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This article presents a geomorphological and micromorphological study of the locational context of four Indus civilisation archaeological sites—Alamgirpur, Masudpur I and VII, and Burj—all situated on the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve in northwest India. The analysis indicates a strong correlation between settlement foundation and particular landscape positions on an extensive alluvial floodplain. Each of the analysed sites was located on sandy levees and/or riverbank deposits associated with former channels. These landscape positions would have situated settlements above the level of seasonal floodwater resulting from the Indian summer monsoon. In addition, the sandy soils on the margins of these elevated landscape positions would have been seasonally replenished with water, silt, clay, and fine organic matter, considerably enhancing their capacity for water retention and fertility and making them particularly suitable for agriculture. These former landscapes are obscured by recent modification and extensive agricultural practices. These geoarchaeological evaluations indicate that there is a hidden landscape context for each Indus settlement. This specific type of interaction between humans and their local context is an important aspect of Indus cultural adaptations to diverse, variable, and changing environments.
The impact of hurricanes on emergency services is well-known. Recent history demonstrates the need for prehospital and emergency department coordination to serve communities during evacuation, storm duration, and cleanup. The use of telehealth applications may enhance this coordination while lessening the impact on health-care systems. These applications can address triage, stabilization, and diversion and may be provided in collaboration with state and local emergency management operations through various shelters, as well as during other emergency medical responses.
The hostile environment that older lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people faced at younger ages in the United Kingdom (UK) may have a lasting negative impact on their health. This systematic scoping review adds to the current knowledge base through comprehensively synthesising evidence on what is known about the extent and nature of health and care inequalities, as well as highlighting gaps in the evidence which point the way towards future research priorities. We searched four databases, undertook manual searching, and included studies which presented empirical findings on LGBT people aged 50+ in the UK and their physical and mental health or social care status. From a total of 5,738 records, 48 papers from 42 studies were eligible and included for data extraction. The synthesis finds that inequities exist across physical and mental health, as well as in social care, exposure to violence and loneliness. Social care environments appeared as a focal point for inequities and formal care environments severely compromised the identity and relationships that older LGBT people developed over their lifecourse. Conversely, the literature demonstrated how some older LGBT people successfully negotiated age-related transitions, e.g. emphasising the important role of LGBT-focused social groups in offsetting social isolation and loneliness. While there exist clear policy implications around the requirement for formal care environments to change to accommodate an increasingly diverse older population, there is also a need to explore how to support older LGBT people to maintain their independence for longer, reducing the need for formal care.
Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is used increasingly during resuscitation. The aim of this study was to assess whether combining POCUS and electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythm findings better predicts outcomes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department (ED).
We completed a health records review on ED cardiac arrest patients who underwent POCUS. Primary outcome measurements included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission, and survival to hospital discharge.
POCUS was performed on 180 patients; 45 patients (25.0%; 19.2%–31.8%) demonstrated cardiac activity on initial ECG, and 21 (11.7%; 7.7%–17.2%) had cardiac activity on initial POCUS; 47 patients (26.1%; 20.2%–33.0%) achieved ROSC, 18 (10.0%; 6.3%–15.3%) survived to admission, and 3 (1.7%; 0.3%–5.0%) survived to hospital discharge. As a predictor of failure to achieve ROSC, ECG had a sensitivity of 82.7% (95% CI 75.2%–88.7%) and a specificity of 46.8% (32.1%–61.9%). Overall, POCUS had a higher sensitivity of 96.2% (91.4%–98.8%) but a similar specificity of 34.0% (20.9%–49.3%). In patients with ECG-asystole, POCUS had a sensitivity of 98.18% (93.59%–99.78%) and a specificity of 16.00% (4.54%–36.08%). In patients with pulseless electrical activity, POCUS had a sensitivity of 86.96% (66.41%–97.22%) and a specificity of 54.55% (32.21%–75.61%). Similar patterns were seen for survival to admission and discharge. Only 0.8% (0.0–4.7%) of patients with ECG-asystole and standstill on POCUS survived to hospital discharge.
The absence of cardiac activity on POCUS, or on both ECG and POCUS together, better predicts negative outcomes in cardiac arrest than ECG alone. No test reliably predicted survival.
