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This issue of JRA includes a thematic section with 5 papers on new advances in the archaeology of the Roman conquest. They emanate from a session organised by the present authors at the Roman Archaeology Conference held in April 2018 at the University of Edinburgh. As editors of this section, we intend that the present article serves as a short introduction to the topic.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between muscle mitochondrial function and residual feed intake (RFI) in growing beef cattle. A 56-day feeding trial was conducted with 81 Angus × Hereford steers (initial BW = 378 ± 43 kg) from the University of California Sierra Foothills Research Station (Browns Valley, CA, USA). All steers were individually fed the same finishing ration (metabolizable energy = 3.28 Mcal/kg DM). Average daily gain (ADG), DM intake (DMI) and RFI were 1.82 ± 0.27, 8.89 ± 1.06 and 0.00 ± 0.55 kg/day, respectively. After the feeding trial, the steers were categorized into high, medium and low RFI groups. Low RFI steers consumed 13.6% less DM (P < 0.05) and had a 14.1% higher G : F ratio (P < 0.05) than the high RFI group. No differences between RFI groups were found in age, ADG or BW (P > 0.10). The most extreme individuals from the low and high RFI groups were selected to assess mitochondrial function (n = 5 low RFI and n = 6 high RFI). Mitochondrial respiration was measured using an oxygraph (Hansatech Instruments Ltd., Norfolk, UK). State 3 and State 4 respiration rates were similar between both groups (P > 0.10). Respiratory control ratios (RCRs, i.e., State 3 : State 4 oxygen uptakes) declined with animal age and were greater in low RFI steers (4.90) as compared to high RFI steers (4.26) when adjusted for age by analysis of covariance (P = 0.003). Mitochondrial complex II activity levels per gram of muscle were 42% greater in low RFI steers than in high RFI steers (P = 0.004). These data suggest that skeletal muscle mitochondria have greater reserve respiratory capacity and show greater coupling between respiration and phosphorylation in low RFI than in high RFI steers.
We summarise numerical and analogue models of shape fabrics, and discuss their applicability to the shape preferred orientation of crystals in magmas. Analyses of flow direction and finite strain recorded during the emplacement of partially crystallised magmas often employ the analytical and numerical solutions of the Jeffery's model, which describe the movement of noninteracting ellipsoidal particles immersed in a Newtonian fluid. Crystallising magmas, however, are considered as dynamic fluid systems in which particles nucleate and grow. Crystallisation during magma deformation leads to mechanical interactions between crystals whose shape distribution is not necessarily homogeneous and constant during emplacement deformation. Experiments carried out in both monoparticle and multiparticle systems show that shape fabrics begin to develop early in the deformation history and evolve according to the theoretical models for low-strain regimes. At large strains and increasing crystal content, the heterogeneous size distribution of natural crystals and contact interactions tend to generate steady-state fabrics with a lineation closely parallel to the direction of the magmatic flow. This effect has been observed in all threedimensional experiments with particles of similar size and for strain regimes of high vorticity. On the other hand, studies of feldspar megacryst sub-fabrics in porphyritic granites suggest that these record a significant part of the strain history. Thus, the fabric ellipsoid for megacrysts evolves closer to the strain ellipsoid than for smaller markers. This behaviour results from the fact that the matrix forms of the melt and smaller crystals behave like a continuous medium relative to the megacrysts. Consequently, in the absence of these markers, and because the fabric intensities of smaller particles such as biotite are stable and lower than predicted by the theory, finite strain remains indeterminate. In that case, strain quantification and geometry of the flow requires the addition of external constraints based on other structural approaches.
