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Herbert Klein and Francisco Luna present a sweeping narrative of social change in Brazil that documents its transition from a predominantly rural and illiterate society in 1950, to an overwhelmingly urban, modern, and literate society in the twenty-first century. Tracing this radical evolution reveals how industrialization created a new labor force, how demographic shifts reorganized the family and social attitudes, and how urban life emerged in what is now one of the most important industrial economies in the world. A paradigm for modern social histories, the book also examines changes in social stratification and mobility, the decline of regional disparities, education, social welfare, race, and gender. By analyzing Brazil's unprecedented Brazilian political, economic, and social changes in the late twentieth and twenty-first century, the authors address an under-explored area in current scholarship and offer an invaluable resource for scholars of Latin American and Brazil.
The main goal of the current study is to analyze the relationship between leaders' empowerment, radical innovation and organizational performance. A total of 300 Spanish companies participated in the study. In total, 600 valid questionnaires were obtained. Structural equations were used to validate the proposed hypotheses. Two different respondents in each company were selected to provide information. All the hypotheses proposed in the theoretical model were confirmed. This research provides empirical evidence of the relationship between leaders' empowerment and organizational performance, highlighting the mediation role played by radical innovation. Leaders who empower, promote radical innovation and, in turn, performance. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study that analyzes the effect of leader's empowerment on radical innovation. Although in the former literature there are evidences of a positive relationship between empowerment and innovation, there are no studies that differentiate between innovation typologies.
Describe and validate the CHROME (CHemical Restraints avOidance MEthodology) criteria.
Observational prospective longitudinal study.
Single nursing home in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
288 residents; mean age: 81.6 (SD 10.6). 77.4% had dementia.
Multicomponent training and consultancy program to eliminate physical and chemical restraints and promote overall quality care. Clinicians were trained in stringent diagnostic criteria of neuropsychiatric syndromes and adequate psychotropic prescription.
Psychotropic prescription (primary study target), neuropsychiatric syndromes, physical restraints, falls, and emergency room visits were semi-annually collected from December 2015 to December 2017. Results are presented for all residents and for those who had dementia and participated in the five study waves (completer analysis, n=107).
For the study completers, atypical neuroleptic prescription dropped from 42.7% to 18.7%, long half-life benzodiazepines dropped from 25.2% to 6.5%, and hypnotic medications from 47.7% to 12.1% (p<0.0005). Any kind of fall evolved from 67.3 to 32.7 (number of falls by 100 residents per year). Physicians’ diagnostic confidence increased, while the frequency of diagnoses of neuropsychiatric syndromes decreased (p<0.0005).
Implementing the CHROME criteria reduced the prescription of the most dangerous medications in institutionalized people with dementia. Two independent audits found no physical or chemical restraint and confirmed prescription quality of psychotropic drugs. Adequate diagnosis and independent audits appear to be the keys to help and motivate professionals to optimize and reduce the use of psychotropic medication. The CHROME criteria unify, in a single compendium, neuropsychiatric diagnostic criteria, prescription guidelines, independent audit methodology, and minimum legal standards. These criteria can be easily adapted to other countries.
Pseudo-α or near-α titanium alloys are being widely used in the power generation industry due to their stability at high temperature service, good mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance. Particularly Ti-6% Al-1.5% V-1.0Mo-0.5% Zr-0.1% C alloy is mainly used in turbines components, heat exchangers and pipes for steam conduction, among others; these are subjected to critical conditions of temperature, abrasion and corrosive environments. A good performance of such devices depends on the chemistry and of the material processing story.
Effects on microstructure and wear resistance with the addition of Ru and small variation of V and Mo amounts in the Ti-6% Al-1.5% V-1.0Mo-0.5% Zr-0.1% C alloy were analyzed. Three different alloys were melted in a vacuum induction furnace with a cooled copper skull under an argon protective atmosphere for this study
Four alloys were melted “Alloy 1” Ti-6% Al-1.5% V-1.0Mo-0.5% Zr-0.1% C-0.3% Ru, “Alloy 2” Ti-6%Al-0.5%V-1.6%Mo-0.5%Zr-0.1% C-0.3% Ru, “Alloy 3” Ti-6%Al-2.2%V-0.5%Mo-0.5%Zr-0.1%C-0.3%Ru. After melting, all alloys were homogenized at 1200°C for two hours, followed by hot rolling above β transition temperature with a reduction of 50% in thickness.
