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This volume challenges previous views of social organization focused on elites by offering innovative perspectives on 'power from below.' Using a variety of archaeological, anthropological, and historical data to question traditional narratives of complexity as inextricably linked to top-down power structures, it exemplifies how commoners have developed strategies to sustain non-hierarchical networks and contest the rise of inequalities. Through case studies from around the world – ranging from Europe to New Guinea, and from Mesoamerica to China – an international team of contributors explore the diverse and dynamic nature of power relations in premodern societies. The theoretical models discussed throughout the volume include a reassessment of key concepts such as heterarchy, collective action, and resistance. Thus, the book adds considerable nuance to our understanding of power in the past, and also opens new avenues of reflection that can help inform discussions about our collective present and future.
Fertility, pregnancy and childbirth are connected and inseparable realities that ultimately need to combine to result in a “baby at home”; each one of these phenomena possesses their own suite of challenges and limitations. From a biological viewpoint, the factors contributing to a successful “baby at home” are male factors (mainly sperm quality) and female factors (mainly oocyte quality and endometrial receptivity). Any failure or disability in one of these competences shall likely contribute to the reduced probability of having a “baby at home”. However, in modern times a new factor is playing a crucial role in this scenario, the so called “Artificial Reproduction Techniques” (ART). Thus, it is becoming increasingly possible for reproductive biologists and clinicians to apply a range of technologies to transform a biologically infertile couple to an assisted fertile one. To this purpose, a series of novel technologies, some of them with ethical implications at the time of their use on a routine basis, have and will continue to have a remarkable potential impact on fertility treatments .
The El Salt site (Alcoi, Alicante, Spain) is one of the latest Neanderthal sites in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula. The disappearance of this human group is controversial and needs detailed studies from different research areas. Taphonomy is essential to establish how representative is a fossil assemblage of the past living organisms that produced it and to interpret the formation process of the fossil site. In the case of El Salt, we have analyzed the micromammal assemblages of Units X and V, which contain fossils of Neanderthals and/or evidence of their activity. In contrast with previous identifications of the little owl (Athene noctua), our detailed taphonomic study shown here allows us to conclude that the main predator involved in the production of the micromammal assemblages was the European eagle owl (Bubo bubo). This is an opportunistic predator whose feeding preferences and behavior reflect the abundance of local micromammalian species, which can therefore provide a representation of past ecosystems near El Salt. The taphonomic information provided by this study also indicates the absence of transport and reworking processes, and reinforces previous paleoecological interpretations, suggesting an increase of aridity at the top of El Salt sequence that coincided with the local disappearance of Neanderthals.
Studies focused on deciduous dentition, ontogenetic series, and tooth eruption and replacement patterns in fossil mammals have lately increased due to the recognized taxonomic and phylogenetic weight of these aspects. A study of the deciduous and permanent dentition of Interatherium and Protypotherium (Interatheriinae) is presented, based mainly on unpublished materials. Deciduous cheek teeth are brachydont and placed covering the apex of the respective permanent tooth; in addition, some morphological and metrical differences are observed along the crown height. Five dental ontogenetic stages are distinguished among the juvenile specimens on the basis of the degree of wear, the replacement of the deciduous premolars, and the eruption of the molars. The crown height and the wear degree of different Interatheriinae taxa show: (1) eruption pattern of molars in an anterior–posterior direction (M/m1 to M/m3); (2) pattern of replacement of deciduous premolars and eruption of permanent premolars in a posterior–anterior direction (dP/dp4 to dP/dp2 and P/p4 to P/p2); and (3) eruption of M/m3 before the replacement of dP/dp4. Results allow evaluating the diagnostic dental characteristics used to describe some interatheriines, as well as reinterpreting some taxonomic assumptions: the holotype of Protypotherium diversidens Ameghino, 1891 is recognized as a juvenile of another species of the genus, and the species is not validated, considering it as Protypotherium sp.; the holotype of Eudiastatus lingulatus Ameghino, 1891 falls in the variability of Protypotherium, becoming P. lingulatus new combination, tentatively maintaining the species and implying the synonymy between Eudiastatus and Protypotherium; and the holotype of Eopachyrucos ranchoverdensis Reguero, Ubilla, and Perea, 2003 is reinterpreted as bearing deciduous premolars.