Glyphosate resistance has evolved worldwide. Glyphosate is also the most used herbicide in Spain, and current changes in herbicide usage patterns can increase the risk of glyphosate resistance development. The objective of this study was to assess the glyphosate sensitivity of different selected weed species important in Spanish maize (Zea mays L.) fields. To this end, dose-response experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in a growth chamber to examine variation in glyphosate sensitivity amongst populations of five grass weed species and eight broadleaved weed species that are commonly found in the maize fields in Castilla y León, the biggest maize growing region in Spain. The glyphosate doses that caused growth reduction by 50% (GR50) were calculated for each weed population. No populations were resistant to glyphosate. In addition, baseline values of glyphosate sensitivity were determined for each weed species. The GR50 baseline values ranged from 10.25-53.23 g ai ha-1 for the dicotyledonous weed species and from 16.05 to 66.34 g ai ha-1 for the monocotyledonous weed species. The ratio between the GR50 values of the least and most sensitive populations was used to determine the SI50 index (sensitivity index at 50% growth reduction) for each weed species. The SI50 values showed a 1.4-3.3-fold difference in sensitivity for dicotyledonous weed species and 1.4-2.4-fold difference for monocotyledonous weed species. The sensitivity index was also calculated as the ratio between the GR50 values of the least sensitive population and the baseline GR50 value estimated for a range of susceptible populations (SI50b). SI50b values showed a 1.2-1.6-fold difference in sensitivity for dicotyledonous weed species and 1.1-1.2-fold difference for monocotyledonous weed species. The sensitivity data generated in this study provide a reference for determining time-dependent changes in glyphosate sensitivity in the commonly found weeds in the maize fields of Castilla y Léon.
The first record of the ophiuroid family Ophiohelidae from the Mediterranean Sea is reported. It consists of the description of the new record of Ophiomyces grandis from the Mallorca Channel seamounts in the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean, where it shows high abundances. We present both the morphological description of the individuals collected and, for the first time, the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of this species. The morphological traits of our specimens match the available descriptions of O. grandis. On the other hand, molecular analyses show a large genetic distance between O. grandis and Ophiomyces delata, the two species being very similar morphologically. Despite the high abundances of O. grandis reported here, previous surveys in the Mallorca Channel seamounts using ROV did not detect it, emphasizing the importance of beam trawl sampling to improving the biodiversity description of these geomorphological sea bottom features.
In Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection, the early identification of infants at risk for severe disease in order to potentially decrease morbidity could be considered a major goal. Current guidelines recommend only clinical observation for this purpose in infants without known comorbidities. However, recent evidence shows that the presence of pulmonary hypertension in this population is a relevant risk factor for the development of a severe illness, even in healthy infants. The determination of plasmatic NT-proBNP levels could help to identify those cases that benefit of echocardiographic screening to detect pulmonary hypertension in this population during hospitalization.
This paper addresses a methodology to parametrically size thermal control subsystems for high-speed transportation systems during the conceptual design phase. This methodology should be sufficiently general to be exploited for the derivation of Estimation Relationships (ERs) for geometrically sizing characteristics as well as mass, volume and power budgets both for active (turbopumps, turbines and compressors) and passive components (heat exchangers, tanks and pipes). Following this approach, ad-hoc semi-empirical models relating the geometrical sizing, mass, volume and power features of each component to the operating conditions have been derived. As a specific case, a semi-empirical parametric model for turbopumps sizing is derived. In addition, the Thermal and Energy Management Subsystem (TEMS) for the LAPCAT MR2 vehicle is used as an example of a highly integrated multifunctional subsystem. The TEMS is based on the exploitation of liquid hydrogen boil-off in the cryogenic tanks generated by the heat load penetrating the aeroshell throughout the point-to-point hypersonic mission. Eventually, specific comments about the results will be provided together with suggestions for future improvements.
To use a Machine Learning (ML) approach to compare Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (NPS) in participants of a longitudinal study who developed dementia and those who did not.
Mann-Whitney U and ML analysis. Nine ML algorithms were evaluated using a 10-fold stratified validation procedure. Performance metrics (accuracy, recall, F-1 score, and Cohen’s kappa) were computed for each algorithm, and graphic metrics (ROC and precision-recall curves) and features analysis were computed for the best-performing algorithm.
Primary care health centers.
128 participants: 78 cognitively unimpaired and 50 with MCI.
Diagnosis at baseline, months from the baseline assessment until the 3rd follow-up or development of dementia, gender, age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q) individual items, NPI-Q total severity, and total stress score and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 items (GDS-15) total score.
