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The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate the dependency between BMI and waist:height ratio (WHtR) as measures of general and abdominal adiposity, and (ii) to evaluate the influence of socio-demographic factors on both measures and on their dependency in risk classification. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 among a representative sample of 3529 Portuguese adults were used. Height, weight and waist were measured and socio-demographic data (sex, age, education level, occupational status, marital status, region of residence) were obtained. Using logistic regression, crude and adjusted OR for high general (BMI≥25·0 kg/m2) and abdominal (WHtR≥0·5) adiposity, and for incompatible classification between them, were calculated. Above half (50·8 %) of the respondents had high BMI and 42·1 % had high WHtR, and the rates were higher in men than in women. There was an inverse association between education level and both adiposity measures. The lowest prevalence of high general and abdominal adiposity was observed in students and singles, whereas the highest was found in retired, widowed and respondents from Azores, Madeira and Alentejo. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24·0 %) were incompatibly classified by BMI and WHtR, with higher prevalence in men than in women and in low- than in high-educated people. Future surveys should focus on developing at least sex-specific cut-offs for both measures. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing and reducing high adiposity levels in Portugal should be directed primarily to men, older, low-educated individuals, as well as those living in the islands and poor regions of the country.
Family meals have been negatively associated with overweight in children, while television (TV) viewing during meals has been associated with a poorer diet. The aim of the present study was to assess the association of eating family breakfast and dinner, and having a TV on during dinner, with overweight in nine European countries and whether these associations differed between Northern and Southern & Eastern Europe.
Cross-sectional data. Schoolchildren reported family meals and TV viewing. BMI was based on parental reports on height and weight of their children. Cut-off points for overweight by the International Obesity Task Force were used. Logistic regressions were performed adjusted by age, gender and parental education.
Schools in Northern European (Sweden, the Netherlands, Iceland, Germany and Finland) and Southern & Eastern European (Portugal, Greece, Bulgaria and Slovenia) countries, participating in the PRO GREENS project.
Children aged 10–12 years in (n 6316).
In the sample, 21 % of the children were overweight, from 35 % in Greece to 10 % in the Netherlands. Only a few associations were found between family meals and TV viewing during dinner with overweight in the nine countries. Northern European children, compared with other regions, were significantly more likely to be overweight if they had fewer family breakfasts and more often viewed TV during dinner.
The associations between family meals and TV viewing during dinner with overweight were few and showed significance only in Northern Europe. Differences in foods consumed during family meals and in health-related lifestyles between Northern and Southern & Eastern Europe may explain these discrepancies.
To develop a software to plan and evaluate school meals according to the main national and international standards for foods and nutrition.
Development of software.
Public schools, Portugal.
School meals for students.
The System of Planning and Evaluation of School Meals (SPARE) is a software that allows the planning of school meals in an effective and organized way, according to the main national and international standards for food and nutrition. The regular use of this tool enables the evaluation, monitoring and verification towards continuous improvement of the quality of school meals.
The SPARE software aims to promote healthy eating by focusing on the planning and production of safe and adequate meals in the school environment. This software can be adapted to different age groups and to different contexts, attending to specific nutritional and food standards.
This paper presents a new application of logic programming to a real-life problem in hydraulic engineering. The work is developed as a collaboration of computer scientists and hydraulic engineers, and applies Constraint Logic Programming to solve a hard combinatorial problem. This application deals with one aspect of the design of a water distribution network, i.e., the valve isolation system design. We take the formulation of the problem by Giustolisi and Savić (2008 Optimal design of isolation valve system for water distribution networks. In Proceedings of the 10th Annual Water Distribution Systems Analysis Conference WDSA2008, J. Van Zyl, A. Ilemobade, and H. Jacobs, Eds.) and show how, thanks to constraint propagation, we can get better solutions than the best solution known in the literature for the Apulian distribution network. We believe that the area of the so-called hydroinformatics can benefit from the techniques developed in Constraint Logic Programming and possibly from other areas of logic programming, such as Answer Set Programming.
The idea of flame retardant materials dates back to about 450 BC, when the Egyptians used alum to reduce the flammability of wood. The Romans (in about 200 BC) used a mixture of alum and vinegar to reduce the combustibility of wood. Today, there are more than 175 chemicals classified as flame retardants. The major groups are inorganic, halogenated, organic, organophosphorus, and nitrogen-based flame retardants, which account for 50%, 25%, 20%, and >5% of the annual production, respectively.