All alloys were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Vickers Micro hardness (HV). Results shown that Mo and V variations modified the micro hardness by microstructure refinement. In contrast, the addition of Ru showed no microstructure modification.
Over the centuries, Spanish historiography has attached great importance to the wars that Octavian launched at the start of the last third of the 1st c. B.C. against the population in the north of the Iberian peninsula. In this way he intended to bring an end to the long conquest of Iberia that had begun two centuries earlier in the hegemonic struggle with Carthage. Although the wars previously attracted the attention of European scholars, today they play little part in the historiography of the Early Roman Empire and even less in the biographies of Augustus, who suffered some of his worst military fortunes in this war, putting his very life in danger (Suet., Aug. 29.3 and 81.1; Hor., Carm. 3.14; Dio 53.25.5-7; Oros. 6.21.4). Even Departments of Ancient History in Spanish universities have failed to progress beyond well-worn exegesis of the written sources. This is because until just two decades ago all the information came from two historical sources: Florus and Orosius, on the one hand, and Dio Cassius, on the other (the relevant books of Livy being lost). Although they stress the importance of the conflict, these sources are excessively laconic; they have also been subjected to erudite speculations about place-names that have turned the military campaigns into a series of historiographic fictions.1
Litter breakdown is an important ecological process at the bottom of food webs in streams. Previous studies have been based only on a temporal interval of a single season, thus ignoring seasonal variation in litter input and community structure. We investigated organic matter input in a Brazilian savanna stream and the influence of its associated hyphomycetes on the invertebrate community. Organic matter input was sampled monthly and the leaves submitted to decomposition experiments. There were lower breakdown rates and higher invertebrate species richness and abundance during the dry season, which reached their maximum in July due to low stream discharge. Invertebrate composition was best explained by hyphomycetes (mainly by Flagellospora curvula and Anguillospora filiformis). Hyphomycetes have the capacity to degrade complex compounds of litter and to rapidly absorb nutrients by growing branched filaments, thus making the leaves more favourable for consumption by invertebrates. Shredder abundance was negatively related to litter richness, indicating possible species-specific relationships. We observed a sequential process with increased leaf litter input promoting an increase in hyphomycetes biomass, which in turn favoured invertebrate density.
Even though AA 7075 is an aluminum alloy with high mechanical properties, it is not often applied in manufacturing. This is so, because it is considered as very difficult to produce defect free welded joints. This is so, because this alloy has a tendency to hot cracking. The metallurgical problems that appear during welding of AA 7075 have not been fully solved but they have been reduced by applying alloys such as: 4043 and 5356 as filler metals. However, in literature there is little information about the metallurgical effects of these types of filler metals applied in arc welded joints of AA7075. This is especially true for Tungsten Inert gas welding. Therefore, this work is focused in comparing the microstructure and Vickers microhardness in weldments of AA 7075 with ER4043, ER5356 and AA7075 as filler metals. Besides, a set of welded joints with the three different filler metals were quenched after welding in order to modify the final microstructure. The results were evaluated by microstructural analysis focused on the Heat Affected Zone and Vickers microhardness and they were compared among them.
The initial steps of the thermal chemistry of Cu(I)-2-(tert-butylimino)-5,5-dimethyl-pyrrolidinate on metal surfaces were characterized using temperature-programmed desorption experiments and density functional theory (DFT). The relative stability of the initial dimer relative to its dissociation on metal surfaces was evaluated. Several molecular desorption temperatures were identified on Ni(110), but all correspond to dimers, either containing the initial Cu ions or after their removal; no monomer was ever detected. DFT calculations also indicated preferential bonding on Cu(110) as a dimer, albeit with a distorted configuration, via the Cu atoms and in registry with the lattice of the substrate. A potential dissociation pathway of the adsorbed dimer was identified involving the partial detachment of the ligands via the scission of one Cu–N bond at the time and migration to adjacent surface sites. This process is accompanied by the reduction of the Cu centers of the metal–organic complex, indicating that it may be the rate-limiting reaction that leads to further fragmentation of the ligands.
