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Language disturbances are the core symptoms of schizophrenia [Crow,2000]. Considering the influence of migration on the symptoms of schizophrenia [Bhugra, Gupta,2011] and few studies on the interaction of schizophrenia and bilingualism [Bersudsky, et al.,2005], we hope to clarify the linguistic profile of disorder and emphasize the role of language in schizophrenia research.
To examine the linguistic features of schizophrenia in the first (L1) and the second (L2) languages, particularly in fluency as the ability to cope with native and nonnative pragmatics.
Among sixty Russian immigrants to Israel diagnosed with schizophrenia, ten Russian-Hebrew fluent bilinguals met criteria for inclusion in the study (age: M=33.8,s.d.=11.0; length of residence: M=14.6,s.d.=6.8; time of immigration to diagnosis:M=5.3,s.d=3.9; PANSS Total score: M = 94.9,s.d = 9.8). Interviews were analyzed using clinical, linguistic and fluency speech markers. Statistical evaluation included t-test for dependent samples, two-way ANOVA(Fisher LSD post-hoc test).
The mean length of language samples demonstrated more productivity in L1 (Table1). Clinical speech markers associated with thought disorders were similarly represented in both languages. Linguistic markers of schizophrenia occurred more often in L2. Discourse markers, as bilingual phenomenona, reflected more dysfluency in L1.
1) The higher frequency of linguistic schizophrenia markers in L2 shows more impairments in the syntax/semantic components of language, where different neural representations may underlay the two languages in a bilingual brain damaged by schizophrenia. 2) The higher frequency of fluency markers in L1 reflects attempts to maintain verbal fluency, evidenced by the use of L2 lexical items, which afford a compensatory resource for communicative discourse in schizophrenia.
Epilepsy is amongst the most common of neurological disorders seen in children, with incidence rates ranging from 33.3–82 cases per 100,000 per year.1–4 The incidence is highest in the first year of life, and decreases in the teen years. Epilepsy is clearly focal in onset in approximately two-thirds of pediatric cases and generalized in onset in one-quarter.4 Approximately half of children have no known etiology.4
This study was designed to elucidate the biological variation in expression of many metabolites due to environment, genotype, or both, and to investigate the potential utility of metabolomics to supplement compositional analysis for the design of a new resilient cultivar of Brassica napus that can be steady in phytochemicals in different regions in France. Eight rapeseed varieties, grown in eight regions of France, were compared using a non-targeted metabolomics approach. The statistical analysis highlighted the distance and closeness between the samples in terms of both genotypes and geographical regions. A major environmental impact was observed on the polar metabolome, with different trends, depending on the varieties. Some varieties were very sensitive to the environment, while others were quite resilient. The identified secondary metabolites were mapped into the KEGG pathway database to reveal the most sensitive target proteins susceptible to environmental influences. A glucosyl-transferase encoded by the UGT84A1 gene involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid was identified. This protein could be rate limiting/promoting in this pathway depending on environmental conditions. The metabolomics approach used in this study demonstrated its efficiency to characterize the environmental influence on various cultivars of Brassica napus seeds and may help identify targets for crop improvement.
In this chapter, we trouble the implicit and explicit assumptions tucked behind the phenomenon of the unsaid, actually the forbidden, by examining events that unfolded in a New Jersey (US) state courtroom where conflicting stories about sexual love/violence clashed in the fall of 2015. We examine the ideological and social functions of banished testimony in the context of the trial on aggravated sexual assault where “protection” was deployed to silence a sexual relationship that violated most normative taboos; where “denying voice” to the presumed victim was enforced; where reproducing an old story of “sexual violence” was used to bury another story of connection, love, and desire. Data we present derive from what was said and unsaid, who was and was not allowed to speak, and what evidence was admissible and excluded. It unpacks how voice, silence, protection, and exclusion operate at the delicate intersection of disability, science, law, and sexuality to reproduce hegemonic notions of power and the denial of desire. The binaries and boundaries that were crafted within this case allow us to theorize how the unsaid can sustain and mask injustice as if it is were normal, appropriate, and fair while it reproduces brutal exclusionary realities within our social world.
