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The aim of the present work is to report and describe three new species of the tropical brittle-star genus Ophiolepis. The new species are described herein as Ophiolepis aemulata sp. nov., Ophiolepis buitronae sp. nov. and Ophiolepis crebra sp. nov. As these species were previously misidentified, morphological traits and similarities between them and other species are extensively discussed. Ophiolepis buitronae sp. nov. is widespread in tropical and warm waters of the western Atlantic from intertidal to 36 m. It has consistently been misidentified as Ophiolepis impressa as these two species share a similar distribution and are found together. Ophiolepis aemulata sp. nov. is found in western Australia, as are its congeners Ophiolepis superba and Ophiolepis unicolor, while Ophiolepis crebra sp. nov. is found in Australia and Indonesia. There are 25 extant species, including the three new species, which are currently referred to the genus Ophiolepis.
Using UBVRI photometry and proper motions we have developed a procedure to separate dwarfs and subdwarfs from stars of other luminosity classes. Three independent methods to take into account the effect of metallicity in photometric distance determinations have been applied, giving special attention to the use of infrared colours for stars with (B – V) > 0.8m.
The application of these methods to a sample of 426 stars included in the HIPPARCOS Input Catalogue –for which we have obtained photometric data– allow us to analyze systematic differences.
Cepheids are excellent stellar tracers: they are bright enough to be observed even at large distances; their distances can be accurately determined via period-luminosity relations; their spectra contain numerous lines that enable us to derive abundances for many α, iron-peak or neutron-capture elements. Classical Cepheids are yellow supergiants that trace the young populations (⩽ 300 Myr); Type II Cepheids are post Horizontal Branch, low-mass, Population II stars (⩾ 10 Gyr). Both can be used for many purposes in Milky Way archaeology.
The Be massive X-ray binary LSI+61°303 is a 26.5 days periodic radiosource (Taylor & Gregory, 1984), exhibiting radio outbursts maxima between phases 0.6–0.8. Evidence of a photometric period of similar value has also been reported (Paredes & Figueras, 1986; Mendelson & Mazeh, 1989). The previous spectroscopic radial velocity observations of Hutchings & Crampton (1981) are in agreement with the radio period, and give support to the presence of a companion. We present new optical and infrared photometric observations and high resolution Hα spectra of LSI+61°303.
A powerful moving group-finding algorithm has been developed and applied to a large sample of B, A and F main sequence stars from the Hipparcos Input Catalogue. Four moving groups near the Sun (Pleiades, Sirius, IC2391 and Hyades) have been identified without assuming any a priori knowledge of the properties of moving groups. This is the most convincing objective evidence for their existence. After the members of the moving groups are removed from the sample, we investigate the disk heating problem. The results show that the velocity dispersion of the local disk stars increases with age, roughly as ≃ ∞ τ1/5.
In order to exploit the imminent HIPPARCOS data we have developed a new Maximum-Likelihood method to determine luminosity calibrations and kinematical properties with as bias-free as possible estimates. In most cases the samples are inhomogeneous, containing stars of several types. The method includes a way to separate the different groups. We applied the method to Mira variables contained in the HIPPARCOS Input Catalogue.
From uvby and Hβ photometry, individual stellar ages for A type stars have been derived using three different evolutionary models. In this paper we evaluate the corrections for metallicity and rotation to be applied to the physical parameters of Am and their influence on the determined ages. A test based on the Hyades open cluster is also presented.
Among the long period variable stars included in the Hipparcos observing program, 245 large-amplitude ones require brightness predictions during the mission in order to allocate the necessary observing time. We present the computation of the light ephemerides with numeric and symbolic methods using AAVSO’s 75-year data on maxima and minima dates and magnitudes and 20 years of individuai observations; the evaluation and revision of the ephemerides using ground-based observations compiled monthly by the AAVSO from observers world-wide and real-time monitoring of ephemerides stars from satellite observations performed at ESOC; the statistical results derived from one-and-a-half years of simultaneous ground-based and Hipparcos observations. We show the usefulness of all this work in understanding the physics of these pulsating variable stars.
The ESA HIPPARCOS satellite has provided astrometry of unprecedented accuracy, allowing us to reassess, improve and refine the pre-Hipparcos luminosity calibrations. We review the “classical” absolute magnitude calibrations with the Strömgren-Crawford intermediate-band photometric system. A small zero point correction of about 2-4% seems necessary, as well as to refine the dependences on metallicity and projected rotational velocity. The need of a rigorous statistical treatment of the extremely precise Hipparcos data to derive definitive dependences of the luminosity on physical parameters is emphasized.