Britain’s position as a global power from the middle of the nineteenth century onwards was challenged from two directions. External enemies, principally Russia, France and Germany, emerged as increasingly powerful rivals. Internally disparate groups of nationalists coalesced at different times and in different places to try to subvert British rule. By the middle of the twentieth century these two forces united to help undercut the props that had sustained the empire, with the result that between 1945 and 1970 the British shed most of their remaining colonial responsibilities. But in doing so they also developed a narrative of colonialism that explained both how they had governed their empire, and why they were willing to surrender it. Britain’s imperial mission was to bring the rule of law and good governance to peoples who would not otherwise have enjoyed such benefits. To accomplish that mission they had ruled their empire with the maximum of political cajolery and the minimum of physical force. This story was not entirely a myth.
Terrorist attacks have increased globally since the late 1990s with clear evidence of psychological distress across both adults and children and young people (CYP). After the Manchester Arena terrorist attack, the Resilience Hub was established to identify people in need of psychological and psychosocial support.
To examine the severity of symptoms and impact of the programme.
The hub offers outreach, screening, clinical telephone triage and facilitation to access evidenced treatments. People were screened for trauma, depression, generalised anxiety and functioning who registered at 3, 6 and 9 months post-incident. Baseline scores were compared between screening groups (first screen at 3, 6 or 9 months) in each cohort (adult, CYP), and within groups to compare scores at 9 months.
There were significant differences in adults' baseline scores across screening groups on trauma, depression, anxiety and functioning. There were significant differences in the baseline scores of CYP across screening groups on trauma, depression, generalised anxiety and separation anxiety. Paired samples t-tests demonstrated significant differences between baseline and follow-up scores on all measures for adults in the 3-month screening group, and only depression and functioning measures for adults in the 6-month screening group. Data about CYP in the 3-month screening group, demonstrated significant differences between baseline and follow-up scores on trauma, generalised anxiety and separation anxiety.
These findings suggest people who register earlier are less symptomatic and demonstrate greater improvement across a range of psychological measures. Further longitudinal research is necessary to understand changes over time.
Throughout the world, past and present, social organizations develop to cope with restricted water sources. Relying on traditional archaeology, labor estimates, and ethnographic data, the Palenque Pool Project set out to better understand a series of interconnected artificial water features located in the western sector of this Classic Maya site. Here, we detail our 2014–2015 fieldwork. First, there is consideration that the Picota Group was a civic-ceremonial center first established in the Early Classic period (a.d. 250–500), one km to the west of the “downtown” nucleus of the site. A review of labor estimates for the construction of architectural features of the Picota Group follows. We then explore the ethnographic component, comparing similar pool configurations investigated in the highland Tzotzil community of Chamula in 2015. The article concludes with a theoretical discussion of how and why social organizations evolve to manage water resources in the region, with reference to ethnographic information from highland Tzotzil communities.
The SUPEREDEN3 study, a phase II randomized controlled trial, suggests that social recovery therapy (SRT) is useful in improving functional outcomes in people with first episode psychosis. SRT incorporates cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques with case management and employment support, and therefore has a different emphasis to traditional CBT for psychosis, requiring a new adherence tool.
This paper describes the SRT adherence checklist and content of the therapy delivered in the SUPEREDEN3 trial, outlining the frequency of SRT techniques and proportion of participants who received a full therapy dose. It was hypothesized that behavioural techniques would be used frequently, consistent with the behavioural emphasis of SRT.
Research therapists completed an adherence checklist after each therapy session, endorsing elements of SRT present. Data from 1236 therapy sessions were reviewed to determine whether participants received full, partial or no therapy dose.
Of the 75 participants randomized to receive SRT, 57.3% received a full dose, 24% a partial dose, and 18.7% received no dose. Behavioural techniques were endorsed in 50.5% of sessions, with cognitive techniques endorsed in 34.9% of sessions.
This report describes an adherence checklist which should be used when delivering SRT in both research and clinical practice. As hypothesized, behavioural techniques were a prominent feature of the SRT delivered in SUPEREDEN3, consistent with the behavioural emphasis of the approach. The use of this adherence tool would be considered essential for anyone delivering SRT looking to ensure adherence to the model.
