To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To develop a definition of “capacity building” relevant to Health Technology Assessment international (HTAi).
A review of capacity building activities undertaken by HTAi members, members of the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA), and regional HTA networks was compared against general literature on capacity building definitions and frameworks. The findings were reviewed by the HTAi Scientific Development and Capacity Building Committee. Furthermore, the Executive Committee and Interest Groups of HTAi provided input on the draft final paper.
The literature demonstrated the need for a definition of capacity building specific to HTA. In the context of HTAi, it was necessary for the definition to cover (i) the broadest range of HTA-related activities, (ii) multiple stakeholders involved in the HTA process, and (iii) the spectrum of activities that compose capacity building. We propose the following definition of HTA capacity building: The process by which individuals and organizations develop or strengthen abilities related to understanding, providing input to, conducting, or utilizing HTA for health policy and decision making, as well as, developing awareness and support in the environment within which HTA is being used.
A definition of HTA-related capacity building that was intended to provide clarity about what this term means to HTAi was developed. As HTA is context-dependent, a need for further work to develop an operationalization “menu” relevant to the specific needs in which HTA is being used was identified.
Psychiatric and neurodegenerative illnesses are characterized by cognitive impairments, in particular deficits in working memory, decision-making, and executive functions including cognitive flexibility. However, the neuropharmacology of these cognitive functions is poorly understood. The serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor might be a promising candidate for the modulation of cognitive processes. However, pharmacological studies investigating the role of this receptor system in humans are rare. Recent evidence demonstrates that the effects of Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) are mediated via agonistic action at the 5-HT2A receptor. Yet, the effects of LSD on specific cognitive domains using standardized neuropsychological test have not been studied.
We examined the acute effects of LSD (100 µg) alone and in combination with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (40 mg) on cognition, employing a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject design in 25 healthy participants. Executive functions, cognitive flexibility, spatial working memory, and risk-based decision-making were examined by the Intra/Extra-Dimensional shift task (IED), Spatial Working Memory task (SWM), and Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery.
Compared to placebo, LSD significantly impaired executive functions, cognitive flexibility, and working memory on the IED and SWM, but did not influence the quality of decision-making and risk taking on the CGT. Pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin normalized all LSD-induced cognitive deficits.
The present findings highlight the role of the 5-HT2A receptor system in executive functions and working memory and suggest that specific 5-HT2A antagonists may be relevant for improving cognitive dysfunctions in psychiatric disorders.
A method for rapid quantitative imaging of dopant distribution using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is described. The method is based on SIMS imaging of the cross-section of a reference sample with a known concentration profile. It is demonstrated for the case of boron quantification in silicon in a SIMS imaging mode. A nonlinear relationship between the secondary ion intensity and the concentration is observed. A detection limit of 3 (±2) × 1017 at./cm3 (~6 ppm) is determined with 39 nm pixel-size for the used experimental conditions. As an application example, a boron concentration profile in a passivating contact deposited on a textured Si surface is analyzed.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Nutrition plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology and management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and periodontal disease (PD). As PD can have profound effects on an individual’s functional ability to eat and can affect nutrient intake, we aimed to evaluate the role of PD severity on dietary intake (DI) and quality in PAD patients and compare it with current dietary recommendations for CVD. PD stages of 421 consecutive PAD patients were determined according to a standardised basic periodontal examination (Periodontal Screening and Recording Index) (‘healthy’, ‘gingivitis’, ‘moderate periodontitis’ and ‘severe periodontitis’). Dietary intake (24-h recall), dietary quality (food frequency index (FFI)) and anthropometrical data were assessed. Nutritional intake was stratified according to the severity of PD. No significant differences in DI of macronutrients, nutrients relevant for CVD and FFI were seen between the PD stages. Only median alcohol intake was significantly different between gingivitis and severe periodontitis (P = 0·001), and positively correlated with PD severity (P = 0·001; r 0·159). PD severity and the patient’s number of teeth showed no correlation with investigated nutritional parameters and FFI. Few subjects met the recommended daily intakes for fibre (5 %), SFA (10 %), Na (40 %) and sugar (26 %). Macronutrient intake differed from reference values. In our sample of patients with PAD and concomitant PD, we found no differences in DI of macronutrients, nutrients relevant for CVD and diet quality depending on PD severity. The patients’ nutrition was, however, poor, deviating seriously from dietary guidelines and recommendations.
Internalizing and externalizing psychopathology factors explain much of the covariance among psychiatric conditions, especially at the level of genetic risk. However, few studies have examined internalizing and externalizing factors in middle-aged samples, especially their ability to predict later symptoms across midlife. The goals of the current study were (i) to quantify the genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in individuals in their early 40s, and (ii) examine the extent to which these genetic and environmental influences predict self-reported measures of internalizing and externalizing symptoms 15–20 years later.