Children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders are at elevated risk for a range of behavioral and emotional problems. However, as the usual reporter of psychopathology in children is the parent, reports of early problems in children of parents with mood and psychotic disorders may be biased by the parents' own experience of mental illness and their mental state.
Independent observers rated psychopathology using the Test Observation Form in 378 children and youth between the ages of 4 and 24 (mean = 11.01, s.d. = 4.40) who had a parent with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or no history of mood and psychotic disorders.
Observed attentional problems were elevated in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (effect sizes ranging between 0.31 and 0.56). Oppositional behavior and language/thought problems showed variable degrees of elevation (effect sizes 0.17 to 0.57) across the three high-risk groups, with the greatest difficulties observed in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Observed anxiety was increased in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (effect sizes 0.19 and 0.25 respectively) but not in offspring of parents with schizophrenia.
Our results suggest that externalizing problems and cognitive and language difficulties may represent a general manifestation of familial risk for mood and psychotic disorders, while anxiety may be a specific marker of liability for mood disorders. Observer assessment may improve early identification of risk and selection of youth who may benefit from targeted prevention.
In 1985, at Groups St Andrews, Gilbert Baumslag gave a short course on one-relator groups which provided a look at the subject up to that point. In this paper we partially update the massive amount of work done over the past three decades. For the most part we concentrate on areas and results to which the authors have made contributions. We look at the important connections with surface groups and elementary theory, and describe the surface group conjecture and the Gromov conjecture on surface subgroups. We look at the solution by Wise of Baumslag’s residual finiteness conjecture and discuss a new Baumslag conjecture on virtually free-by-cyclic groups. We examine various amalgam decompositions of one-relator groups and the Baumslag-Shalen conjectures. We then look at a series of open problems in one-relator group theory and their status. Finally we introduce a concept called plainarity based on the Magnus breakdown of a one-relator group which might provide a systematic approach to the solution of problems in one-relator groups.
An exact truthmaker for A is a state which, as well as guaranteeing A’s truth, is wholly relevant to it. States with parts irrelevant to whether A is true do not count as exact truthmakers for A. Giving semantics in this way produces a very unusual consequence relation, on which conjunctions do not entail their conjuncts. This feature makes the resulting logic highly unusual. In this paper, we set out formal semantics for exact truthmaking and characterise the resulting notion of entailment, showing that it is compact and decidable. We then investigate the effect of various restrictions on the semantics. We also formulate a sequent-style proof system for exact entailment and give soundness and completeness results.
THE FRANKFURTER GELEHRTE ANZEIGEN (Frankfurt Learned Notes) published a special double issue at the end of February 1779, which was hardly unusual. The pressure of a twice-weekly publication schedule and the need to delegate tasks to a vast network of correspondents and reviewers often led the journal's editor, Johann Conrad Deinet, to print such expanded issues in lieu of two separate ones. What was, however, peculiar about this specific installment was the absence of any book reviews, which normally comprised the majority of texts in this particular periodical. Instead, the entire issue was devoted to the publication of a single text, a piece of cultural critique.
As with all contributions to the journal, the text appeared without any indication as to the author's identity. It bears the title “Fragment eines Schreibens über den Ton in den Streitschriften einiger teutschen Gelehrten und Schöngeister” (Fragment of a Text on the Tone in the Polemics by Some German Scholars and Aesthetes). The text's sixteen pages contain a broad indictment of numerous grandees of the German publishing world, including Friedrich Nicolai, Christoph Martin Wieland, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, and Johann Georg Jacobi.
Nicolai receives the majority of the author's scorn: the publisher of the Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek (General German Library) is denounced for printing Leben, Bemerkungen und Meinungen Johann Bunkels: Nebst den Leben verschiedener merkwürdiger Frauenzimmer (Johann Bunkel's Life Story, Observations, and Opinions, alongside the Life Stories of Several Noteworthy Women, 1778), a German translation of the Irish author Thomas Amory's novel The Life of John Buncle, Esq., first published in 1756, a novel that scandalized some members of the German reading public on account of its frank discussion of deism. In the anonymous critic's view, it was a “platter, dummer, langweiliger Roman” (platitudinous, dumb, boring novel) that was as objectionable as the novel's religious ideas. In addition to disparaging comments about Lessing and Jacobi, Wieland's journal Der teutsche Merkur (The German Mercury) is portrayed as “leichtes Puppenwerk” (simple doll play) of the sort presented by all the charlatans peddling their wares at the trade fair in Nuremberg (“Fragment,” 122–23). The author's frequently lurid critique, however, is accompanied by constant proclamations of his own steadfast purity, as he pledges never to denigrate himself by engaging in public controversies like the many German authors who act like “Gassenbuben” (“Fragment,” 132; street urchins).