The dehesa agroforestry system is classified as one of the most singular ecosystems in the European Union. In the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, it spreads over an area of approximately 6.7 million hectares, contributing major environmental, cultural, aesthetic and economic value to the region. The main agricultural activity that is developed in this ecosystem is the extensive farming of cattle, sheep and Iberian pigs with low stocking density and few inputs. Sustainable management of these ecosystems' existing production farms is essential in order to secure their continuity, as they face a difficult situation on account of their low profitability. One of the strategies that could be employed to attain a sustainable situation is the proposition of an organic production model. In order to explore this option, a participatory research process has been proposed and developed in the Spanish region called Extremadura (Spain). The aim of this process is to investigate the potential of extensive farming systems in moving toward a sustainable organic production model, identifying the main barriers preventing livestock farmers from converting to the organic model and seeking specific improvement measures that would reduce such barriers. For that purpose, four focus group sessions were run with a total of 33 participating stakeholders. For the analysis of these focus groups, Atlas.ti qualitative software was used to categorize and quantify the main ideas proposed during the sessions. The findings revealed that the main barriers can be classified into three groups: barriers that are inherent to the production processes and the structure of the specific sector, barriers associated with administration and management issues and lastly, barriers relating to education and training of the various actors involved. We consider this paper may contribute to policy makers' decisions to focus on specific actions for improvement that are customized for the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the region.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the reliability and validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ to assess food group consumption in South American children and adolescents.
The SAYCARE (South American Youth/Child cARdiovascular and Environmental) study is an observational, multicentre, feasibility study performed in a sample of 3- to 18-year-old children and adolescents attending private and public schools from six South American countries. Participants answered the FFQ twice with a two-week interval and three 24-h dietary recalls. Intraclass and Spearman’s correlations, weighted Cohen’s kappa (κw), percentage of agreement and energy-adjusted Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated.
Seven cities in South America (Buenos Aires, Lima, Medelin, Montevideo, Santiago, Sao Paulo and Teresina).
A sample of 200 children and 244 adolescents for reliability analyses and 252 children and 244 adolescents for validity analyses were included.
Depending on the food group, for children and adolescents, reliability analyses resulted in Spearman’s coefficients from 0·47 to 0·73, intraclass correlation coefficients from 0·66 to 0·99, κw coefficients from 0·35 to 0·63, and percentage of agreement between 72·75 and 83·52 %. In the same way, validity analyses resulted in Spearman’s coefficients from 0·17 to 0·37, energy-adjusted Pearson’s coefficients from 0·17 to 0·61, κw coefficients from 0·09 to 0·24, and percentages of agreement between 45·79 and 67·06 %.
