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Intake in sugar-rich diets can be limited either via rumen fill or excessive rumen fermentation and source of non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC) in the diet can affect both factors. The aim of the current study was to quantify the effect of partially replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels in sugarcane-based diets on digestibility, rumen ecosystem and metabolism of Nellore steers. Six rumen-cannulated steers were assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square, replicated in time, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with two levels of concentrate (600 or 800 g concentrate/kg dry matter [DM]) and three NFC sources. Each steer within a period was considered an experimental unit. Feeding more concentrate increased total tract digestibility of organic matter and decreased fibre intake and passage rate. It also reduced rumen populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Streptococcus bovis and increased Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Substituting PCP for GM increased rumen pH, acetic acid and organic matter digestibility. Feeding PCP also reduced R. flavefaciens and R. amylophilus rumen populations. Substituting SRM for GM increased starch digestibility and rumen propionic acid, but decreased rumen ammonia concentration. Feeding SRM increased rumen populations of Megasphaera elsdenii with the high-concentrate diet but reduced Ruminococcus albus populations at both concentrate levels. In conclusion, partial replacement of GM by PCP decreased intake in sugar-rich diets, while increasing total tract neutral detergent fibre digestibility. Replacement of GM with SRM increases rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility of starch.
Replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize typically increases feed efficiency in maize-silage-based diets. However, little is known about optimal carbohydrate supplementation in sugarcane silage-based diets. The objective was to quantify the effect of partially replacing GM with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels (600 or 800 g/kg DM) in sugarcane-based diets on feeding behaviour, performance and blood parameters of finishing Nellore bulls. One hundred and eight young bulls were allocated to 36 pens in a randomized block design and fed for 84 d. Feeding 800 g/kg concentrate decreased time spending eating and ruminating, but improved G:F ratio, hot carcass weight and carcass dressing, compared to 600 g/kg concentrate. Bulls fed SRM and PCP diets with 600 g/kg concentrate had lower intake compared to GM. Both final weight and average daily gain decreased when bulls were fed PCP and SRM with 600 g/kg concentrate compared to GM diets, and when fed with PCP and 800 g/kg concentrate. Substituting PCP for GM decreased gain efficiency, carcass weight, rumination time and intake efficiency, indicating that the bulls consumed less feed per hour spent eating. Substituting SRM for GM increased backfat thickness and blood urea concentration. In conclusion, the replacement of GM with PCP reduces intake and enhances selection against large particles, decreasing rumination, performance and final carcass weight and dressing. Replacement of GM with SRM increases blood urea and fat deposition, with no impact on performance.
We evaluated the relationship between food availability, as the only dietary exposure data available across Africa, and age-standardised cancer incidence rates (ASR) in eighteen countries.
Availability of food groups and dietary energy was considered for five hypothetical time points: years of collection of ASR (T0) and 5, 10, 15 and 20 preceding years (T–5, T–10, T–15, T–20). Ecological correlations adjusted for human development index, smoking and obesity rates were calculated to evaluate the relationship between food availability and ASR of breast, prostate, colorectal, oesophageal, pancreatic, stomach and thyroid cancer.
Red meat was positively correlated with pancreatic cancer in men (T–20: r–20 = 0·61, P < 0·05), stomach cancer in women (T0: r0 = 0·58, P < 0·05), and colorectal cancer in men (T0: r0 = 0·53, P < 0·05) and women (T–20: r–20 = 0·58, P < 0·05). Animal products including meat, animal fats and higher animal-sourced energy supply tended to be positively correlated with breast, colorectal, pancreatic, stomach and thyroid cancer. Alcoholic beverages were positively correlated to oesophageal cancer in men (r0 = 0·69, P < 0·001) and women (r–20 = 0·72, P < 0·001).
The present analysis provides initial insights into the impact of alcoholic beverages, and increasing use of animal over plant products, on the incidence of specific cancers in Africa. The findings support the need for epidemiological studies to investigate the role of diet in cancer development in Africa.
Classical generalized linear models assume that marginal effects are homogeneous in the population given the observed covariates. Researchers can never be sure a priori if that assumption is adequate. Recent literature in statistics and political science have proposed models that use Dirichlet process priors to deal with the possibility of latent heterogeneity in the covariate effects. In this paper, we extend and generalize those approaches and propose a hierarchical Dirichlet process of generalized linear models in which the latent heterogeneity can depend on context-level features. Such a model is important in comparative analyses when the data comes from different countries and the latent heterogeneity can be a function of country-level features. We provide a Gibbs sampler for the general model, a special Gibbs sampler for gaussian outcome variables, and a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo within Gibbs to handle discrete outcome variables. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for latent heterogeneity with a Monte Carlo exercise and with two applications that replicate recent scholarly work. We show how Simpson’s paradox can emerge in the empirical analysis if latent heterogeneity is ignored and how the proposed model can be used to estimate heterogeneity in the effect of covariates.
