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To assess the feasibility and efficacy of in-restaurant interventions aiming to promote healthy choices via fundraising incentives benefiting school wellness programmes and point-of-purchase nutrition promotion.
Twelve schools were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention periods: Fundraising Incentive (FI) donated funds for visiting the study restaurant and Fundraising-Healthy Eating Incentive (F-HEI) included FI with additional funds given when selecting a healthier item. Both conditions included point-of-purchase nutrition promotions. Families were recruited to attend their designated intervention and complete a survey. Feasibility was assessed based on recruitment and participation, implementation fidelity and intervention acceptability. Efficacy was assessed by comparing participant receipts between intervention periods and by comparing overall restaurant sales during intervention v. two no-intervention time frames.
Fast-casual restaurant in Southern California.
Parents with children attending participating schools.
Eighty-one families visited the restaurant during the intervention, with sixty-six completing surveys. All study activities were implemented successfully, but school family participation in the intervention was low (0·95 %). Among participants completing surveys, all indicated satisfaction with the programme. The percentage of healthier items ordered was significantly greater during both FI (χ2 = 5·97, P = 0·01) and F-HEI (χ2 = 8·84, P = 0·003) v. Comparison 2. Results were similar but did not reach statistical significance when comparing the interventions to Comparison 1.
Results support potential efficacy of this programme, but more research is needed to inform feasibility. Fidelity and acceptability data supported feasibility, but participation rates were low in this initial study. Methods evaluating this intervention with a greater proportion of parents should be considered.
Hurricanes can interrupt communication, exacerbate attrition, and disrupt participant engagement in research. We used text messaging and disaster preparedness protocols to re-establish communication, re-engage participants, and ensure retention in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-test study.
Participants were given HIV home test kits to test themselves and/or their non-monogamous sexual partners before intercourse. A daily text message-based short message service computer-assisted self-interview (SMS-CASI) tool reminded them to report 3 variables: (1) anal sex without a condom, (2) knowledge of partners’ testing history, and (3) proof of partners’ testing history. A disaster preparedness protocol was put in place for hurricanes in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 6315 messages from participants (N = 12) active at the time of Hurricanes Irma and Maria. Disaster preparedness narratives were assessed.
All participants were able to communicate sexual behavior and HIV testing via SMS-CASI within 30 days following María. Some participants (n = 5, 42%) also communicated questions. Re-engagement within 30 days after the hurricane was 100% (second week/89%, third week/100%). Participant re-engagement ranged from 0–16 days (average = 6.4 days). Retention was 100%.
Daily SMS-CASI and disaster preparedness protocols helped participant engagement and communication after 2 hurricanes. SMS-CASI responses indicated high participant re-engagement, retention, and well-being.
To assess parental awareness of per-meal energy (calorie) recommendations for children’s restaurant meals and to explore whether calorie awareness was associated with parental sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of eating restaurant food.
Cross-sectional online survey administered in July 2014. Parents estimated calories (i.e. kilocalories; 1 kcal=4·184 kJ) recommended for a child’s lunch/dinner restaurant meal (range: 0–2000 kcal). Responses were categorized as ‘underestimate’ (<400 kcal), ‘accurate’ (400–600 kcal) and ‘overestimate’ (>600 kcal). Confidence in response was measured on a 4-point scale from ‘very unsure’ to ‘very sure’. Logistic regressions estimated the odds of an ‘accurate’ response and confident response (‘somewhat’ or ‘very sure’) by parental sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of eating from restaurants. Sampling weights based on demographics were incorporated in all analyses.
Parents (n 1207) of 5–12-year-old children.
On average, parents estimated 631 (se 19·4) kcal as the appropriate amount for a 5–12-year-old child’s meal. Thirty-five per cent answered in the accurate range, while 33·3 and 31·8 % underestimated and overestimated, respectively. Frequent dining at restaurants, lower income and urban geography were associated with lower odds of answering accurately. Parents’ confidence in their estimates was low across the sample (26·0 % confident) and only 10·1 % were both accurate and confident.
Parent education about calorie recommendations for children could improve understanding and use of menu labelling information in restaurants. Targeted strategies are recommended to ensure that such efforts address, rather than exacerbate, health disparities.
We present new photometric and spectroscopic data for the M-type members of the TW Hya association with the aim of a comprehensive study of accretion, disks and magnetic activity at the critical age of ~ 10 Myr where circumstellar matter disappears.