30 participants developed dementia, while 98 did not. Most of the participants who developed dementia were diagnosed at baseline with amnestic multidomain MCI. The Random Forest Plot model provided the metrics that best predicted conversion to dementia (e.g. accuracy=.88, F1=.67, and Cohen’s kappa=.63). The algorithm indicated the importance of the metrics, in the following (decreasing) order: months from first assessment, age, the diagnostic group at baseline, total NPI-Q severity score, total NPI-Q stress score, and GDS-15 total score.
ML is a valuable technique for detecting the risk of conversion to dementia in MCI patients. Some NPS proxies, including NPI-Q total severity score, NPI-Q total stress score, and GDS-15 total score, were deemed as the most important variables for predicting conversion, adding further support to the hypothesis that some NPS are associated with a higher risk of dementia in MCI.
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) can sometimes cause severe symptoms and lead to hospitalisation, but they often go unnoticed in the Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to describe the profile of patients hospitalised by TBDs; and (ii) to evaluate the data collected in the medical records from the ED in order to analyse their potential clinical consequences. A total of 84 cases that included all TBD diagnoses registered in the ED records were identified and analysed. These corresponded to all the hospitalisations by TBDs in the last 10 years (2009–2019) in two tertiary hospitals in Granada, Spain. Statistical analyses were made using RStudio. Coinciding with the absence of patient's report of exposure to ticks, 64.3% of TBDs were not suspected in the ED. Intensive care unit admission was required in 8.3% of cases, and the mortality rate was 2.4%. Non-suspected cases showed longer hospital stay (P < 0.001), treatment duration (P = 0.02) and delay in the initiation of antibiotic treatment (P < 0.001). Our findings indicate that symptoms associated with TBDs are highly non-specific. In the absence of explicit information related to potential tick exposure, TBDs are not initially suspected. As a consequence, elective treatment administration is delayed and hospitalisation time is prolonged. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance of addressing potential exposure to ticks during the ED contact with patients presenting with febrile syndrome.
Vaccination coverage (VC) against pertussis can increase when management practices and policies at primary care centres (PCCs) are reinforced. From 2011 to 2015, we performed a case–control study to evaluate VC among pertussis patients treated at PCCs in Barcelona, Spain. We recorded pertussis in patients from 8- to 16-year-olds at 52 PCCs. Pertussis cases had laboratory diagnostic and controls were healthy outpatients visiting the same facility for reasons other than cough. DTaP/dTap VC was recorded as either proper vaccination status (five doses recorded) or improper vaccination status (<5 doses recorded). We used a logistic regression model to estimate OR and 95% CI. We included 229 cases and 576 controls. VC was higher in cases (mean 5.01, s.e.: 0.57) than in controls (4.89, s.e.: 0.73). Around 69% of the cases had received DTaP primary immunisation after 2–5 years and 31.4% of cases had the dTap booster immunisation after 7–10 years. The 87% of children 5–9 years were properly vaccinated. We found no protection from becoming ill among properly vaccinated children (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.22–2.85). The highest VC was observed in patients with confirmed pertussis, which was likely due to a more exhaustive follow-up of the VC in these patients. Being properly vaccinated against pertussis will probably not increase VC.
Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is an expansion of the weakened arterial wall that is often asymptomatic until rupture, resulting in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Here we describe the high prevalence of familial IA in a cohort of Newfoundland ancestry. We began to investigate the genetic etiology of IA in affected family members, as the inheritance of this disease is poorly understood.
Whole exome sequencing was completed for a cohort of 12 affected individuals from two multiplex families with a strong family history of IA. A filtering strategy was implemented to identify rare, shared variants. Filtered variants were prioritized based on validation by Sanger sequencing and segregation within the families.
In family R1352, six variants passed filtering; while in family R1256, 68 variants remained, so further filtering was pursued. Following validation by Sanger sequencing, top candidates were investigated in a set of population controls, namely, C4orf6 c.A1G (p.M1V) and SPDYE4c.C103T (p.P35S). Neither was detected in 100 Newfoundland control samples.
Rare and potentially deleterious variants were identified in both families, though incomplete segregation was identified for all filtered variants. Alternate methods of variant prioritization and broader considerations regarding the interplay of genetic and environmental factors are necessary in future studies of this disease.