The SAYCARE FFQ achieved reasonable reliability and slight-moderate validity for almost all food groups intakes. Accordingly, it can be used for the purpose of ranking the intake of individuals within a population.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
The linear instability of a vortex ring with swirl with Gaussian distributions of azimuthal vorticity and velocity in its core is studied by direct numerical simulation. The numerical study is carried out in two steps: first, an axisymmetric simulation of the Navier–Stokes equations is performed to obtain the quasi-steady state that forms a base flow; then, the equations are linearized around this base flow and integrated for a sufficiently long time to obtain the characteristics of the most unstable mode. It is shown that the vortex rings are subjected to curvature instability as predicted analytically by Blanco-Rodríguez & Le Dizès (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 814, 2017, pp. 397–415). Both the structure and the growth rate of the unstable modes obtained numerically are in good agreement with the analytical results. However, a small overestimation (e.g. 22 % for a curvature instability mode) by the theory of the numerical growth rate is found for some instability modes. This is most likely due to evaluation of the critical layer damping which is performed for the waves on axisymmetric line vortices in the analysis. The actual position of the critical layer is affected by deformation of the core due to the curvature effect; as a result, the damping rate changes since it is sensitive to the position of the critical layer. Competition between the curvature and elliptic instabilities is also investigated. Without swirl, only the elliptic instability is observed in agreement with previous numerical and experimental results. In the presence of swirl, sharp bands of both curvature and elliptic instabilities are obtained for
is the vortex core radius and
the ring radius, while the elliptic instability dominates for
. New types of instability mode are also obtained: a special curvature mode composed of three waves is observed and spiral modes that do not seem to be related to any wave resonance. The curvature instability is also confirmed by direct numerical simulation of the full Navier–Stokes equations. Weakly nonlinear saturation and subsequent decay of the curvature instability are also observed.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
In the present study, TiO2NT coatings grown on simulated body fluid-based electrolyte were investigated as drug delivery devices. Nanotubes (NTs) were grown over commercially pure Ti and Ti6Al4V alloy. Morphology analysis showed that NTs in alloy samples present an inner diameter of 10 nm smaller in average than NTs grown over pure Ti. The surface wettability in water decreased with the anodizing time for both substrates. The application of coatings as drug delivery devices has been studied through the incorporation of ciprofloxacin. To control the drug release, collagen was used as the diffusional barrier. It was observed the drug release follows a Fick’s kinetics. Bioactivity assays showed the absence of hemolytic activity. The concentration of the drug during the release interval remained below the toxic concentration limit, presenting a bacteriostatic activity. All coatings prepared presented a high antibacterial activity, being the area of inhibition of bacterial growth above 13 times the area of the implant.
We determined ice velocities for the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap, Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic, during November 2016–November 2017, by feature-tracking 54 pairs of Sentinel-1 synthetic-aperture radar images. Seasonal velocity variations with amplitudes up to 10% of the yearly-averaged velocity were observed. Shorter-term (<15 d) intra-annual velocity variations had average and maximum deviations from the annual mean of up to 16 and 32%, respectively. This indicates the errors that could be incurred if ice discharge values determined from a single pair of images were extrapolated to the whole year. Average ice discharge for 2016–2017 was 1.93 ± 0.12 Gt a−1. The difference from an estimate of ~ 1.4 Gt a−1 for 2003–2009 was attributed to the initiation of ice stream flow in Basin BC. The total geodetic mass balance over 2012–2016 was − 1.72 ± 0.67 Gt a−1 (− 0.31 ± 0.12 m w.e. a−1). The climatic mass balance was not significantly different from zero, at 0.21 ± 0.68 Gt a−1 (0.04 ± 0.12 m w.e. a−1), and has remained near zero at decadal-scale for the last four decades. Therefore, the total mass balance has been controlled largely by variations in ice discharge, whose long-term changes do not appear to have responded to environmental changes but to the intrinsic characteristics of the ice cap governing tidewater glacier dynamics.
The aim of the study is to determine the differences in dietary parameters (energy and nutrient intake, adherence to the Mediterranean diet and consumption of food groups) in metabolically healthy overweight-obese (MHOO) v. metabolically unhealthy overweight-obese (MUOO) middle-aged adults. A total of fifty-one middle-aged adults were classified as MHOO or MUOO. BMI and blood pressure were evaluated following the recommendations. HDL, TAG and blood glycaemia were measured in blood samples. Blood pressure was also assessed. Dietary factors were assessed through three 24-h recalls, a validated FFQ and the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) questionnaire. All variables were evaluated between September and October 2016 and 2017. Our results showed that MHOO individuals registered a higher fish consumption (P = 0·035) and higher compliance (lower consumption) in the commercial sweets and confectionery item of the PREDIMED questionnaire (P = 0·036). No differences were noted in other dietary factors including energy and nutrient intake, consumption of other food groups and in the PREDIMED total score. A near-significant trend toward significance was observed in nuts consumption, wine and fish items of the PREDIMED questionnaire. In conclusion, higher fish consumption and a higher compliance in the commercial sweets and confectionery item of the PREDIMED questionnaire were observed in MHOO middle-aged adults.