An outstanding cultural promoter, collector and patron of the arts in his native Spain, Gaspar de Haro y Guzmán (1629–87), 7th Marquess del Carpio, left his mark as ambassador in Rome (1677–82) and as viceroy in Naples (1682–7). In Italy, Carpio assembled forty-three volumes of drawings, of which only four, including SAL ms 879, have been spared dismemberment. Yet, lumping the ‘Carpio Album’ together with the nobleman’s collection of original drawings completely misses the point. Unlike the others, which were assembled to boost Carpio’s connoisseurship of Italian art, the Album was commissioned to showcase the collection of (largely antique) sculpture he had acquired in Rome and the series of modern fountains he commissioned, also in Rome. Like Vincenzo Giustiniani’s epoch-making Galleria Giustiniana of 1636–7, the Album was to be printed. The marquess’s departure for Naples cut short an ambitious publication project, the theoretical background and pedagogic scope of which have been largely overlooked. The attribution of drawings to artists Philipp Schor and Paolo De Matteis, amongst others, underlines the complex cultural agenda underpinning an Album conceived to reinstate the Roma antica myth by linking it to its Roma moderna counterpart. A new understanding of De Matteis’s artistry and objectives in configuring the Album is complemented with findings regarding Carpio’s commissioning or acquisition of antique, pseudo-antique and modern sculpture. The collection’s fateful dispersal helps unravel the Album’s most likely provenance.
Old age constitutes a vulnerable stage for developing gambling-related problems. The aims of the study were to identify patterns of gambling habits in elderly participants from the general population, and to assess socio-demographic and clinical variables related to the severity of the gambling behaviours. The sample included N = 361 participants aged in the 50–90 years range. A broad assessment included socio-demographic variables, gambling profile and psychopathological state. The percentage of participants who reported an absence of gambling activities was 35.5 per cent, while 46.0 per cent reported only non-strategic gambling, 2.2 per cent only strategic gambling and 16.3 per cent both non-strategic plus strategic gambling. Gambling form with highest prevalence was lotteries (60.4%), followed by pools (13.9%) and bingo (11.9%). The prevalence of gambling disorder was 1.4 per cent, and 8.0 per cent of participants were at a problematic gambling level. Onset of gambling activities was younger for men, and male participants also reached a higher mean for the bets per gambling-episode and the number of total gambling activities. Risk factors for gambling severity in the sample were not being born in Spain and a higher number of cumulative lifetime life events, and gambling severity was associated with a higher prevalence of tobacco and alcohol abuse and with worse psychopathological state. Results are particularly useful for the development of reliable screening tools and for the design of effective prevention programmes.
to describe a pilot infection prevention and control (IPC) assessment conducted in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in New York State (NYS) during a pivotal two-week period when the region became the nation’s epicenter for COVID-19.
a telephone and video assessment of IPC measures in SNFs at high risk or experiencing COVID-19 activity.
SNFs in 14 NYS counties including New York City.
a three-component remote IPC assessment: 1) screening tool; 2) telephone IPC checklist; and 3) COVID-19 video IPC assessment (“COVIDeo”).
92 SNFs completed the IPC screening tool and checklist; 52/92 (57%) were conducted as part COVID-19 investigations, and 40/92 (43%) were proactive prevention-based assessments. Among the 40 proactive assessments, 14/40 (35%) identified suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. COVIDeo was performed in 26/92 (28%) of assessments and provided observations that other tools would have missed including: PPE (personal protective equipment) that was not easily accessible, redundant, or improperly donned, doffed, or stored and specific challenges implementing IPC in specialty populations. The IPC assessments took approximately one hour each, reached an estimated four times as many SNFs as onsite visits in a similar timeframe.
Remote IPC assessments by telephone and video provided a timely and feasible method to assess the extent to which IPC interventions had been implemented in a vulnerable setting and to disseminate real-time recommendations. Remote assessments are now being implemented across NYS and in various healthcare facility types. Similar methods have been adapted nationally through CDC.
