To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This book is about ecological networks, and networks in ecology include almost anything that can be represented by a set of points joined in pairs by lines or “edges” (Newman 2010). By choosing the right network characteristics to investigate, network analysis allows us to develop concepts and to test hypotheses about ecological systems and processes that we could not express or investigate otherwise.
This book has focused on the conceptual and quantitative analyses of ecological systems using networks and network theory. An ecological network is a system that can be represented or modelled by a set of points joined by lines and these networks are both fundamental to and deeply embedded in our understanding of ecological systems: call it “network thinking.” With the right characteristics and measures, network thinking allows us to develop ecological concepts and to answer ecological questions we could not study or even express without it.
Characteristics and measures for the structural properties of networks are provided in great numbers and diversity (Costa et al. 2007; Dale & Fortin 2010; Rayfield et al. 2011; Delmas et al. 2019). For example, Costa et al. (2007) discussed 31 such measures, making it a daunting task to understand the choices, evaluate their properties, and determine the best for a given purpose. Just organising the material is a challenge. This chapter will start at the local scale, with the properties of nodes and edges, then moving to the global scale of characteristics of networks in their whole graphs, beginning with different approaches to analysis (e.g. spectral graph theory and information measures) ending with a discussion of the properties that are evaluated. The focus here is primarily structural properties; network dynamics and the relationship between structure and function will be covered in Chapters 3 and 4.
Ecological networks include a great range of complex phenomena and there are many ways in which basic network topology can be translated into structures that include and take advantage of those complexities. As with other areas of network science, which has evolved from or through many different disciplines, there is a diversity of terminology associated with these diverse topological structures which may appear to lack systematic or consistent application. Our endeavour here is to present that diversity of structures and clarify their application in the ecological context.
To describe the pattern of emergency department (ED) consultations in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to controls and factors predictive of ED consultations.
This retrospective cohort study linked data from the Registre de la paralysie cérébrale du Québec (REPACQ) and provincial administrative health databases. The CP cohort was comprised of children enrolled in REPACQ born between 1999 and 2002. REPACQ covers 6 of 17 Quebec health administrative regions. Region-, age-, and gender-matched controls were identified from administrative health databases in a 20:1 ratio. The primary outcome was high use of ED services (≥4 ED visits during the study period). Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.
In total, 301 children with CP were linked to administrative data and 6040 peer controls were selected. Ninety-two percent (92%) of the CP cohort had at least one ED visit in the study period, compared to 74% among controls (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.19–1.28). Children with CP were more likely than their peers to have high ED use (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.30–1.52). Factors predictive of high ED use were comorbid epilepsy (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.04–1.46) and severity of motor impairment (RR 1.14; 95% CI 0.95–1.37).
Children with CP are more likely to present to the ED than their peers, resulting in increased use of ED services. Coordinated care with improved access to same-day evaluations could decrease ED use. Health system factors and barriers should be investigated to ensure optimal and appropriate use of ED services.
To compare hospitalizations among children with cerebral palsy (CP) and healthy controls and to identify factors associated with hospitalizations in children with CP.
This retrospective cohort study linked data from a provincial CP Registry and administrative health databases. The CP cohort was comprised of children born from 1999 to 2002. Age, sex, and region-matched controls were identified from administrative health databases. Mean differences, relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.
A total of 301 children with CP were linked to administrative health data and matched to 6040 controls. Mean hospitalizations per child during the study period were higher in children with CP compared to controls (raw mean difference (RMD) 5.0 95% CI 4.7 to 5.2) with longer length of stay (RMD 2.8 95% CI 1.8 to 3.8) and number of diagnoses per hospitalization (RMD 1.6 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8). Increased risk of hospitalization was observed in non-ambulant children with CP (RR 1.12 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22) compared to ambulant children and among those with spastic tri/quadriplegic CP compared to other CP subtypes (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.27). Feeding difficulties (RR 1.20 95% CI 1.13 to 1.27), cortical visual (RR 1.22 95% CI 1.13 to 1.32), cognitive (RR 1.16 95% CI 1.04 to 1.30), and communication impairment (RR 1.26 95% CI 1.10 to 1.44) were associated with increased hospitalizations.