The NASA Kepler satellite has provided unprecedented high duty-cycle, high-precision light curves for a large number of stars by continuously monitoring a field of view in Cygnus-Lyra region, leading to great progress in both discovering exoplanets and characterizing planet-hosting stars by means of asteroseismic methods. The asteroseismic survey allows the investigation of stars covering the whole H-R diagram. However, the low precision of effective temperatures and surface gravities in the KIC catalogue and the lack of information on chemical composition, metallicity and rotation rate prevent asteroseismic modeling, requiring spectroscopic observations for thousands of asteroseismic targets in the Kepler field in a homogeneous way.
The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) at the Xinglong observatory in China is a 4-m telescope equipped with 4,000 optical fibres. In 2010, we initiated the LAMOST-Kepler project which aimed at collecting low-resolution spectra of stars from the Kepler Input Catalog covering uniformly the Kepler field of view. The first round of the LAMOST-Kepler project has been completed in September 2014 resulting in more than 100,000 low-resolution spectra. We used those data to derive the effective temperature, the surface gravity, and the mean metallicity of our targets, as well as to detect fast rotators, and to identify emission-line stars. Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature and derived from high-resolution spectroscopy. The second round of the LAMOST-Kepler project will allow to improve the coverage of the Kepler field and to repeat observations of selected targets.
To understand stakeholders’ perspectives on food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program implementing a Breakfast in the Classroom model.
Semi-structured focus groups and interviews were conducted with school district stakeholders. Inductive methods were used to code resulting transcripts, from which themes were identified. The analysis provides a thematic analysis of stakeholders’ perspectives on food waste in the School Breakfast Program.
Ten elementary schools in a large urban school district implementing a universal free Breakfast in the Classroom model of the US national School Breakfast Program.
Elementary-school students (n 85), parents (n 86), teachers (n 44), cafeteria managers (n 10) and school principals (n 10).
Stakeholders perceived food waste as a problem and expressed concern regarding the amount of food wasted. Explanations reported for food waste included food-related (palatability and accessibility), child-related (taste preferences and satiation) and programme-related (duration, food service policies, and coordination) factors. Milk and fruit were perceived as foods particularly susceptible to waste. Several food waste mitigation strategies were identified by participants: saving food for later, actively encouraging children’s consumption, assisting children with foods during mealtime, increasing staff support, serving smaller portion sizes, and composting and donating uneaten food.
Stakeholders recognized food waste as a problem, reported myriad contributing factors, and have considered and employed multiple and diverse mitigation strategies. Changes to the menu and/or implementation logistics, as well as efforts to use leftover food productively, may be possible strategies of reducing waste and improving the School Breakfast Program’s economic, environmental and nutritional impact.
We report on cross-matching the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and the XMM-Newton catalogs with the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). For several stars associated with X-ray sources, we provide also an access to our high-resolution spectroscopic observations.
Compulsive checking behaviors are common in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several authors have suggested that these checking rituals could be related to memory deficits. Our aim was to test whether patients with OCD show working memory impairment in relation to their checking behavior.
We evaluated the verbal and visuospatial components of patients’ and controls’ working memory using the reading span and backward location span tests. Checking behaviors were measured by recording participants’ eye movements during an image comparison task using a non-invasive, infra-red TOBII 1750 eyetracker. Participants were seated, head-free, in a natural position in front of the eyetracker screen where the images were displayed.
Patients with OCD made more gaze moves to compare images than controls. Both patients’ working memory spans were reduced, and the patients’ deficit in the comparison task was negatively related to their working memory spans.
This work demonstrates that checking behavior in OCD is linked to a general reduction of the patients’ verbal and visuospatial working memory span.
V889 Herculis is one of the brightest single early-G type stars, a young Sun, that is rotating fast enough (Prot =1.337 days) for mapping its surface by Doppler Imaging. The 10 FOCES spectra collected between 13-16 Aug 2006 at Calar Alto Observatory allowed us to reconstruct one single Doppler image for two mapping lines. The Fe i-6411 and Ca i-6439 maps, in a good agreement, revealed an asymmetric polar cap and several weaker features at lower latitudes. Applying the sheared-image method with our Doppler reconstruction we perform an investigation to detect surface differential rotation (DR). The resulting DR parameter, δΩ/Ω≈0.009 of solar type, is compared to previous studies which reported either much stronger shear or comparably weak DR, or just preferred rigid rotation. Theoretical aspects are also considered and discussed.
New spectra of MWC314 are presented; they indicate that the V/R emission line flux ratios show signs of varying in an opposite way to the absorption line radial velocities. The latter appear to be due to apparently non-periodic pulsations, perhaps in strange modes.
