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The EU Action Plan on Financing Sustainable Growth is the most advanced and comprehensive policy agenda on sustainability in the world. But is it going in the right direction? Acting as a bridge between policy and academia, this up-to-date contribution to the global policy debate brings together some of the leading experts from the European Commission's High-Level Expert Group on Sustainable Finance, to discuss how the financial system needs to be reformed to promote sustainability. Finance has long been criticized for being short-term focused and concerned with maximizing returns to intermediaries, rather than with the interests of savers and borrowers. The financial system must now take into account environmental, social and governance considerations to support a sustainable economy and this volume offers new insights on the way forward. A must-read for anyone working on financial sector policy and sustainability.
This book, by two of the world's leading administrative law scholars, reimagines administrative law as the law of public administration by making its competence the focus of administrative law. Grounded in extensive interdisciplinary, historical, and doctrinal analysis, Fisher and Shapiro show why understanding both the capacity and authority of expert public administration is crucial to ensure the legitimacy and accountability of the administrative state. To address the current precarious state of administrative law, they support a new study of the administrative process by an Attorney Generals Committee on Administrative Procedure leading to a revised Administrative Procedure Act (APA). This book is a must-read for anyone interested in administrative law and its reform.
Opioid use disorder is a major public health crisis, and evidence suggests ways of better serving patients who live with opioid use disorder in the emergency department (ED). A multi-disciplinary team developed a quality improvement project to implement this evidence.
The intervention was developed by an expert working group consisting of specialists and stakeholders. The group set goals of increasing prescribing of buprenorphine/naloxone and providing next day walk-in referrals to opioid use disorder treatment clinics. From May to September 2018, three Alberta ED sites and three opioid use disorder treatment clinics worked together to trial the intervention. We used administrative data to track the number of ED visits where patients were given buprenorphine/naloxone. Monthly ED prescribing rates before and after the intervention were considered and compared with eight nonintervention sites. We considered whether patients continued to fill opioid agonist treatment prescriptions at 30, 60, and 90 days after their index ED visit to measure continuity in treatment.
The intervention sites increased their prescribing of buprenorphine/naloxone during the intervention period and prescribed more buprenorphine/naloxone than the controls. Thirty-five of 47 patients (74.4%) discharged from the ED with buprenorphine/naloxone continued to fill opioid agonist treatment prescriptions 30 days and 60 days after their index ED visit. Thirty-four patients (72.3%) filled prescriptions at 90 days.
Emergency clinicians can effectively initiate patients on buprenorphine/naloxone when supports for this standardized evidence-based care are in place within their practice setting and timely follow-up in community is available.
Social disparities tied to social group membership(s) are prevalent and persistent within mainstream institutions (e.g., schools/workplaces). Accordingly, psychological science has harnessed selves - which are malleable and meaningfully shaped by social group membership(s) - as solutions to inequality. We propose and review evidence that theoretical and applied impacts of leveraging 'selves as solutions' can be furthered through the use of a stigma and strengths framework. Specifically, this framework conceptualizes selves in their fuller complexity, allowing the same social group membership to be associated with stigma, risk, and devaluation as well as strengths, resilience, and pride. We provide evidence that by enacting policies and practices that (a) reduce/minimize stigma and (b) recognize/include strengths, mainstream institutions can more fully mitigate social disparities tied to inclusion, achievement and well-being. Using social groups that vary in status/power we examine implications of this framework including the potential to foster positive, recursive, and intergroup impacts on social inequalities.
A growing body of research suggests that childhood adversities are associated with later psychosis, broadly defined. However, there remain several gaps and unanswered questions. Most studies are of low-level psychotic experiences and findings cannot necessarily be extrapolated to psychotic disorders. Further, few studies have examined the effects of more fine-grained dimensions of adversity such as type, timing and severity.
Using detailed data from the Childhood Adversity and Psychosis (CAPsy) study, we sought to address these gaps and examine in detail associations between a range of childhood adversities and psychotic disorder.
CAPsy is population-based first-episode psychosis case–control study in the UK. In a sample of 374 cases and 301 controls, we collected extensive data on childhood adversities, in particular household discord, various forms of abuse and bullying, and putative confounders, including family history of psychotic disorder, using validated, semi-structured instruments.
We found strong evidence that all forms of childhood adversity were associated with around a two- to fourfold increased odds of psychotic disorder and that exposure to multiple adversities was associated with a linear increase in odds. We further found that severe forms of adversity, i.e. involving threat, hostility and violence, were most strongly associated with increased odds of disorder. More tentatively, we found that some adversities (e.g. bullying, sexual abuse) were more strongly associated with psychotic disorder if first occurrence was in adolescence.
Our findings extend previous research on childhood adversity and suggest a degree of specificity for severe adversities involving threat, hostility and violence.
Self-reported health is a predictive measure of morbidity and mortality across populations. A comprehensive understanding of the factors that shape self-reported health among community-dwelling older adults, a growing population globally, is lacking. The aim of this review was to summarize the factors that are associated with self-reported health among this population and identify key areas for future research. Accordingly, we conducted a scoping review using the stage-wise framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley. We summarized 42 factors, as identified in 30 publications, and organized them into four categories. Key factors shaping self-reported health included the presence of chronic conditions and depressive symptoms. As the population of community-dwelling older adults continues to increase, there remains a need to understand how these identified factors shape self-reported health. To date, empirical research has been limited to observational and cross-sectional designs. There is a need to further explore these factors in longitudinal data.