Children with CP face more frequent, longer hospital stays than peers, especially those with a more severe CP profile. Coordinated interdisciplinary care is needed in school-aged children with CP and medical complexity.
Megalencephaly–capillary malformation–polymicrogyria (MCAP) syndrome (OMIM #602501) is characterized by megalencephaly, midline capillary malformations, and cortical malformations. This genetic overgrowth syndrome is associated with mosaic gain-of-function pathogenic PIK3CA variants (OMIM #171834).
Whilst Concurrent Conceptual Design (CCD) has been performed for many years at facilities such as: the Concurrent Design Facility at ESA and the Project Design Center at JPL-NASA, the sequencing know-how resides in their communities of practice. This paper strives to explain how a sequencing algorithm based on Design Structure Matrices can be used as an instrument to facilitate the interaction between disciplines during CCD studies for Model-Based systems exemplified with two case studies.
Dysgeusia is a frequent, yet underreported side effect of chemotherapy for cancer. We report here the first use of gabapentin in two glioblastoma patients who developed dysgeusia following intra-arterial administration of carboplatin or oral administration of lomustine, respectively. Treatment initiation was followed by resolution of taste alteration within weeks. Both patients reported significant improvement in their quality of life and regained weight, allowing further chemotherapy cycles. We hypothesized that in these two cases, chemotherapy impeded gustatory cells turnover and function, resulting in a gustatory “deafferentation-like” syndrome which was successfully addressed by the medication.
The benefit of late window endovascular treatment (EVT) for anterior circulation ischemic stroke has been demonstrated using perfusion-based neuroimaging. We evaluated whether non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CT-angiogram (CTA) alone can select late-presenting patients for EVT.
We performed a retrospective comparison of all patients undergoing EVT at a single comprehensive stroke center from January 2016 to April 2017. Patients planned for EVT were divided into early (<6 hours from onset) and late (≥6 hours from onset or last time seen normal) window groups. Incidence of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformations (sHTs) at 24 hours and 3-month modified Rankin scores (mRSs) were compared.
During the study period, 204 (82%) patients underwent EVT in the early and 44 (18%) in the late window. Median (interquartile range) NIH Stroke Scale Score was similar between groups (early: 18 [15–23] vs. late: 17 [13–21]), as were median ASPECT scores (early: 9 [8–10] vs. late: 9 [7–9]). In the late window, 42 (95%) strokes were of unknown onset. Similar proportions of sHT occurred at 24 hours (early: 12 [6%] vs. late: 4 [9%], p = 0.43). At 3 months, the proportion of patients achieving functional independence (mRS 0–2) were comparable in the early (80/192 [42%]) and late (16/41 [39%]) windows (p = 0.76).
NCCT- and CTA-based patient selection led to similar functional independence outcomes and low proportions of sHT in the early and late windows. In centers without access to perfusion-based neuroimaging, this pragmatic approach could be safe, particularly for strokes of unknown onset.
Set-based design (SBD), sometimes referred to as set-based concurrent engineering (SBCE), has emerged as an important component of lean product development (LPD) with all researchers describing it as a core enabler of LPD. Research has explored the principles underlying LPD and SBCE, but methodologies for the practical implementation need to be better understood. A review of SBD is performed in this article in order to discover and analyse the key aspects to consider when developing a model and methodology to transition to SBCE. The publications are classified according to a new framework, which allows us to map the topology of the relevant SBD literature from two perspectives: the research paradigms and the coverage of the generic creative design process (Formulation–Synthesis–Analysis–Evaluation–Documentation–Reformulation). It is found that SBD has a relatively low theoretical development, but there is a steady increase in the diversity of contributions. The literature abounds with methods, guidelines and tools to implement SBCE, but they rarely rely on a model that is in the continuum of a design process model, product model or knowledge-based model with the aim of federating the three Ps (People–Product–Process) towards SBCE and LPD in traditional industrial contexts.