The interactions between the senses are essential for cognitive functions such as perception, attention, and action planning. Past research helped understanding of multisensory processes in the laboratory. Yet, the efforts to extrapolate these findings to the real-world are scarce. Extrapolation to real-world contexts is important for practical and theoretical reasons. Multisensory phenomena might be expressed differently in real-world settings compared to simpler laboratory situations. Some effects might become stronger, others may disappear, and new outcomes could be discovered. This Element discusses research that uncovers multisensory interactions under complex environments, with an emphasis on the interplay of multisensory mechanisms with other processes.
This study analyzes the variables that influence international competitiveness, both in industrialized and developing countries. Based on rich archival resources, the study explains the intense international competition between European and North American publishers in pursuing Latin American book markets throughout the course of the First Global Economy. The case of Spain provides an opportunity to study the patterns of the internationalization process of a nonleading country and compare them with the strategies developed by German, U.S., French, and British companies. This research sheds light on the importance of social networks and national cultural influences in the internationalization of this singular industry.
The first period of agrarian reforms with clear state control over the land (African socialisms) took place between 1945 and 1980, but then a second period started in which market agrarian reforms have prevailed. This work synthesizes agrarian structural reform policies (property systems and land tenure) between 1980 and 2016 in African countries, especially those that had or have bureaucratic bourgeoisie governments (one-party and/or African socialist). The two periods are complementary, rather then being opposed to each other, as state agrarian reforms smoothed the path to market agrarian reforms. Although there is not yet sufficient empirical research on the results of the agrarian reforms implemented during this period, our hypothesis is that they are helping to: increase the unequal structure of property; develop tenure systems and non-capitalist contractual labour relations in new ways, both non-associative (the grabbing of vast tracts of land) and associative (renewed control of customary lands by traditional authorities); and force peasant expropriation and the subsequent increase in the number of landless non-proletarianized peasants. Therefore, the problem of poor agrarian structures in Africa is still unresolved.
The present study investigated the effects of nutritional programming through parental feeding on offspring performance and expression of selected genes related to stress resistance in a marine teleost. Gilthead seabream broodstock were fed diets containing various fish oil (FO)/vegetable oil ratios to determine their effects on offspring performance along embryogenesis, larval development and juvenile on-growing periods. Increased substitution of dietary FO by linseed oil (LO) up to 80 % LO significantly reduced the total number of eggs produced by kg per female per spawn. Moreover, at 30 d after hatching, parental feeding with increasing LO up to 80 % led to up-regulation of the fatty acyl desaturase 2 gene (fads2) that was correlated with the increase in conversion rates of related PUFA. Besides, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (cox2) and TNF-α (tnf-α) gene expression was also up-regulated by the increase in LO in broodstock diets up to 60 or 80 %, respectively. When 4-month-old offspring were challenged with diets having different levels of FO, the lowest growth was found in juveniles from broodstock fed 100 % FO. An increase in LO levels in the broodstock diet up to 60LO raised LC-PUFA levels in the juveniles, regardless of the juvenile’s diet. The results showed that it is possible to nutritionally programme gilthead seabream offspring through the modification of the fatty acid profiles of parental diets to improve the growth performance of juveniles fed low FO diets, inducing long-term changes in PUFA metabolism with up-regulation of fads2 expression. The present study provided the first pieces of evidence of the up-regulation of immune system-related genes in the offspring of parents fed increased FO replacement by LO.
High stiffness fracture fixation devices inducing absolute stability, activate inefficient primary healing and stress shielding. Taking High Tibial Osteotomy as a representative example, review of the clinical literature and mapping the fracture healing process revealed two physically contradicting requirements, which are only partially met by current techniques. Stiffness of the fixation is required immediately after fracture, however in the remodelling phase this can cause stress shielding. Stability is required immediately after fracture, however in the ossification phase less stability is required to stimulate secondary (and more efficient) healing. This study evaluates the use of the TRIZ Inventive Design Principles to overcome these physical contradictions. Six designs concepts were evaluated, of which the Macro-Geometry stiffness modulated design was ranked the highest. This was achieved through spatial decomposition of the problem utilising the Inventive Principles of Asymmetry, Extraction and Local Quality. This study offer perspectives on how to increase the patient specificity of fixation utilising the increased topology freedom of design for additive manufacture (AM).
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.