1484 male twins completed diagnostic interviews of psychopathology at mean age 41 and self-reported measures of anxiety, depression, substance use, and related variables at up to two time-points in late middle age (mean ages 56 and 62).
Structural equation modeling of the diagnostic interviews confirmed that internalizing and externalizing factors accounted for most of the genetic variance in individual disorders, with substantial genetic (ra = 0.70) and environmental (re = 0.77) correlations between the factors. Internalizing psychopathology at age 41 was correlated with latent factors capturing anxiety, depression, and/or post-traumatic stress symptoms at ages 56 (r = 0.51) and 62 (r = 0.43). Externalizing psychopathology at age 41 was correlated r = 0.67 with a latent factor capturing aggression, tobacco use, and alcohol use at age 56. Stability of both factors was driven by genetic influences.
These findings demonstrate the considerable stability of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology symptoms across middle age, especially their genetic influences. Diagnostic interviews effectively predict self-reported symptoms and behaviors 15–20 years later.
Lightweight Design as an engineering domain is becoming more and more important in terms of sustainable mobility. Therefore, a large number of researchers is developing methods for utilisation of modern, but as well more complex materials with high lightweight potential. One subgroup of these materials are fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP). A lot of work is done supporting the design engineer in exploiting the structural and mechanical behaviour as good as possible. Whereas variations of laminate parameters, resulting from production, are poorly studied. Their impact especially on defined measures under load is of high importance, e.g. having a look on clearances in automotive industry. Because of the high complexity of FRP-parts, resulting from many laminate parameters, tolerancing is not an intuitive process. This is reflected in the fact that there is no defined procedure for tolerancing of FRP- parts. To support the design engineer the authors perform sensitivity analysis for simple loadcases to identify layers with a high importance on a defined measure. The results then are generalised to provide general guidelines to the design engineer.
To assess the effect of topical betahistine on Eustachian tube function in subjectively abnormal subjects in a hyperbaric chamber.
Active and passive Eustachian tube function was examined using tympanometry in a pressure chamber.
Active Eustachian tube function was tested against the negative middle ear pressure induced by increasing the chamber pressure to +3 kPa. One voluntary swallow decreased middle-ear pressure by a mean of 1.36 kPa. Passive Eustachian tube function was tested by measuring spontaneous Eustachian tube openings as the chamber pressure dropped from +10 kPa to ambient. Four distinct patterns of Eustachian tube behaviour were seen, three of which indicated Eustachian tube dysfunction. Betahistine had no positive effect on Eustachian tube opening, although previous animal studies had suggested a beneficial effect.
Topical betahistine had no effect on Eustachian tube function. Combining a hyperbaric chamber with tympanometry proved ideal for evaluating Eustachian tube function.
While civil society groups have been urging the World Bank to integrate human rights concepts into its policies, borrower countries have increasingly made the case for flexibility and deference to domestic standards in the implementation of bank-funded projects. This article analyses how the World Bank has navigated these conflicting legitimacy demands in the context of its 2016 Environmental and Social Framework (ESF). Drawing on insights from organizational sociology, we focus on practices of decoupling, which allow organizations to correspond to legitimacy demands by different audiences while not having to substantially adjust their core activities. The labour and indigenous peoples’ safeguards serve as cases in point. Specifically, the article argues that the Bank has decoupled its discourse concerning the ESF from the framework’s actual content by making statements about the ESF’s coherence with key human rights concepts which, upon closer scrutiny, do not fully correspond to its actual requirements. The article also shows how the design of the ESF furthers a decoupling of relevant requirements from its actual implementation. In particular, the confined scope ratione personae of the relevant safeguards and the discretion granted to the Bank’s staff and the borrower to add meaning to undefined key concepts may render their human rights-related requirements in a number of cases inconsequential. By and large, the decoupling practices identified regarding the Bank’s ESF entail problematic effects for the normativity of relevant human rights concepts and may, in the long run, undermine the Bank’s legitimacy as a whole.
Modern free-electron lasers (FEL) operating in XUV (extreme ultraviolet) or X-ray range allow an access to novel research areas. An example is the ultrafast ionization of a solid by an intense femtosecond FEL pulse in XUV which consequently leads to a change of the complex index of refraction on an ultrashort timescale. The photoionization and subsequent impact ionization resulting in electronic and atomic dynamics are modeled with our hybrid code XTANT(X-ray thermal and non-thermal transitions) and a Monte Carlo code XCASCADE(X-ray-induced electron cascades). The simulations predict the temporal kinetics of FEL-induced electron cascades and thus yield temporally and spatially resolved information on the induced changes of the optical properties. In a series of experiments at FERMI and LCLS, single shot measurements with spatio-temporal encoding of the ionization process have been performed by a correlation of the FEL pump pulse with an optical femtosecond probe pulse. An excellent agreement between the experiment and the simulation has been found. We also show that such kind of experiments forms the basis for pulse duration and arrival time jitter monitoring as currently under development for XUV-FELs.