Spreading of pruning waste over the soil surface may increase soil organic carbon, thus improving soil physical properties and serving as a source of nutrients and energy for microbial populations. The aim of this study was to test the effect of the environmental conditions and the biochemical composition of pruning waste from avocado, cherimoya, mango and gardens on their decomposition process in a Mediterranean subtropical climate. Bagged pruning and garden waste were placed on the ground at a distance of 1 m around the trunk of the three trees from each crop. The concentrations in C, N, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, other extracts and ash were determined at the beginning of the experiment (T0), after six (T6) and 24 (T24) months in the field. Initially, significant differences were detected for all types of waste, especially in lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose and other extracts. No significant differences were found in the N content and the C content in mango pruning waste was significantly lower than that in avocado. The greatest weight loss recorded at T24 (63.2%) was related to the lower content in lignin, cellulose and other extracts. Weight losses and C concentrations showed negative correlations with lignin content. Despite the intense decomposition of all the waste, between 55 and 36.8% of the original weights were recorded at the end of the experiment. Recalcitrant C could be the result of the lignin concentrating in the case of the garden waste applied to the different crops.
There are limited data regarding the reproductive biology of the scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) in Ecuadorian waters, which limits the development of appropriate management measures of its populations. A total of 1664 S. lewini specimens were recorded in Manta, Ecuador in 2003–2009. Specimens were caught by local commercial fisheries and measured between 50–310 cm total length (TL). Females were more frequently caught, with a sex ratio of 1M:1.8F. The median size at maturity was 178.1 cm TL for males and 219.4 cm TL for females, which was larger compared with other localities. Gravid females, which measured 246–298 cm TL, contained 16–22 embryos. Embryos, which were observed from October–July, measured between 11.1–54.6 cm TL and the available data agreed with a gestation period of 10–11 months that starts in September and ends in June/July. Size at birth was 47–55 cm TL. Sampling data indicated that most fishing activity occurred in nearshore and around seamounts in the central-eastern Pacific Ocean, with much of the landed catch comprising immature individuals. This study documents the reproductive biology of S. lewini in the central-eastern Pacific Ocean and provides additional information to improve management and conservation measures for this species.
The current study aimed to analyse the prospective association between perceived work demand and changes in eating behaviours in schoolteachers.
This was a prospective cohort study with self-reported information obtained on the Demand Control Support Questionnaire and eating behaviours at baseline and after a 2-year follow-up. The analyses were performed using mixed-effects models adjusted for the main confounders.
The setting consisted of elementary and secondary schools located in a large city in southern Brazil.
The participants were 502 schoolteachers (65·9 % females, median age of 42·7 years [interquartile range 34·2, 49·4]).
A total of 39·2 % of the schoolteachers were classified at baseline with job strain, 28·9 % with passive job, 12·2 % with active job and 19·7 % with low-strain job. In the fully adjusted models, compared with teachers who reported low-strain job, those with higher levels of job strain were more likely to reduce (coefficient = 0·064; 95 % CI 0·018, 0·109) and less likely to increase (coefficient = −0·066; 95 % CI −0·115, −0·016) their frequency of fruit consumption regardless of sociodemographic, lifestyle, health conditions and social support at work.
Job strain plays a relevant role in the frequency of fruit consumption over time in schoolteachers. The balance between demand and control at work must be considered in strategies for promoting healthy eating despite perceived social support.
To examine the association between family environment variables (parenting styles, family meal atmosphere), gender-based stereotypes and food intake in Latin American adolescents.
Structural equation modelling applied to cross-sectional data, 2017.
Urban and rural sites of San José, Costa Rica.
n 813; 13–18 years old.
Data suggest direct associations between gender-based stereotypes and intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) (β = 0·20, P < 0·05), unhealthy foods (fast food (FF)) (β = −0·24, P < 0·01) and ultra-processed foods (β = −0·15, P < 0·05) among urban girls; intake of legumes among rural girls (β = 0·16, P < 0·05) and intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among rural boys (β = 0·22, P < 0·05). Family meal atmosphere was associated with legume intake (β = 0·19, P <·05) among rural girls. Authoritative parenting style was associated with FV intake (β = 0·23, P < 0·05) among urban boys and FF intake (β = 0·17, P < 0·05) among urban girls. Authoritarian parenting style was associated with FV consumption (β = 0·19, P < 0·05) among rural boys, and with SSB and FF consumption (β = 0·21, P < 0·05; β = 0·14, P < 0·05, respectively) among urban girls.