Several elicitors, stimulating induced resistance mechanisms, have potential in preventing or mitigating pathogen infections. Some of these compounds, triggering the production of jasmonic acid (JA), a precursor of herbivore-induced plant volatiles, could also play a central role in indirect resistance to pest species, by improving beneficial arthropod performance, and necrotrophic pathogens. In the current work, Trichoderma gamsii/T. asperellum and silica gel treatments – alone and in combination – were studied to evaluate the plant defence mechanism on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) by laboratory and field trials. JA production level was measured before and after Plasmopara viticola infection on potted vines. JA production induced by silica gel was higher than that caused by Trichoderma before infection. In Trichoderma-treated plants, JA production increased after P. viticola inoculation. In vineyard field trials, Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) showed higher captures in transparent sticky traps on silica gel-treated plants, in comparison with control. On the other hand, no significant attraction was detected for Ichneumonoidea and other Chalcidoidea in silica gel and T. gamsii/T. asperellum-treated plants. The potential effects of elicitors are discussed, in the frame of attract and reward strategy.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Children born with a single ventricle congenital heart defect requires three invasive open-heart surgeries in the first three years of life. The third operation, the Fontan procedure, includes connection of the vena cava (VC) to the pulmonary artery (PA) using a bio-inert conduit to reduce work required by the right ventricle (RV). While this operation greatly extends the lives of HLHS patients, the Fontan circuit eventually fails, and the only solution is a scarcely available donor heart. This failed circuit is explained by the “Fontan paradox” where central venous pressures build up over time, causing increased systemic resistance and congestion. The absence of the sub-pulmonary ventricle leads to abnormal hemodynamics associated with life-threatening complications. We believe that decreasing central venous pressures through the use of a tissue engineered contractile, patient specific conduit will decrease the amount and severity of complications caused by the “Fontan paradox.” We will use amniotic fluid derived induced pluripotent stem cells (AF-iPSCs) differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CMs) to generate flow within a biodegradable conduit. Additionally, AF-iPSC will be differentiated into structural support cells (SSCs), including cardiac fibroblasts and epicardium. Several studies suggest advanced contraction and structure of CMs in specific ratios with SSCs, particularly mouse and human fetal fibroblasts. In combination, these cells have shown advanced tissue organization and function through mechanically and electrically aligned junctions. This allows them to have a magnitude higher contractile force than CMs alone, making them ideal for increasing pressure within a tissue engineered construct. This poster focuses on the differentiation and selection of SSCs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: AF-iPSCs differentiation began at roughly 80% confluency. Mesoderm formation occurred via WNT pathway modulation by supplementing RPMI+insulin media with 0.5 ng/mL BMP4 at day 0, followed by 3 ng/mL BMP4, 2 ng/mL Activin A, and 5 ng/mL BFGF for four days. Then, RPMI+insulin media was supplemented with 10 ng/mL of BMP4 until day fifteen for epicardial formation. Cells were lifted to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and RPMI-insulin media was supplemented with 10 ng/mL BFGF for cardiac fibroblasts. They were then harvested and characterized using immunofluorescence. Planned experiments include RT-qPCR for further characterization of cardiac fibroblasts. Additionally, a fibroblast isolation plating technique will be utilized to obtain cardiac fibroblast from AF-iPSC CMs and AF-iPSC epicardium. Commercially obtained human cardiac fibroblasts will be utilized as a control for all studies. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Immunofluorescence (IF) revealed positive expression of vimentin and α-SMA indicating a fibroblast and vascular smooth muscle phenotype after supplementation with 10 ng/mL of BMP4 after EMT induction. It is expected that IF of epicardial formation at day 15 will show positive expression of WT1, a well-known epicardial marker. We also suspect RT-qPCR will reveal high expression of cardiac fibroblast specific markers COL1A1, PDGFA, TCF21, and THSB1. We expect to yield a higher number of cardiac fibroblast from the small molecule AF-iPSC differentiation compared to a timed plating technique of AF-iPSC CMs and AF-iPSC epicardium (separately plated). Results will be quantified and compared using the aforementioned techniques. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Discussion/significance of impact: Although fibroblasts make up a large portion of cells in the heart and greatly enhance CM function, they are poorly characterized in the literature and not easily obtained. This study will provide an efficiency comparison on the best method for acquiring cardiac fibroblast for cardiac tissue engineering applications as we move forward with translational cardiac pediatric research.