I develop a semantics for imperatives within the truthmaker framework by taking the meaning of an imperative to be given by the actions that are in compliance with or in contravention to the imperative.
At the time of the Clean Air Act of 1990, the Los Angeles basin was the only region in the country classified as an extreme non-attainment area for exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone. Under pressure at the national level from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and at the state level from the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to significantly reduce emissions, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) launched a program for trading permits in nitrogen and sulfur oxides (NOx and SOx) in the Los Angeles basin. That program was strongly supported by environmental groups and large firms in the LA basin as the most cost effective way of attaining the desired reductions. This program, the REgional CLean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM), was initialized in October of 1993 and has been operating since early 1994.
The design of the tradable instruments was inevitably a compromise between regulatory interests and market efficiency. Regulators wanted to be able to control the timing and distribution of emissions as finely as possible with caps at many different locations and for many different time periods. To create liquidity, market designers wanted as few instruments as possible – a single aggregate cap would have been their preference. In the end, 136 different types of permits were created that could be used by a company to cover their emissions and, thereby, avoid the costs of abatement. This meant there were both substitutes and complements among the permits. Further, the markets for each of these permits would be illiquid. That created a big problem for the environmental engineers trying to choose between installing expensive abatement equipment or buying a portfolio of permits.
At the request of a number of firms, a new combinatoric market design was built and operated to help then and others deal with the complexities that the RECLAIM program created. In this chapter, we provide a description and analysis of that market.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To explore associations among bio-psychosocial factors predictive of overall physical and mental health status as assessed using the SF-12 Health Survey. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Community-dwelling, male and female elders with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were administered an assessment battery to identify factors associated with self-assessed physical and mental health status using the SF-12 Health Survey. The battery included an assessment of pain, depressive symptoms, perceived social support, perceived psychological stress, physical function, as well as selected demographic variables. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary linear regression analyses have identified several factors predictive of physical and mental health status including depressive symptoms, pain, perceived stress, and physical function. A more in-depth examination using path analysis is anticipated to reveal important mediational associations, wherein physical function is a strong mediator between bio-psychosocial factors and overall physical and mental health status. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Aging is often associated with a reduction in physical and mental well-being, frequently exacerbated by the development and progression of chronic disease. PAD is a common chronic condition that places significant burden on the older patient and their family. Identifying and developing a more in-depth understanding of the factors that impact health status in PAD is an important and timely objective. We anticipate that our findings will inform development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies we can employ to improve the quality of life among elders struggling to manage PAD.
Christmas tree worms (Spirobranchus spp.) are prominent sessile organisms inhabiting hermatypic corals in tropical and sub-tropical reefs. Until recently, most of the larger Spirobranchus species were considered to be in obligatory associations with live hermatypic corals. However, recent studies indicate that some Spirobranchus species can build tubes on artificial substrate as well and that others may show preferences for using specific species of corals and hydrozoans as substrates. In the present study, we conducted a survey of Spirobranchus spp. substrate preference in the Gulf of Eilat. We found seven morphotaxa of Spirobranchus, of which two may be a single new species. We show that Spirobranchus taxa differ not only in their morphology, but also in their substrate use. Our results demonstrate that the ecological niche of Spirobranchus is species-specific, and a putative innate preference exists for some substrates.
be a compact 4-manifold with boundary. We study the space of hyperkähler triples
, modulo diffeomorphisms which are the identity on the boundary. We prove that this moduli space is a smooth infinite-dimensional manifold and describe the tangent space in terms of triples of closed anti-self-dual 2-forms. We also explore the corresponding boundary value problem: a hyperkähler triple restricts to a closed framing of the bundle of 2-forms on the boundary; we identify the infinitesimal deformations of this closed framing that can be filled in to hyperkähler deformations of the original triple. Finally we study explicit examples coming from gravitational instantons with isometric actions of