Findings are the first to describe the complex family environment and gender-based stereotypes within the context of a Latin American country. They emphasise the need for culturally relevant measurements to characterise the sociocultural context in which parent–adolescent dyads socialise and influence food consumption.
Winter wild oat [Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (Durieu) Gillet & Magne; referred to as A. sterilis here] is one of the major weed species of the Avena genus, given its high competitive ability to infest cereal crops worldwide, with special concern in Spain. A nine-location field experiment was established across Spain where a total of 400 A. sterilis seeds per location were sowed in four replicates in autumn 2016 to monitor the emergence during two growing seasons in dryland conditions. The data were used to test the prediction ability of previously published thermal (TT) and hydrothermal time (HTT) models and to develop new models, if required. Overall, the average percentage of emergence was 30% during the first season and 21% during the second season. In both seasons, the main emergence flush occurred between November and February. According to the phenological stage, A. sterilis achieved the tillering earlier in southern sites, between November 25 and the end of December, compared with northern sites, where this stage was reached at the end of January. The newly developed model described the emergence with precision, using three cardinal temperatures to estimate the TT. The three cardinal points were established at −1.0, 5.8, and 18.0 C for base (Tb), optimum (To), and ceiling temperature (Tc), while the base water potential (Ψb) was established at −0.2 MPa for the HTT estimation. This study contributes to improving prediction of the emergence of A. sterilis and provides knowledge for decision support systems (DSS) for the control of this weed.
During the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic, between March and July 2020, Spanish national and regional authorities made extensive use of soft law mechanisms to fight the spread of the virus and to tackle the consequences of the crisis. Soft law was used either as an instrument in and of itself, or as a justification for hard law instruments, with more than 200 non-binding measures being enacted by the State and by the Autonomous Communities. Spanish courts also extensively used soft law as a tool to interpret existing hard law instruments, many of them related to the protection of the fundamental right to personal integrity. Such uses give rise to concerns as regards the transparency of administrative action and the principle of legal certainty. Moreover, the widespread use of soft law measures as criteria justifying the adoption of binding measures restricting fundamental rights may have consequences from the perspective of the democratic accountability and judicial control of executive action. Overall, this points to the need to reconsider the current system of constitutional and legal constraints attached to this form of regulation, for example by introducing some binding procedural rules relating to its adoption and its publication, as well as by clarifying its legal effects and the mechanism through which it can be enforced by courts.
The slipper lobster Scyllarus arctus is an important fishery resource in Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula), with a large reduction of its populations in recent decades in the North-east Atlantic and Mediterranean, but only limited information on its reproduction. This study provides an analysis of the reproductive potential of this scyllarid during two breeding cycles (2008 and 2009) in the NE Atlantic (43°20′N 8°50′W). We studied several reproductive traits (fecundity, brood weight, egg weight and volume) in broods with eggs both in an early and late embryonic stage, in relation to female size and temporal variations. Total output (fecundity and weight) and egg weight were closely linked to maternal size, and this relationship remained in broods with late-stage eggs. In relation to temporal variations, our data revealed an important seasonal variability in fecundity and egg weight, showing an inverse pattern in the reproductive strategy in the first two seasons of the reproductive period, with a maximum egg weight in winter (December–February) and a maximum number of eggs produced in spring (April–May). A predictive model for realized fecundity was developed: log (FE) = 0.064 + 2.907 log (length)−0.018 Month2 + 0.174 Month, which accounted for over 90% of variation in the total data.
The association of leishmaniasis and malignancies in human and animal models has been highlighted in recent years. The misdiagnosis of coexistence of leishmaniasis and cancer and the use of common drugs in the treatment of such diseases prompt us to further survey the molecular biology of Leishmania parasites and cancer cells. The information regarding common expressed proteins, as possible therapeutic targets, in Leishmania parasites and cancer cells is scarce. Therefore, the current study reviews proteins, and investigates the regulation and functions of several key proteins in Leishmania parasites and cancer cells. The up- and down-regulations of such proteins were mostly related to survival, development, pathogenicity, metabolic pathways and vital signalling in Leishmania parasites and cancer cells. The presence of common expressed proteins in Leishmania parasites and cancer cells reveals valuable information regarding the possible shared mechanisms of pathogenicity and opportunities for therapeutic targeting in leishmaniasis and cancers in the future.