We present a new set of cosmological Milky Way size galaxy simulations using ART. In our simulations the main system has been evolved inside a 28 Mpc cosmological box with a spatial resolution of 109 pc. At z=0 our systems have an Mvir = 6 − 8 × 1011 M⊙. In several of out models we have observed how a well defined disk is formed inside the dark matter halo and the overall amount of gas and stars is comparable with MW observations. Several non-axisymmetric structures arise out of the disk: spirals, bars and also a warp. We have also observed that a huge reservoir of hot gas is present at large distances from the disk, embedded in the dark matter halo region, accounting for only a fraction of the ”missing baryons”. Gas column density, emission (EM) and dispersion (DM) measure have been computed from inside the simulated disk at a position of 8 kpc from the center and in several directions. Our preliminary results reveal that the distribution of hot gas is non-isotropic according with observations (Gupta et al. 2012, Gupta et al. 2014). Also its metallic content presents a clear bimodality what is a consequence of a recent accretion of a satellite galaxy among others. After a careful analysis we confirm that due to the anisotropy in the gas distribution a new observational parameter needs to be defined to recover the real distribution of hot gas in the galactic halo (Roca-Fàbrega et al. 2016).
An extensive work on the luminosity calibration of the HR diagram has been performed using the LM method based on the Maximum Likelihood estimation (Luri et al. 1996). The method uses all available information: Hipparcos parallax and proper motion data as well as radial velocities and some measured spectroscopic or photometric parameters related to luminosity. On the other hand, the method takes into account the censorship of the sample and the errors of the data. Finally, it is able to identify and separate in a given sample, groups with different luminosity, kinematical or spatial characteristics providing not only the corresponding luminosity calibration relationship, but also improved individual absolute magnitude estimates.
In order to asses how reliable the luminosity calibrations based on the MK spectral classification are, the LM method has been applied to a sample of B to K stars with MK classification selected from the Hipparcos survey. All known binaries, variables and spectroscopically peculiar stars were removed from the sample. The final sample contains 22054 stars. Our results show that the relation between absolute magnitude and luminosity class has a large intrinsic dispersion. As a consequence, the assignation to a star of a mean absolute magnitude given by a MK classification calibration is a rough procedure. It is preferable to use the individual absolute magnitudes estimated using all the available information for each star, like the estimates provided by the LM method (Gómez et al. 1997).
The analysis of stellar kinematics of the local system of young stars from Hipparcos data offers an excellent opportunity to revise models accounting for the origin of the observed deviations from circular motions, and to give new hints on the history of star formation and the dynamical processes
involved in the evolution of our Galaxy. We have complemented the astrometric Hipparcos data with a careful compilation of available radial velocitiesand Strömgren photometry, information which enables us to obtain reliable space velocities and individual ages for a large number of stars. Thevelocity field has been studied by means of the classical first order approach, interpreting the trends observed in the Oort’s contants in terms of the local expansion of the Gould’s Belt (stars with ages less than 30-50 Myr, at heliocentric distances ρ < 400 — 600 pc). The fundamental geometric parameters of such structure have been determined. Several statistical methods have been applied to identify moving groups in the 4-dimensional space of (U,V,W, age). Our results definitively confirm their existence with mean velocity dispersions of the order of 5-7 km/s. The
obtained results will be published in Astronomy & Astrophysics.
We explore the possibility of detecting and characterising the warp of the stellar disc of our Galaxy using the synthetic Gaia data and the UCAC4 proper motion catalogue. We develop a new kinematic model for the galactic warp. We generate random realisations of test particles which evolve in a realistic Galactic potential warped adiabatically to various final configurations. The Gaia selection function, its errors model and a realistic 3D extinction map are applied to mimic three tracer populations: OB, A and Red Clump stars. A family of Great Circle Cell Counts (GC3) methods is used. They are ideally suited to find the tilt and twist of a collection of rings, which allow us to detect and measure the warp parameters. Moreover, We look for the kinematic signature of the warp in the μb proper motions of stars as a function of galactic longitude. Using the UCAC4 proper motions, we do not obtain a similar trend as the one we expect from our warp model. We explore a possible source of this discrepancy in terms of systematics caused by a residual spin of the Hipparcos celestial reference frame (HCRF) with respect to the extra-galactic inertial one.
In this work we shed new light in the nature of spiral arm structures in galaxies. We present a disk kinematic and dynamic study of MW like galaxies using complementary approaches: analytical models, test-particle simulations, pure N-body and cosmological N-body plus hydrodynamic simulations. Using collisionless N-body data we have found that models with strong bar present a flat rotation frequency, i.e. rigid body rotation, whereas in the opposite extreme case, i.e. in unbarred systems, spiral arms are disk corotant (Roca-Fàbrega et al. 2013). Complementary to this work, we discuss how the vertex deviation parameter is a good tracer of corotation (CR) and outer Lindblad resonance radius (OLR) (Roca-Fàbrega et al. 2014). We have succeeded to produce MW like models in fully cosmological N-body plus hydrodynamic simulations with a high resolution (Roca-Fàbrega et al., in preparation). First results concerning disk phase space properties in terms of spiral arm nature using these simulations are presented (http://www.am.ub.edu/ sroca/shared/PosterRocaFabrega.pdf).
This paper gives a brief overview of the Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training (GREAT) network, including a description of the GREAT-ESF Research Network Programme and the GREAT Initial Training Network (GREAT-ITN). Scientific highlights from the GREAT-ITN are noted.