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We show that the sale of state-owned firms in dictatorships can help political corporations to emerge and persist over time. Using new data, we characterize Pinochet’s privatizations in Chile and find that some firms were sold underpriced to politically connected buyers. These newly private firms benefited financially from the Pinochet regime. Once democracy arrived, they formed connections with the new government, financed political campaigns, and were more likely to appear in the Panama Papers. These findings reveal how dictatorships can influence young democracies using privatization reforms.
The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most important agricultural pests and virus vectors worldwide. Bemisia tabaci is considered a complex of cryptic species with at least 44 species. Among them, the species Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1, formerly B biotype) and Mediterranean (MED, formerly Q biotype) are the most important, and they have attained global status. In Brazil, MEAM1 was first reported in the 1990s and is currently the predominant species in the country, meanwhile, MED was recently reported in the South and Southeast regions and was found to be mainly associated with ornamental plants. Currently, an increasing problem in the management of whitefly infestations in greenhouses associated with bell pepper was observed in São Paulo State, Brazil. The whiteflies were collected and identified based on a microsatellite locus (primer pair BEM23F and BEM23R) and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. We observed that MED was the predominant species collected on bell pepper, but it was also found on tomato, cucumber, eggplant, and weeds grown in greenhouses. In open field, we found MED on tomatoes, bell peppers, and eggplants. In addition, MED was identified in Goiás State in association with ornamental plants. The begomovirus Tomato severe rugose virus and the crinivirus Tomato chlorosis virus was detected on bell pepper and tomato, respectively. Only MED specimens were found associated with the virus-infected plants. Moreover, we also investigated the endosymbionts present in the MED whiteflies. The collected populations of B. tabaci MED harbored a diversity of secondary endosymbionts, with Hamiltonella (H) found predominantly in 89 specimens of the 129 tested. These results represent a new concern for Brazilian agriculture, especially for the management of the newly introduced whitefly MED species, which must be implemented to limit the spreading and establishment of this pest in different crops in this country.
This chapter engages a range of texts that, for over thirty years, have shaped understandings of black and Asian British popular fictions through numerous forms and genres. In reading, among others, crime and detective fictions, female erotica, and The X-Press’s inner-city novels, and also music and popular film, the chapter suggests two theoretical trajectories: On the one hand, it explores the liminal space of the frontline as a framework for charting the politics of popular texts. On the other, it shows how these texts often negotiate their own positionalities through a self-reflexive ‘nobrow’ aesthetics. As it moves from the late 1980s to the 1990s, the first section revisits texts by, among others, Mike Phillips, Victor Headley, Sheri Campbell, Alex Wheatle, and Courttia Newland, whose work in part surfaced as a counter-movement to a highbrow literary aesthetics. Reaching into the twenty-first century, the second part addresses more recent popular textualities, like Wiley’s or Stormzy’s grime music, contemporary estate novels by Guy Gunaratne, Olumide Popoola, and Nikesh Shukla, as well as the films of Noel Clarke and Menhaj Huda.
This article presents three arguments on why businesses have direct obligations under existing international law. Nevertheless, in the present state of international law, the obligations of businesses are limited and wholly dependent on the state’s further action of implementation and enforcement. To reach this conclusion, the article asserts that businesses have partial legal personality in international law; that legal obligations and the enforcement model must be distinguished as two separate issues; and that human rights are requirements of justice that emanate from the dignity of each human person to any social actor, including businesses and other non-state actors. The article attempts to contribute to the debate about a binding instrument on business and human rights and presents an alternative understanding of international law that can assist domestic tribunals in applying international human rights standards to businesses as they carry out activities in their jurisdictions.
We surveyed Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program hospitals to evaluate infection prevention and microbiology laboratory preparedness for Candida auris. We identified significant gaps: most hospitals were not prepared to screen patients for colonization, and only one-half of laboratories reported identifying all clinically significant Candida isolates to the species level.
Mental disorders can have a major impact on brain development. Peripheral blood concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are lower in adult psychiatric disorders. Serum BDNF concentrations and BDNF genotype have been associated with cortical maturation in children and adolescents. In 2 large independent samples, this study tests associations between serum BDNF concentrations, brain structure, and psychopathology, and the effects of BDNF genotype on BDNF serum concentrations in late childhood and early adolescence.
Children and adolescents (7-14 years old) from 2 cities (n = 267 in Porto Alegre; n = 273 in São Paulo) were evaluated as part of the Brazilian high-risk cohort (HRC) study. Serum BDNF concentrations were quantified by sandwich ELISA. Genotyping was conducted from blood or saliva samples using the SNParray Infinium HumanCore Array BeadChip. Subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were quantified using FreeSurfer. The Development and Well-Being Behavior Assessment was used to identify the presence of a psychiatric disorder.
