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Treatment resistance causes significant burden in psychosis. Clozapine is the only evidence-based pharmacologic intervention available for people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia; current guidelines recommend commencement after two unsuccessful trials of standard antipsychotics.
This paper aims to explore the prevalence of treatment resistance and pathways to commencement of clozapine in UK early intervention in psychosis (EIP) services.
Data were taken from the National Evaluation of the Development and Impact of Early Intervention Services study (N = 1027) and included demographics, medication history and psychosis symptoms measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Prescribing patterns and pathways to clozapine were examined. We adopted a strict criterion for treatment resistance, defined as persistent elevated positive symptoms (a PANSS positive score ≥16, equating to at least two items of at least moderate severity), across three time points.
A total of 143 (18.1%) participants met the definition of treatment resistance of having continuous positive symptoms over 12 months, despite treatment in EIP services. Sixty-one (7.7%) participants were treatment resistant and eligible for clozapine, having had two trials of standard antipsychotics; however, only 25 (2.4%) were prescribed clozapine over the 12-month study period. Treatment-resistant participants were more likely to be prescribed additional antipsychotic medication and polypharmacy, instead of clozapine.
Prevalent treatment resistance was observed in UK EIP services, but prescription of polypharmacy was much more common than clozapine. Significant delays in the commencement of clozapine may reflect a missed opportunity to promote recovery in this critical period.
This chapter reviews the data that scholars have started to assemble on the volume, content, targeting, and effect of paid online advertising in the United States. It discusses how online advertising is regulated through formal rules and shaped informally by content negotiations between advertisers and platforms. It also explains how the decentralized methods of purchasing digital ads make systematic research challenging. That said, this review (at best) provides tentative conclusions, which will be tested in earnest over the next few years. In many ways, then, we are at a precipice awaiting the flood of more systematic analyses yet to come as scholars dig into the newly available data. With that in mind, it reviews what is known at present and evaluates the information that is available through the platform archives.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a well-established cause of traveller's diarrhoea and occasional domestic foodborne illness outbreaks in the USA. Although ETEC are not detected by conventional stool culture methods used in clinical laboratories, syndromic culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) capable of detecting ETEC have become increasingly prevalent in the last decade. This study describes the epidemiology of ETEC infections reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) during 2016–2017. ETEC-positive stool specimens were submitted to MDH to confirm the presence of ETEC DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cases were interviewed to ascertain illness and exposures. Contemporaneous Salmonella cases were used as a comparison group in a case-case comparison analysis of risk factors. Of 222 ETEC-positive specimens received by MDH, 108 (49%) were concordant by PCR. ETEC was the sixth most frequently reported bacterial enteric pathogen among a subset of CIDT-positive specimens. Sixty-nine (64%) laboratory-confirmed cases had an additional pathogen codetected with ETEC, including enteroaggregative E. coli (n = 40) and enteropathogenic E. coli (n = 39). Although travel is a risk factor for ETEC infection, only 43% of cases travelled internationally, providing evidence for ETEC as an underestimated source of domestically acquired enteric illness in the USA.
Various issues related to training methods and outcomes of intercultural training are reviewed by employing a typology of intercultural training that integrates aspects of culture-specific and culture-general training with didactic and experiential learning styles. This is followed by a brief discussion of the process of experiential learning, issues pertaining to cognitive affective and behavioral training, how context shapes the selection of methods, and how traditional methods can be updated with technology to meet modern needs. The role of culture in shaping the choice of methods and issues related to training across and about cultures is discussed. How knowledge, skill and attitudes shape the selection of intercultural training methods, and the significance of personal and cultural preferences in mediating training outcomes, and the interaction between desired outcomes, participant data, and situational factors are noted. In addition, 20 intercultural methods – lectures, written materials, online-based training, films, self-assessment, case studies, and critical incidents, role playing, simulation games, and intercultural exercises, contrast culture training, culture assimilator, cross-cultural analysis, cross-cultural dialogues, areas studies, immersion, visual imagery, and art and culture – that are currently employed are analyzed to examine current trends in training, the contexts in which methods are applied, and the factors that affect the choice of one method over another. The analyses include an assessment of strengths and weaknesses, typical outcomes, adaptability, ways the methods have or could be used, availability of the method in off-the-shelf versions, and resources for finding out more about it. Trainers are encouraged to master a variety of methods because no single method will work all of the time in producing the desired outcomes that best suit their client’s needs.