Keel bone damage (KBD) in laying hens is an important welfare problem in both conventional and organic egg production systems. We aimed to identify possible risk factors for KBD in organic hens by analysing cross-sectional data of 107 flocks assessed in eight European countries. Due to partly missing data, the final multiple regression model was based on data from 50 flocks. Keel bone damage included fractures and/or deviations, and was recorded, alongside with other animal based measures, by palpation and visual inspection of at least 50 randomly collected hens per flock between 52 and 73 weeks of age. Management and housing data were obtained by interviews, inspection and by feed analysis. Keel bone damage flock prevalences ranged from 3% to 88%. Compiled on the basis of literature and practical experience, 26 potential associative factors of KBD went into an univariable selection by Spearman correlation analysis or Mann–Whitney U test (with P<0.1 level). The resulting nine factors were presented to stepwise forward linear regression modelling. Aviary v. floor systems, absence of natural daylight in the hen house, a higher proportion of underweight birds, as well as a higher laying performance were found to be significantly associated with a higher percentage of hens with KBD. The final model explained 32% of the variation in KBD between farms. The moderate explanatory value of the model underlines the multifactorial nature of KBD. Based on the results increased attention should be paid to an adequate housing design and lighting that allows the birds easy orientation and safe manoeuvring in the system. Furthermore, feeding management should aim at sufficient bird live weights that fulfil breeder weight standards. In order to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between laying performance, feed management and KBD further investigations are needed.
The crystal structure of tlapallite has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and supported by electron probe micro-analysis, powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Tlapallite is trigonal, space group P321, with a = 9.1219(17) Å, c = 11.9320(9) Å and V = 859.8(3) Å3, and was refined to R1 = 0.0296 for 786 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This study resulted from the discovery of well-crystallised tlapallite at the Wildcat prospect, Utah, USA. The chemical formula of tlapallite has been revised to (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6[Te4+3Te6+O12]2(Te4+O3)2(SO4)2·3H2O, or more simply (Ca,Pb)3CaCu6Te4+8Te6+2O30(SO4)2·3H2O, from H6(Ca,Pb)2(Cu,Zn)3(TeO3)4(TeO6)(SO4). The tlapallite structure consists of layers containing distorted Cu2+O6 octahedra, Te6+O6 octahedra and Te4+O4 disphenoids (which together form the new mixed-valence phyllotellurate anion [Te4+3Te6+O12]12−), Te4+O3 trigonal pyramids and CaO8 polyhedra. SO4 tetrahedra, Ca(H2O)3O6 polyhedra and H2O groups fill the space between the layers. Tlapallite is only the second naturally occurring compound containing tellurium in both the 4+ and 6+ oxidation states with a known crystal structure, the other being carlfriesite, CaTe4+2Te6+O8. Carlfriesite is the predominant secondary tellurium mineral at the Wildcat prospect. We also present an updated structure for carlfriesite, which has been refined to R1 = 0.0230 for 874 reflections with I > 2σ(I). This updated structural refinement improves upon the one reported previously by refining all atoms anisotropically and presenting models of bond valence and Te4+ secondary bonding.
We prove Hölder continuous regularity of bounded, uniformly continuous, viscosity solutions of degenerate fully nonlinear equations defined in all of ℝn space. In particular, the result applies also to some operators in Carnot groups.
Critical Reflection on the Argument of Complexity and Contingency and the Role of Enabling Conditions
Alexandra Campbell-Ferrari, the cofounder and executive director of The Center for Water Security and Cooperation (CWSC),
Luke Wilson, the cofounder and deputy director of The Center for Water Security and Cooperation (CWSC).
Better knowledge of national-, county- and municipal- level laws and institutional regimes will improve the process of collaboration and the development of agreements governing shared waters, thereby leading to greater cooperation in the regional and international management of shared waters. In other words, laws—their substance and enforcement across domestic jurisdictions—and the structure of governance at the national- level and lower are enabling conditions for effective cross- border water negotiation and management. These laws and institutions also represent innovation labs.
The Challenges We Face
There Is Not Enough Water to Quench Our Thirst
Water is essential to our lives and livelihoods. Yet, the Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development (OECD) estimates that four billion people could be living in water scarce regions by 2050.1 Without a clear vision delineating how growing water needs will be met and how deleterious impacts to waterways will be minimized, our limited water resources could be depleted and our populations put at risk. This vision is typically established through laws which set forth standards and rules that account for competing needs, equitably allocate waters, prohibit or limit pollution and plan for floods and droughts. Laws and cross- jurisdictional agreements are essential to effectively managing these limited waters in a fair, equitable and longterm manner.
Law- Making Authorities at Different Jurisdictional Levels Make It More Difficult to Cooperate
Multiple jurisdictions often exist along a shared river. Each jurisdiction typically has their own unique, independent approach and set of rules to govern their part of the river. These rules and institutions within each jurisdiction are likely to inform their thinking when designing and negotiating an agreement that will govern more than just their own jurisdiction. Their perspective will be enhanced or clouded by those prior institutional experiences and structures. Such experiences can lead to inertia and parochialism or a point of reference that leads to innovation.