Serum BDNF concentrations were not associated with subcortical volumes or with cortical thickness. Serum BDNF concentration did not differ between participants with and without mental disorders, or between Val homozygotes and Met carriers.
No evidence was found to support serum BDNF concentrations as a useful marker of developmental differences in brain and behavior in early life. Negative findings were replicated in 2 of the largest independent samples investigated to date.
The blue crab Callinectes sapidus is an important ecological and commercial species. It plays a fundamental role in the structure and function of coastal benthic food webs, with global catches of ~74,357 tons. This is the most exploited portunid species in Brazil. However, few studies about the ecology and population dynamics of C. sapidus have been published. This study aimed to analyse the preferred areas for the spatial distribution of juveniles and moulting individuals of C. sapidus in shallow areas of the Patos Lagoon estuary and the adjacent marine reproductive area, and their relation to water and sediment characteristics. Juveniles and moulting individuals preferred the embayment of the upper estuary, where the sediments are finer, with higher contents of organic matter and the presence of submerged vegetation. There was also a temporal variability in the abundance of juvenile size classes, with two marked increments of smaller individuals: (1) in late spring and summer and (2) in winter, indicating two recruitment peaks. Unusual environmental conditions in the summer of the first year, with an increase of fine sediments and organic matter, combined with low salinities in the adjacent marine area, allowed recruitment of individuals there. We suggest better attention to the embayment around the Marinheiros Island (considered here as upper estuary) for management and protection measures due to the overlapping of recruitment preferences of the blue crab, pink shrimp and fish species in this area.
Plants of Sumatran fleabane [Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker] were identified in a field with an unusual rapid leaf-injury herbicide symptoms after application of 2,4-D in mixture with glyphosate. The objectives of this study were to confirm the occurrence of resistance to 2,4-D herbicide and to characterize the occurrence of rapid necrosis as the mechanism associated with the herbicide resistance in C. sumatrensis. The studies performed were an initial screening, effect of 2,4-D alone and associated with glyphosate, cross- and multiple-resistance evaluation, effect of commercial formulation and analytical product, and rate of H2O2 evolution. The Marpr9-rn accession was identified with rapid necrosis symptoms and survival to 804 g ae ha−1 of 2,4-D. The resistance factor to the herbicide 2,4-D was 18.6 at 49 d after spraying. The analytical product 2,4-D and the commercial formulation resulted in similar symptoms of rapid necrosis. This symptom did not occur for the six other auxinic herbicides (dicamba, florpyrauxifen-benzyl, fluroxypyr, halauxifen-methyl, picloram, and triclopyr), indicating absence of cross-resistance. Multiple resistance to the herbicides paraquat, saflufenacil, and ammonium glufosinate was not identified in the Marpr9-rn population. However, survival following treatment with the herbicides glyphosate and chlorimuron-ethyl occurred. The evolution of H2O2 began at 15 min after application and was less pronounced in low light. These results indicate the first case of resistance to 2,4-D and occurrence of rapid necrosis in C. sumatrensis.
Technology has been a central theme in archaeological discussion. Different approaches have been developed in order to understand and better explain the processes that lead to the production of objects and things. The anthropology of technology has been one such effort, with its focus on technological style and the chaîne opératoire. In this paper we argue that, despite their many contributions, these approaches tend to isolate the process of production, as well as to see it as the imposition of culture over nature. Instead, we propose a relational approach to technology, one that considers the multiple participants in the social actions involved, stressing the affective qualities of the different entities participating in the process of making. We focus this discussion on the production process of rock art in North Central Chile by Diaguita communities (c. ad 1000–c. 1540), arguing that making petroglyphs was a central activity that aimed at the balancing of the world and its participants, creating a mediating space that facilitated connectedness between the multiple members of the Diaguita world, humans and other-than-humans.
Chapter 3 analyzes the range of indices of antiquity that interpreters in Roman Anatolia consider meaningful. It examines the groupings of remains that interpreters formed to frame or support their favored historical narratives and calls attention to the fact that ancient groupings do not always correspond to what modern archaeologists usually consider archaeologically meaningful evidence.
Chapter 2 asks who was interested in and knowledgeable about the physical traces of the past in Roman Anatolia. The chapter is focused on the various people in the region who interacted daily with ruins and other such indices of antiquity. It sheds light on the very wide social range of ancient interpreters, on the dynamics of interaction among them, and on the different strategies of interaction with realia that those various people had.
Chapter 6 discusses how the author’s analysis of Roman-period evidence intersects with current discussions in about the location of authority in archaeology and anthropology. It argues that the evidence treated in this book is fundamental to the long-term history of archaeology and antiquarianism, even without being evidence of either.