Investigations into the existence of life in other parts of the cosmos find strong parallels with studies of the origin and evolution of life on our own planet. In this way, astrobiology and paleobiology are married by their common interest in disentangling the interconnections between life and the surrounding environment. In this way, a cross-point of both sciences is paleometry, which involves a myriad of imaging and geochemical techniques, usually non-destructive, applied to the investigation of the fossil record. In the last decades, paleometry has benefited from an unprecedented technological improvement, thus solving old questions and raising new ones. This advance has been paralleled by conceptual approaches and discoveries fuelled by technological evolution in astrobiological research. In this context, we present some new data and review recent advances on the employment of paleometry to investigations on paleobiology and astrobiology in Brazil in areas such biosignatures in Ediacaran microbial mats, biogenicity tests on enigmatic Ediacaran structures, research on Ediacaran metazoan biomineralization, fossil preservation in Cretaceous insects and fish, and finally the experimental study on the decay of fish to test the effect of distinct types of sediment on soft-tissue preservation, as well as the effects of early diagenesis on fish bone preservation.
The use of coal, as either a primary energy source or as a source of feedstock chemicals, has been complicated by the noxious and toxic chemical species formed in its gaseous effluents and also by the huge quantities of ash vhich result from its processing. Both the noxious gases and the ash have been the subjects of Federal legislations.
X-ray powder patterns (XRPP), composed of atom-pair and self x~ray scattering and the diffraction produced by crystalline phases, have long been used to investigate coals and particularly their combustion ashes (1-3). Over twenty different crystalline phases have recently been reported to exist in certain lignite fly ash (3). Analysis of the crystalline phases has typically been emphasized in previous papers involving coals and ashes, but the amorphous scattering has been given little treatment.
We report on results obtained from experiments using specially prepared carbon substrates and treatment of the data by means of recently introduced theory. Medium Z grids with known parameters have been coated on top of pyrolytic carbon substrates to achieve well defined absorption geometries. The various copper grids exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of mechanical stability, homogeneity and uniformity of the coating. A detailed study of the measurement results shows that there is a more rapid increase of the associated C-Kα countrate from the coated samples compared to the pure elements and is attributed to the contribution of secondary enhancement effects, including those resulting from photoelectrons generated after the primary ionization.
Objects of art and archaeology are relicts of the past, and art historians, archaeologists and conservators are constantly concerned with the questions of where, when or by whom such artifacts were made. Usually stylistic considerations can provide answers to these questions, but as styles were sometimes copied at locations and times quite different from those for which they were most characteristic, material analysis is often essential when one is attempting to infer how and of what materials an object was made. The use of several compounds e.g. as pigments in paintings, or the deliberate alloying of Cu with Sn, As, Sb and Pb, has varied greatly from region to region and from time to time and can be used to infer the geographic origin of an object or at least the origin of the materials, out of which it was made.
In the current work an attempt was made to apply the fundamental parameter method to the analysis of boron, oxygen, fluorine and heavier components of silica glasses. Experimental results are presented and compared with calculations based on theoretical work. The specimens consist of sets of certified standards which were obtained from Breitlahder company, Germany.
Furthermore, it is shown that the match between the certified compositions and fundamental parameter computations is affected by the quality of available fundamental parameters for the ultralight elements as well as by the underlying mathematical models. Especially in quantitative analysis of these elements, a large variety of secondary enhancement effects must be taken into account. Two major mechanisms have been considered in the presented computations: excitation by fluorescence photons emitted from aiJ available excited atoms, and excitation by photoelectrons ejected after the primary ionization event. Their magnitude exceeds that of the conventional energy region by far and thus uncertainities in the corrective algorithms have a large effect,
This paper presents a comparison of chip connections using aerosol jet (AJ) and bond technology on low-cost printed circuit board (PCB) substrates. First, the behavior of the used gap filler material and the used silver ink for AJ technology on PCBs are characterized. In addition to comparing the radio frequency (RF) performance (DC to 67 GHz) of the two technologies, the mechanical stability is also compared. While the AJ technology transitions score above all for their RF performance and the lower requirements (surface finish, pad size, and adhesion) on the PCB, the bonding technology has clear advantages, especially with a different coefficient of thermal expansion values of the substrates to be connected. Finally, the measurement results of a complete package are shown, whereby the chip connection is realized once by means of AJ and once by bonding wires.