We present preliminary results of a photometric multisite campaign on the $\delta$ Scuti-type Pre–Main-Sequence star IP Per. Nine telescopes have been involved in the observations, with a total of about 173 hour of observations over around 40 nights. Our current data permitted us to confirm the multiperiodic nature of this star and to determine at least 9 pulsational frequencies. A preliminary nonradial theoretical analysis seems to show that the star pulsates in a mixture of $l=0, 1, 2$ modes.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female participants only (men, n=13 031; women, n=22924, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined.
The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher in southern compared with northern centres, while soft drinks consumption was higher in the north. Italian centres had high pasta and rice consumption, but breakfast cereal, potato, and sweet buns, cakes and pies were higher in northern centres. In Sweden, lower bread consumption was balanced with a higher consumption of crispbread, and with sweet buns, cakes and pies. Overall, men consumed higher amounts of vegetables and legumes, bread, soft drinks, potatoes, pasta and rice, breakfast cereal and sugar and jam than women, but fruit consumption appeared more frequent in women.
The study supports the established idea that carbohydrate-rich foods chosen in northern Europe are different from those in the Mediterranean region. When comparing and interpreting diet–disease relationships across populations, researchers need to consider all types of foods.
The aim of this study was to describe the variation of soy product intake in 10 European countries by using a standardised reference dietary method. A subsidiary aim was to characterise the pattern of soy consumption among a sub-group of participants with a habitual health-conscious lifestyle (HHL), i.e. non-meat eaters who are fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans.
A 24-hour dietary recall interview (24-HDR) was conducted among a sample (5–12%) of all cohorts (n = 36 900) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Study participants totalled 35 955 after exclusion of subjects younger than 35 or older than 74 years of age. Soy products were subdivided into seven sub-groups by similarity. Distribution of consumption and crude and adjusted means of intake were computed per soy product group across countries. Intake of soy products was also investigated among participants with an HHL.
In total, 195 men and 486 women reported consuming soy products in the 24-HDR interview. Although soy product intake was generally low across all countries, the highest intake level was observed in the UK, due to over-sampling of a large number of participants with an HHL. The most frequently consumed soy foods were dairy substitutes in the UK and France and beans and sprouts among mid-European countries. For both genders, the sub-group of soy dairy substitutes was consumed in the highest quantities (1.2 g day−1 for men; 1.9 g day−1 for women). Participants with an HHL differed substantially from others with regard to demographic, anthropometric and nutritional factors. They consumed higher quantities of almost all soy product groups.
Consumption of soy products is low in centres in Western Europe. Soy dairy substitutes are most frequently consumed. Participants with an HHL form a distinct sub-group with higher consumptions of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals and soy products compared with the other participants.
While robotics has benefited from inspiration gained from biology, the opposite is not the case: there are few if any cases in which robotic models have lead to genuine insight into biology. We analyze the reasons why biorobotics has been essentially a one-way street. We argue that the development of better tools is essential for progress in this field.
We report the discovery of the first low–mass pre–main sequence eclipsing binary among a sample of double-lined spectroscopic binaries in the Orion star forming region found in a previous high-resolution spectroscopic investigation on ROSAT–discovered weak-T Tauri stars. Here we present the preliminary results from the combined analysis of the spectroscopic orbit and B and V light–curves, using data available till spring 2000. We then compare the fundamental stellar parameters derived from the orbital solution with those inferred from some widely used theoretical evolutionary models.
Systematic photometric monitoring of active RS CVn binaries carried out at Catania with the automatic telescope APT-80, is being complemented with Hα low- and high-resolution spectroscopy. The relationship between photospheric and chromospheric activity is investigated in order to shed light into the complex three-dimensional structure of surface activity. Preliminary results on the photometric and Hα monitoring of the active binaries, UX Ari, RS CVn, BM CVn, HK Lac, IM Peg, V 711 Tau, and EI Eri, are here reported.
The Hα line of hydrogen is a very powerful tool for the study of the solar chromosphere (plages, flares, prominences). Although it is difficult to derive in a simple way quantitative information, like chromospheric temperature and electron density, because of the very extensive depth of its formation and the very complex mechanism of excitation, Hα has been successfully used to study the chromospheres of active stars (Herbig, 1985). Moreover this diagnostic has proved to be very useful for the study of surface inhomogeneities and transient phenomena like flares in systems of the RS CVn type and other active stars (Bopp, 1981; Bopp et al., 1988; Fraquelli, 1982).
With the aim of investigating the behaviour of chromospheric activity, we have undertaken an extensive monitoring of Hα emission in a selected group of RS CVn binaries (Strassmeier et al., 1988). We report here preliminary results of the observations obtained in 1988–1989.