Despite the rapid growth of online political advertising, the vast majority of scholarship on political advertising relies exclusively on evidence from candidates’ television advertisements. The relatively low cost of creating and deploying online advertisements and the ability to target online advertisements more precisely may broaden the set of candidates who advertise and allow candidates to craft messages to more narrow audiences than on television. Drawing on data from the newly released Facebook Ad Library API and television data from the Wesleyan Media Project, we find that a much broader set of candidates advertises on Facebook than television, particularly in down-ballot races. We then examine within-candidate variation in the strategic use and content of advertising on television relative to Facebook for all federal, statewide, and state legislative candidates in the 2018 election. Among candidates who use both advertising media, Facebook advertising occurs earlier in the campaign, is less negative, less issue focused, and more partisan than television advertising.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has greatly impacted health-care systems worldwide, leading to an unprecedented rise in demand for health-care resources. In anticipation of an acute strain on established medical facilities in Dallas, Texas, federal officials worked in conjunction with local medical personnel to convert a convention center into a Federal Medical Station capable of caring for patients affected by COVID-19. A 200,000 square foot event space was designated as a direct patient care area, with surrounding spaces repurposed to house ancillary services. Given the highly transmissible nature of the novel coronavirus, the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) was of particular importance for personnel staffing the facility. Furthermore, nationwide shortages in the availability of PPE necessitated the reuse of certain protective materials. This article seeks to delineate the procedures implemented regarding PPE in the setting of a COVID-19 disaster response shelter, including workspace flow, donning and doffing procedures, PPE conservation, and exposure event protocols.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Our preclinical data demonstrate that the principal effects of nilotinib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in models of neurodegeneration is clearance of misfolded proteins via autophagy. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of nilotinib on microRNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson’s disease patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected as part of an open label phase I (NCT02281474) (n = 12, 300 mg nilotinib taken orally once daily for 6 months), and a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT02954978) (n = 75, randomized 1:1:1 into placebo, 150 mg or 300 mg nilotinib taken orally once daily for 12 months). RNA was isolated from CSF and Indexed sequencing libraries were prepared from total RNA plus miRNA. Next generation whole-genome sequencing (single-end 1x75 bp, 25 million raw reads per sample) was performed to identify miRNAs significantly differentially expressed (fold-change ≥ 2, Benjamini-Hochberg FDR p-value ≤ 0.05 or Empirical Bayes FDR ≤ 0.05) with treatment compared to baseline. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Next generation whole-genome sequencing of microRNAs in the CSF demonstrated that nilotinib significantly increases microRNAs that specifically regulate expression of autophagy and ubiquitination genes in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. In the open label phase I, samples, 28 microRNAs found to regulate autophagy and ubiquitination genes, were significantly altered with treatment (Benjamini-Hochberg FDR p-value ≤ 0.05). In the phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study samples, we verified several of those 28 candidate microRNAs had been significantly deferentially expressed with treatment (Empirical Bayes FDR p-value ≤ 0.05). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our data provide robust evidence that nilotinib’s effects on misfolded protein clearance is via autophagy and CSF miRNA sequencing is a valid biomarker of nilotinib’s effects in a definitive phase III study to investigate nilotinib in Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Charbel Moussa is listed as an inventor on several Georgetown University patents for the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as a treatment for neurodegenerative diseases
In cognitive models of adult psychosis, schematic beliefs about the self and others are important vulnerability and maintaining factors, and are therefore targets for psychological interventions. Schematic beliefs have not previously been investigated in children with distressing unusual, or psychotic-like, experiences (UEDs). The aim of this study was firstly to investigate whether a measure of schematic beliefs, originally designed for adults with psychosis, was suitable for children; and secondly, to examine the association of childhood schematic beliefs with internalising and externalising problems and with UEDs.