In many cases, existing flame retardant systems show considerable disadvantages. The application of aluminum trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide requires a very high portion of the filler to be deployed within the polymer matrix; filling levels of more than 60 wt% are necessary to achieve suitable flame retardancy, for example, in cables and wires. Clear disadvantages of these filling levels are the high density and the lack of flexibility of end products, the poor mechanical properties, and the problematic compounding and extrusion steps.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children. A cross-sectional study was performed in Portugal as part of the Pro Children cross-sectional European survey. Portuguese mothers (n 1601) of 11–13-year-old school children were included in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the parenting styles. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by a validated FFQ. Parenting styles based on two dimensions – strictness and involvement – were classified into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. The higher mean intakes of fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables were observed for mothers classified as indulgent, whereas the lower mean intakes were observed for mothers classified as neglectful. Differences in intake among parenting styles were significant for fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables. When partial correlations were calculated between the two dimensions, strictness and involvement (controlled one for the other), and intakes, only involvement was positively associated with fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetable intake. Findings from the present study show that fruit and vegetable consumption of Portuguese mothers of school children seems to be related to their own parenting styles, especially with the dimension involvement. Future interventions to promote fruit and vegetable intake should take into account these variables.
In 2008 as in previous four years, campylobacteriosis was the most frequently reported zoonotic disease in humans in the European Union (EU) with fresh poultry meat as one of the most important reservoir of human infection (EFSA, 2010a). The reduction of campylobacter prevalence and load in live poultry is believed to be one of the most effective ways of reducing the contamination of foodstuffs and the number of human campylobacter cases. On this purpose some European Member States adopted national campylobacter control or monitoring programs but a European strategy to reduce campylobacter is still missing. The first step in this direction has been a European Union-wide baseline survey carried out in 2008 at slaughterhouses to obtain comparable values of prevalence of campylobacter in broiler batches and on broiler carcasses for all Member States. Current pre-harvest strategies available to reduce campylobacter contamination in poultry production include the application of on-farm biosecurity measures, the decontamination of litter, and the supplementation of feed with compounds inhibiting campylobacter and the treatment of drinking water. Moreover, novel strategies, specifically targeting campylobacter control at pre-harvest level, are in progress, including administration of probiotics, vaccination, antibiotics used in combination with molecule able to prevent the emergence of antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial alternatives (i.e. bacteriophages, bacteriocins). This paper is an overview on pre-harvest control strategies.
The characteristics of meat quality, chemical and fatty acid composition, from fast-growing (FG) and medium-growing (MG) meat-type and slow-growing (SG) egg-type chickens reared under organic conditions were compared. Three-hundred and sixty 1-day-old male chicks, equally divided into three experimental groups represented by strains (FG: Cobb 700, MG: Naked neck Kabir and SG: Brown Classic Lohman) were housed into three poultry houses with outdoor pasture availability of 10 m2/bird located in the same Research Centre of the University of Perugia. All the birds were fed ad libitum the same diets formulated according to the European Union (EU) Regulations by using organic raw materials. Birds from the FG and MG groups were raised until 81 days, whereas birds from the SG group were raised until 96 days in order to achieve an acceptable market live weight. SG birds showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher breast meat drip and cook losses, Allo-Kramer shear values and collagen content. In comparison with FG and SG, MG exhibited a higher breast meat pH (5.86% v. 5.79% and 5.78%, respectively; P < 0.01) and a lower lightness (54.88% v. 57.81% and 56.98%, respectively; P < 0.05). Genotype dramatically affected the lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of both breast and thigh meat. SG exhibited the lowest content of lipid, both in breast and in thigh meat, the lowest proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the highest proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The total n-3 PUFA of SG breast meat was double that of FG meat and intermediate with respect to MG birds (8.07% v. 4.07% v. 5.14% total fatty acids; P < 0.01). The fatty acid composition of thigh meat is similar to that of breast meat, but the differences among genotypes are less pronounced. Total saturated fatty acids were not affected by the genotype. In conclusion, meat functional properties of FG and MG strains appeared much more attractive both for industry and consumer (lower drip and cook losses and higher tenderness), whereas from a nutritional point of view, meat from SG appeared healthier (less fat and higher content of n-3 PUFA) and thus might better fit with the consumer’s expectations of organic products.
To assess the reliability and validity of an FFQ to evaluate dietary patterns of Na consumption among low-income and low-literacy Brazilian hypertensive subjects.
The initial FFQ was submitted to content analysis with the pre-test administered to fifteen subjects. Reliability was evaluated according to the reproducibility criterion, with interviewer administration of the FFQ twice within a 15 d interval. Validity was assessed against a 24 h recall (132 subjects), a 3 d diet record (121 subjects) and a biomarker (24 h urinary Na; 121 subjects). To test the correlation with the biomarker, discretionary salt was added to the FFQ Na values.