We acknowledge that you were one of the greatest composers of all time … but you didn't understand in the slightest how to write your own music.
(‘Acca’, Musical Times, 1935)
THE rediscovery of Bach's cantatas was a long process with its roots in the publication of the Bach-Gesellschaft editions. But yet again history proves that the publication of scores did not necessarily prompt performances, and premieres could be claimed well into the twentieth century. Records show that cantatas were programmed across the full spectrum of performance spaces, from private gatherings to public concerts and from church services to dramatised festivals.
Henry Wood programmed cantatas throughout his career, but with the constant features of a large orchestra at his disposal and concert-goers with an appetite for the orchestral sounds of the late nineteenth century, he prepared his own re-scored versions. In his quest to make Bach both accessible and exciting to new audiences, his approach divided contemporary opinion. Whereas Havergal Brian may have argued that a cantata sinfonia ‘modernized’ by Wood was ‘one of the most completely satisfying things yet experienced’, more general opinion of his treatment of the cantatas was not favourable. Writing in 1929, for example, the critic Frank Howes suggested:
He appears to think that all composers’ scoring ought to sound alike, viz., like Wagner played turgidly at that. He ruthlessly adds clarinets, doubles string parts with wind, adds trombones to Bach, and destroys all sense of lines in the contrapuntal type of scoring by sheer weight of redundant notes. Not only is it bad, it is wrong; not only is it wrong, it is unnecessary. Why, then, do it?
The simple answer is Wood's own conclusion: ‘transcriptions are not to everybody's taste’.
The total number of cantatas now catalogued in the Wood Archive surpasses previous estimates of Wood's activity, and it is evident that he owned the full collection published by the Bach-Gesellschaft. Many, but not all, of his own arrangements can be traced to Proms performances with dates of premieres noted on the score covers. However, Proms programmes (and those of other concerts elsewhere) record further cantatas for which neither scores nor parts survive, suggesting that they were either lost or hired from another library.
Sir Henry J. Wood (1869–1944), co-founder and chief conductor of the Proms for nearly half a century, is often noted for his championing of the leading composers of the day, including Richard Strauss, Debussy, Rachmaninov, Ravel and Vaughan Williams. Less known is Wood's pivotal role in advocating and performing the music of J. S. Bach, much of which, incredibly, was unknown in England at the turn of the twentieth century.
Bach's achievements are often supremely delightful … but they are not of any great historical importance.
(Hubert Parry, The Evolution of the Art of Music, 1893)
THE story of Bach at the Proms begins with their first patron Dr George Cathcart. When Henry Wood had accepted Robert Newman's offer to conduct the festival, he had not been able to contribute the required £2,000 to launch the first season. The answer was found in Cathcart, a wealthy, music-loving, Harley Street ear, nose, and throat surgeon whose patients included singers with vocal complaints, which is how he first came in contact with Wood. The two men developed a friendship, and Cathcart set specific conditions in return for his sponsorship. He insisted that Wood should be the sole conductor, and that the series should be performed at the lower French concert pitch (a′ = 439 at 68°F). Cathcart had previously worked with Wood on restoring the vocal health of singers and believed that the lower pitch would be medically advantageous. His stipulations led to a re-tuning of the Queen's Hall organ and the acquisition of new wind and brass instruments for the newly established QHO, in a rare example of orchestral standardisation. Cathcart's terms prompted a consistency of orchestral sound, especially in the wind section, but specifically for performances of Bach they also helped address the challenges of orchestral balance and moved the pitch closer to eighteenth-century norms.
To jump to the end of the story, in 1944 a tribute to Wood's Proms Jubilee was published entitled Sir Henry Wood: Fifty Years of the Proms. Its contributors included eminent musicians, artists, and commentators of the day, and it gave an account of the differing facets of his accomplishments at the Proms. The chapter ‘Queen's Hall was my Club’ by the philosopher Cyril Joad encapsulates the welcoming environment that Wood and Newman created for a fresh generation of concert-goers:
Sir Henry was the first to make concert-going fashionable, fashionable that is to say among a musically disinherited class, the class of clerks and students, so that to go to the Proms became, for many of us, ‘the thing to do’. Hitherto, concerts had for the many worn a somewhat formidable air. They were expensive, formal and stiff. What Sir Henry did was to take the starch out of concert-going, substituting a physical for a social ordeal.