Sixty-seven children aged 8–14 years, with emotional and behavioural difficulties, completed measures of UEDs, internalising (depression and anxiety), and externalising (conduct and hyperactivity-inattention) problems, together with the Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS).
The BCSS was readily completed by participants, and scale psychometric properties were good. Children tended to view themselves and others positively. Internalising and externalising problems and UEDs were all associated with negative schematic beliefs; effect sizes were small to medium.
Schematic beliefs in young people can be measured using the BCSS, and negative schematic beliefs are associated with childhood psychopathology and with UEDs. Schematic beliefs may therefore form a useful target in psychological interventions for young people with UEDs.
The number of psychiatrists continues to grow in Canada. Patient psychiatry utilization statistics, including reasons for termination of such services, are important factors that have the potential to impact future Canadian and international psychiatry service policies and practices. In addition, understanding the reasons for psychiatry service termination is necessary to improve service quality and effectiveness.
This study focused on utilization trends, perceived effectiveness of psychiatry services, and reasons for termination of psychiatry services in Canada.
Prevalence of psychiatry service use, perceived effectiveness, and reasons for termination of such services were investigated in a Canadian sample (n = 25,113). Prevalence rates were investigated by geography, sex, and age. Data were self-reported and collected through a national Canadian phone survey focused on mental and physical health.
Results highlight that a small percentage of participants reported utilizing psychiatry services. The majority of participants using such services perceived them as useful. Across geographical regions, reasons for discontinuing services were most often related to completing treatment, feeling better, or not seeing the treatment as helpful.
This study explored psychiatry utilization trends, perceived psychiatry effectiveness, and reasons for patient termination of such services. Results are explored through a geographical region breakdown, sex differences, and age stratification. Implications for policy, practice, and training are discussed from a Canadian and international perspective.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Augustes Comte first coined the term “altruism” as a cornerstone for his ethic doctrine Positivism, describing it as selfless concern for another’s welfare (Sutton, 1982). The existence of altruism and basic human kindness has been heavily debated throughout history, permeating through psychological, philosophical, and theological fields. Early philosophical and religious figures discussed concepts such Saint Augustine’s theory of conscience – that basic human kindness was an innate human feature (Fortin, 1996) – or Thomas Aquinas’ synderesis rule, which states that humans desire to be good and can innately distinguish between right and wrong (Davies, 2014). While these speculations have little or no empirical basis, they do have something in common with more recent research: they view altruism as having an innate component. Augustine and Aquinas attributed God as the innate origin of human altruism. Evolutionary psychologists view altruism as genetically influenced, having arisen, in part, from the Darwinian selective forces of natural and sexual selection.
The authors reviewed case reports of patients presenting to an advanced medical assessment and resuscitation service at 15 music events over 22 days from June 2018 through March 2019 around Australia. Event size ranged from 4,000 to 57,500 participants. Events observed had a mean patient presentation rate (PPR) of 0.83% (SD = 0.59%) and mean transport to hospital rate (TTHR) of 1.89 (SD = 0.92) per 10,000. Two-hundred and twenty-one cases were reviewed and tabulated for descriptive analysis.
Lower rates of traumatic injuries were seen compared to other case reports, and minor procedures represented a minor but important part of the team’s workload. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use was reported by 33.0% of patients on the day of presentation; almost one-half of these reported a co-ingestion. Patients presenting after using MDMA were more likely to have an elevated temperature. Eight percent of patients presented with temperature above 38°C. Patients with an initial temperature above 38°C were more likely to require hospitalization. On-site electrocardiograph (ECG), blood gas, ultrasound, and urinalysis were found to be useful in decision support. In total, 29.8% of patients required sedation during their encounter; 2.7% required rapid sequence induction at the event. Mean observation time was 44 minutes, with longer observation required in MDMA and hallucinogen-related presentations.