A large urban teaching hospital in south-eastern Brazil.
The study was based on 132 randomly selected subjects (eighty-three women and forty-nine men) aged 18 to 85 years.
Kappa coefficients ranged from 0·79 to 0·98, confirming the reproducibility of the FFQ. There was no correlation between urinary Na excretion, the FFQ and the 24 h recall for the general sample, although significant correlations had been observed when methods were summed up (24 h recall + discretionary salt + FFQ; 0·32, P = 0·01). The addition of discretionary salt significantly improved the biomarker-based FFQ validity, with correlation coefficients varying from 0·19 (general sample) to 0·31 (female sub-sample).
The developed FFQ demonstrated satisfactory evidence of validity and reliability and can be used as an important complementary tool for the evaluation of Na intake among Brazilian hypertensive subjects.
By using a procedure based on the Bayesian probability theory we computed reliable and self–consistent estimates of absolute magnitude and age for about 2000 FKG spectral-type stars from SDSS–DR5, ELODIE, and INDO–US surveys, with effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity values homogeneously derived.
Spectra of FGK stars were selected from the SDSS–DR5 spectroscopic database to investigate the Age-Metallicity relation and the [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] vertical gradients in the Milky Way. Atmospheric parameters and [α/Fe] were derived by comparing synthetic and measured Lick/SDSS spectral indices. Results were checked and complemented by analyzing solar neighbourhood stars. Spectroscopic distances and ages were obtained for a subsample of ~2000 stars using theoretical isochrones via a Bayesian approach. The resulting Age-Metallicity diagram and the [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] vertical gradients are presented.
A growing problem in cardiac drug toxicity has been blamed on the lack
of adequate testing prior to authorization for prescription use. This
study offers an effective alternative to the current method of in
vivo pharmaceutical testing, which is time and cost prohibitive. We
have accomplished this by developing the novel three-dimensional heart
tube model. At the “heart” of our model lies our patented
collagen scaffold that enables the cardiac myocytes to display an in
vivo–like architecture. The cardiac myocytes were cocultured
with the collagen tube for a period of 5 weeks, resulting in the heart
tubes. Our heart tubes were treated with specific drugs (nifedipine,
isoproterenol, and lidocaine) at varying concentrations. The percent of
apoptotic cells was calculated based on observing the number of cells that
labeled positive for caspase-3 via confocal microscopy. All three drugs
exhibited negative effects at high concentrations in that the number of
living cells decreased. Lidocaine showed an increase in apoptosis at
concentrations of 75 μM and above. This may indicate that certain
drugs have a minimum concentration level that must be reached before the
cells experience apoptosis from the toxic levels.
We analyzed a sample of about 2500 stars extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with Teffin the range 4750÷6500 K and log g greater than 1.5. Atmospheric parameter estimates are obtained by comparing observed and synthetic spectral indices. The dependence of the α-enhancement phenomenon on stellar metallicity and on Galactic position is investigated.
Progress in observational techniques (i.e. high S/N spectroscopy) and modelling (e.g. RE models including convection, nonLTE codes, accurate atomic data) make significant to carry to extremes the numerical fit of a portion of the stellar spectrum and try to interpret the residual differences between calculations and observations in terms of stellar characteristics new respect to the employed model.
We have started to apply this synthesis method to a set of high resolution, high S/N spectra of late-type dwarfs in the region of the Na I D lines, obtained at ESO with the 1.4m CAT on May 1989 (Franchini et al. 1992). The dwarf stars are modelled in radiative equilibrium (RE), and the Na I D line synthesis accounts for nonLTE and blend effects.
Gypsum crystals were grown at 25, 35, and 45 °C from solutions containing different ionic impurities (Mg2+, Na+, Cd2+). Curved gypsum crystals formed from the solutions enriched in magnesium or cadmium, whereas, in the presence of sodium, gypsum always grew undeformed. The mechanism of the curvature is described and an interpretation based on crystallographic considerations is given. Curvature is the result of impurity incorporation followed by crack formation and mechanical twinning which releases the internal stresses.
The Autors show a case of research of maternity in the subject of alteration of social condition in comparison of two newborns, this is a case in which a maternity staded could be excluded, and a maternity denied could be recognized, on the base of the genotypes in connexion to the qualities of the specific-groups Rh.
The gynaecological exam of the two women and the determination of the types ABO and MN had not allowed the complete solution of the problem which was, on the contrary, reached and showed by the acknowledgement of the genetics formulas Rh.
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