Section I. John Sebastian Bach: his ancestry. – Eisenach in Saxony (his birthplace), March 23, 1685. – Martin Luther living there two centuries before Bach. – His hymn and chorales as forerunners of Bach's music. – The great Lords of Thuringia pawning villages and other goods. – Ambrosius (his father) the Viol-player. – Eisenach described. – Death of his mother. – Goes to his brother at Ohrdruf. – Saxony as it was but sixty years ago. – The swineherd the last descendent of Luther. – Luther's metal jug. – The fulsomeness of biographers.
Music – Harpsichord
Section II. Sebastian steals a book. – Sets out to earn his living at Luneberg. – Visits Hamburg and hears Reinken. – Becomes organist at Arnstadt. – Walks fifty miles to Lubeck to hear Buxtehude and outstays his leave. – Receives a citation on his return. – His stubbornness. – His pretty cousin Maria Barbera [sic]. – Her daring. – Sebastian reprimanded. – Is appointed to Mulhausen. – His marriage. – Borrows a cart. – Organist at Weimar for nine years. – Is Master of the Band to the Prince of Cothen. – Has a pleasant time. – Travels with the Prince. – Death and burial of his wife during his absence.
Music – Viol da Gamba and Harpsichord.
Section III. Bach still at Cothen with his family of four children. – His Weisenfels friends. – Anna Magdalena, daughter of the Duke's Trumpeter, whom he marries. – She is twenty-one years old; he thirty-six. – After six years of office leaves Cothen. – Is installed as Cantor of Leipzig. – The busy city. – The old Rector Ernesti, 70 years old, prefers the old ways. – Bach finds the authorities ‘strange folk’. – His arduous duties. – The music-work on Sundays. – His 300 cantatas. – ‘The only Crab’.
Music – The Lute
Section IV. Bach's position at Leipzig. – Contentiousness of the officials. – His lack of humbleness. – The new Rector Gesner a friend of Bach. – Bad state of the St Thomas School. – The rebuilding. – Ten years of troubles. – House hired for Bach. – Gesner resigns.
This, then, is intended to be a practical performing edition, based on more than thirty years’ experience of conducting the Concertos at public concerts.
(Henry Wood, Preface to Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major, 1944)
IN 1944 Boosey & Hawkes published Henry Wood's edition of Brandenburg Concerto No. 3. The preface is his longest surviving piece of writing on the repertoire and not only reveals his motivation, some degree of his editorial process, and the influences on his interpretation, but hints at a much bigger venture: a complete edition of all the Brandenburg Concertos.
These evergreen masterworks have long been known and loved by musicians and concert-goers; yet because of the various problems they present in performance there are numerous orchestras, particularly those consisting of amateurs and students, for whom their production is difficult or impossible.
This, then, is intended to be a practical performing edition, based on more than thirty years’ experience of conducting the Concertos at public concerts. I hope it will not only go far towards smoothing out difficulties of performance for the standard professional orchestras, but will also enable the works to be played by many other ensembles to whom, hitherto, they have been inaccessible.
The string parts have been bowed and fingered, and the ‘war on dots’ will be noted: in one edition of these Concertos I had to erase no less than 768 dots from the first violin part of the first movement only of the third Concerto. To a string player a dot means ‘staccato’ how can any nobility or dignity be imparted to the phrases if they are played almost incessantly ‘spiccato’ or ‘staccato’.
As far as dynamics are concerned, Bach left no indications in his score. I have added expression marks, though more as a general guide than as detailed instruction. In this connection I would add that having had the unique opportunity of playing Bach's Violin Concertos with Joachim, Norman Neruda, Ysaÿe, Kreisler, Menuhin, and others, I always noted that these great string players did not play long series of notes with a level ‘forte’ tone (in ‘terraces of sound’ is, I believe, the official term) without the slightest inflexion or artistic ‘messa di voce’ they all employed a subtle inflection and emphasis, giving a human feeling to these immortal phrases of the master.