expression driven by conditional tissue-specific promoters provides functional information about the target cells. Conditional promoters, for example, can provide information about the functional status of T cells related to their activation and proliferation and telomerase activity in tumor cells. PET reporters fall into three basic categories: enzyme-, receptor-, and transporter-based systems (Figure 13.1).