Cooperation is further complicated by multiple levels of authorities within a state, both vertical (national to local) and horizontal (among organs within a single jurisdiction). Authorities over water are frequently spread across multiple organs within one jurisdiction and at the national, county and municipal levels.
We propose a model in which money performs an essential role in the process of exchange, despite the presence of a multilateral clearing house that collects resources from and distributes them to anonymous agents. Money improves the functioning of the clearing house, simultaneously keeping the incentives to contribute and guaranteeing the fine-tuning of allocations.
Prior research found that the positive association between wisdom and subjective well-being might at least partially be explained by a greater sense of mastery and purpose in life. This study tested whether religiosity provides an alternative pathway to well-being and whether the associations are moderated by age cohort and nation of residency.
Design and Participants:
A quota sample design was used, stratified by age group, sex, and nation of residency, to collect cross-sectional survey data of 111 older adults (age range 62–99 years, M = 77.20, SD = 8.98) and 100 young adults (age range 21–30 years, M = 24.05, SD = 2.69) from Canada and the United States.
Face-to-face interviews were conducted to administer the survey. All measures consisted of validated scales and items.
Multi-group path analysis confirmed that mastery and purpose in life partially mediated the association between wisdom and well-being. Religiosity offered an alternative pathway to well-being, also partially through a greater sense of mastery and purpose in life. Wisdom was statistically more strongly related to mastery among older adults, whereas the association between mastery and purpose in life was statistically stronger among young adults. The mediated pathways from wisdom and religiosity to well-being did not differ by nation of residency.
These results highlight the importance of internal strengths for subjective well-being among both young and older adults and add confidence to the generalizability of the mediated path model for North America.
This study aimed to estimate the number of new cancer cases attributable to diet among adults aged 30–84 years in France in 2015, where convincing or probable evidence of a causal association exists, and, in a secondary analysis, where at least limited but suggestive evidence of a causal association exists. Cancer cases attributable to diet were estimated assuming a 10-year latency period. Dietary intake data were obtained from the 2006 French National Nutrition and Health Survey. Counterfactual scenarios of dietary intake were based on dietary guidelines. Corresponding risk relation estimates were obtained from meta-analyses, cohort studies and one case–control study. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the French Network of Cancer Registries. Nationally, unfavourable dietary habits led to 16 930 new cancer cases, representing 5·4 % of all new cancer cases. Low intake of fruit and dietary fibre was the largest contributor to this burden, being responsible for 4787 and 4389 new cancer cases, respectively. If this is expanded to dietary component and cancer pairs with at least limited but suggestive evidence of a causal association, 36 049 new cancer cases, representing 11·6 % of all new cancer cases, were estimated to be attributable to diet. These findings suggest that unfavourable dietary habits lead to a substantial number of new cancer cases in France; however, there is a large degree of uncertainty as to the number of cancers attributable to diet, including through indirect mechanisms such as obesity, and therefore additional research is needed to determine how diet affects cancer risk.
In the 2013 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform, the attention paid to the environmental impact of the EU CAP and the fight against climate change became a key concern for the EU legislator. However, an assessment of the outcomes of the measures put in place to this aim reveals that the results achieved are unsatisfactory, particularly with reference to the substantial resources shown to have been consumed. While waiting to see – particularly in the light of the Commission Communication of November 2017 – if in the future CAP the main mistakes are corrected, this chapter will examine whether and to what extent the failure by the EU legislator to address the environmental impact of the EU agricultural policy may be challenged before the European Court of Justice.
As far as the EU agricultural policy is concerned, the recurrent leitmotiv is that the wide discretion accorded to the EU legislator is justified by the political sensitivity of the subject matter, which implies the consideration of several intertwined factors and delicate political choices. Therefore, while keeping in mind the division of powers between the legislator and the judiciary, this contribution aims – on the one hand – at taking stock of the situation concerning the extent of the judicial review of secondary legislation in the light of existing case-law; and – on the other hand – at exploring the matter of whether and to what extent some general principles of EU law or provisions having general application may suggest coming to a different interpretative solution. This, as will be seen, is particularly relevant with regard to an assessment of the legality questions related to the principles of proportionality and the principle of environmental integration, as well as the requirement to state reasons.
It is worth remembering that on 29 November 2017 the new Communication on the future of food and farming was published, which also endeavours to bring some changes to the way the CAP should tackle the environmental challenge. Amongst other things, this policy document purports to undertake a so-called ‘delivery model’ vis-a-vis several aspects of the CAP, including its environmental performance. Time will tell whether and to what extent the resolutions of this Communication will give rise to real commitments.