To better understand COVID-19 transmission among healthcare workers (HCW), we investigated occupational and non-occupational risk factors associated with cumulative COVID-19 incidence among a Massachusetts HCW cohort.
Design, setting, and participants:
The retrospective cohort study included adult HCWs in a single healthcare system from March 9 to June 3, 2020.
Participants’ SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal RT-PCR results and demographics were de-identified and extracted from an established occupational health, COVID-19 database at the healthcare system. HCWs from each particular job grouping had been categorized into frontline/non-frontline workers. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) and odds ratio were used to compare subgroups after excluding HCWs involved in early infection clusters before universal masking. A sensitivity analysis was performed comparing jobs with the greatest potential occupational risks with others.
152 out of 5177 (2.94%) HCWs were diagnosed with COVID-19. Affected HCWs resided in areas with higher community attack rates (median: 1755.2 vs. 1412.4 cases per 100,000, P<0.001)(multivariate-adjusted IRR: 1.89, 95%CI: 1.03–3.44 comparing 5th to 1st quintile of community rates). After multivariate adjustment, African Americans and Hispanics had higher incidence than non-Hispanic white HCWs (IRR: 2.78, 95%CI: 1.78–4.33; and IRR: 2.41, 95%CI: 1.42–4.07, respectively). After adjusting for race and residential rates, frontline HCWs had a higher IRR (1.73, 95%CI: 1.16–2.54) compared to non-frontline HCWs overall, but not within specific job categories, nor when comparing the highest risk jobs to others.
After universal masking was instituted, the strongest risk factors associated with HCWs’ COVID-19 infection were residential community infection rate and race.
Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, especially in Peru, where it affects women of childbearing age and school-age children. The objective of the study was to conduct a household-level analysis of the factors associated with the consumption of table salt with inadequate amounts of iodine in Peru.
Analytical cross-sectional study using Peruvian household-level data from the Demographic and Family Health Survey. Table salt iodine concentrations were considered as the dependent variable (‘inadequate’ with iodine levels <30 PPM and ‘adequate’ with levels ≥30 PPM). The association between iodine concentrations in salt and independent variables was evaluated using crude and adjusted log-binomial regression models.
A total of 25 007 households were included.
In Peru, 21·8 % households had inadequate table salt iodine concentrations. Belonging to the poorer and poorest wealth index, living in the Highlands natural region, and living with women of childbearing age with native mother tongue were identified as factors associated with inadequate iodine concentrations in table salt.
There is an urgent need to ensure that table salt with adequate iodine concentrations is available for poor populations, residents of the Highlands and households with ethnic presence. Likewise, it is necessary to promote good storage practices, greater regulation/law enforcement and better monitoring of the companies that manufacture or sell this product. Furthermore, the population needs to be informed of the disorders associated with iodine deficiency.
The preservation of Military Macaw Ara militaris in Mexico required the implementation of a nationwide assessment evaluating its vulnerability using IUCN criteria. With the combined effort of several institutions, the abundance, location, dispersion, habitat availability, and climatic conditions of areas occupied by the species were determined. Although the species’ extent of occurrence is extensive (263,919 km2) only 29% of this constitutes area of occupancy. Published estimates indicate a series of isolated populations containing from four macaws to 215. Macaws occurred in 35 populations in four regions of 16 states containing an estimated 1,563–3,263 macaws; lower than required for long-term viability. Within regions, neighbouring populations were separated by an average of 68 km. The extent of occurrence is heterogeneous, and macaws inhabit areas that differ in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and forest cover. Higher local abundances occur in landscapes where annual precipitation is ≥1,100 mm, and primary forest availability ≥1,800 km2. Although the existence of undetected macaw groups in Mexico is possible, these are likely to contain only small numbers of individuals, as most detected areas with macaws contain less than 40 individuals, and larger concentrations are more likely to be noticed due to their conspicuous behaviour. The species is threatened primarily by its low overall abundance, fragmented distribution, and forest loss around populations with the highest abundance. With the information generated, it is possible to design and implement specific management and conservation strategies at different geographic scales for the recovery and maintenance of the species in Mexico. It is necessary to strengthen collaborative programmes among conservation organizations, government agencies, and local communities in each region of the country to organize and finance community-based actions such as monitoring, habitat restoration, protection from poaching and the creation of a network of conservation corridors and macaw reserves focused on conservation.