Romantic love is a universal feeling that most individuals hope to experience in their lifetime. At its best, it is fulfilling, joyous, committed, and stable. However, there is a chance that love can become dysregulated, associated with a preoccupation with love objects, stalking, and/or depression. Feelings of love mimic individual’s neurobiological responses to drugs of abuse and can become an obsession that resembles behaviors of a substance-dependent addict. In this chapter, we discuss the evolution of romantic love and love addiction etiology. We speculate on four personality dimensions that may distinguish certain love-related behaviors and addiction. Finally, we draw from substance and behavioral addiction literature to suggest various prevention and treatment strategies for those who are susceptible to or currently afflicted by love addiction.
Subjective cognitive difficulties are common in mental illness and have a negative impact on role functioning. Little is understood about subjective cognition and the longitudinal relationship with depression and anxiety symptoms in young people.
To examine the relationship between changes in levels of depression and anxiety and changes in subjective cognitive functioning over 3 months in help-seeking youth.
This was a cohort study of 656 youth aged 12–25 years attending Australian headspace primary mental health services. Subjective changes in cognitive functioning (rated as better, same, worse) reported after 3 months of treatment was assessed using the Neuropsychological Symptom Self-Report. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of baseline levels of and changes in depression (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ9) and anxiety symptoms (seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale; GAD7) on changes in subjective cognitive function at follow-up while controlling for covariates.
With a one-point reduction in PHQ9 at follow-up, there was an estimated 11–18% increase in ratings of better subjective cognitive functioning at follow-up, relative to stable cognitive functioning. A one-point increase in PHQ9 from baseline to follow-up was associated with 7–14% increase in ratings of worse subjective cognitive functioning over 3 months, relative to stable cognitive functioning. A similar attenuated pattern of findings was observed for the GAD7.
A clear association exists between subjective cognitive functioning outcomes and changes in self-reported severity of affective symptoms in young people over the first 3 months of treatment. Understanding the timing and mechanisms of these associations is needed to tailor treatment.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and modifiable population-level risk factors, after accounting for deprivation.
A review of the literature identified population-level risk factors including a healthy childcare setting, the local food environment, accessible open space, community safety and crime. Data for these risk factors were then identified and matched by each of the twenty-two local government areas in Wales to each child that had data on height and weight in the Wales Childhood Measurement Programme (CMP) (2012–2017). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations with childhood obesity.
The current study was undertaken in Wales, UK, where approximately one in eight 4–5-year-olds are classified as obese.
All participants were children aged 4 or 5 years who attend school, measured as part of the CMP, between 2012 and 2017 (n 129 893, mean age 5·0 (sd 0·4) years).
After adjusting for deprivation, small but statistically significant associations were found between childhood obesity and percentage of land available as accessible open space OR 0·981 (95 % CI: 0·973, 0·989) P < 0·001) and density of fast food outlets OR 1·002 (95 % CI 1·001, 1·004, P = 0·001). No other population-level risk factors were associated with childhood obesity.
The current study indicates that, even after accounting for deprivation, risk factors such as the density of fast food outlets and access to green space should be considered when tackling childhood obesity as a public health issue.
Economic hardship (EH) may link to poorer child diet, however whether this association is due to resource limitations or effects on family functioning is unknown. This study examines whether parenting stress mediates the association between EH and child consumption of foods high in saturated fats and added sugars (SFAS).
Data were collected from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study. EH was assessed using eight items collected when children were between 1–9 years old. Mothers reported parenting stress and frequency of child consumption of high SFAS foods when children were 9 years old. Latent growth curve modelling (LGCM) and structural equation modelling tested direct associations between the starting level/rate of change in EH and high SFAS food consumption, and parenting stress as a mediator of the association.
Twenty US cities.
Mothers/children (n 3846) followed birth through age 9 years, oversampled ‘high-risk’, unmarried mothers.
LGCM indicated a curvilinear trend in EH from ages 1–9, with steeper increases from ages 3–9 years. EH did not directly predict the frequency of high SFAS foods. Average EH at 3 and 5 years and change in EH from ages 1–9 predicted higher parenting stress, which in turn predicted more frequent consumption of high SFAS foods.
Findings suggest it may be important to consider parenting stress in early prevention efforts given potential lasting effects of early life EH on child consumption of high SFAS foods. Future research should explore how supports and resources may buffer effects of EH-related stress on parents and children.
This chapter examines the narratives (media, policy and statistical) around the notion of the ‘linguistic other’ in England and elsewhere in Europe. We argue that these narratives are closely bound up with the way nation states define their policies for social integration of migrant communities and, in particular, migrant children in schools. At the heart of the debates around conflicting narratives about the role of schools in this context is the question of linguistic diversity and second (or host) language development. Also in this chapter we review, from a sociological perspective, how researchers and policy-makers have endeavoured to understand the concept and practice of social integration in this context. In particular, we highlight the tensions between the focus on micro-level experience and on the macro-level socio-political implications. We provide a review of recent empirical studies on EAL internationally and reflect on current issues in light of recent policy developments. We discuss the variations that can be found across Europe in terms of mainstreaming and inclusion.
This chapter introduces the framework of a model of inclusive pedagogy that consists of four key dimensions: attitudinal inclusion, academic inclusion, linguistic inclusion and social inclusion. We illustrate the issues through reference to teacher data elicited at the project secondary schools. We discuss the prevalence of linguistic diversity in English schools that makes teachers’ knowledge about such language diversity essential to effectiveness in the classroom and, in light of this, we identify key forms of ‘bilingual assistance’ which support EAL pedagogy. The final section of the chapter presents an outline of a teacher knowledge framework which we argue needs to form the basis of teacher professional development in the EAL context.
This chapter discusses the policy and educational context of provision for newcomer migrant children in Europe and the United Kingdom (including a review of relevant EU documentation relating to the social and academic integration of newcomer children in schools) before focusing on the specific context of the East of England which is the setting for our empirical study. We review statistical data relating to regional provision of support for EAL in schools and discuss the findings of a regional school survey conducted for the project.