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Long ago, George Sarton set down criteria for reviewers. In addition to insisting on the need to compose ‘faithful’ reviews, he cautioned against four types of unfit reviewers: the ‘egoist’, the ‘obscure’ reviewer, the one who is noncommittal, and the pedantic critic. Unfortunately, Cohen's review comes short on several counts. Cohen writes that he intends to examine what is ‘new’ in the three books he reviews, and whether the results therein contained are ‘worth learning’ (p. 687). Cohen denies being given to ‘misplaced hero worship’, insisting that his sole aim is to assess whether ‘scholarly novelty’ (p. 693) has been attained. Nevertheless, given his repeated rebuke of the authors under review for ‘failing to refer back to [Richard] Westfall's work’ on Newton – now nearly half a century old – it seems that he grounded his critique principally on Westfall's interpretation.
The target article is a qualitative review of selected findings in the physical attractiveness literature. This commentary explains why the meta-analytic approach, frequently used by other attractiveness reviewers, is preferable for drawing unbiased conclusions about the effects of attractiveness. The article's main contribution is affording a foundation for subsequent meta-analysis of the studies discussed in a subjective fashion.
Humans who eat fish are exposed to mixtures of healthful nutrients and harmful contaminants that are influenced by environmental and ecological factors. Marine fisheries are composed of a multitude of species with varying life histories, and harvested in oceans, coastal waters and estuaries where environmental and ecological conditions determine fish exposure to both nutrients and contaminants. Many of these nutrients and contaminants are thought to influence similar health outcomes (i.e., neurological, cardiovascular, immunological systems). Therefore, our understanding of the risks and benefits of consuming seafood require balanced assessments of contaminants and nutrients found in fish and shellfish. In this paper, we review some of the reported benefits of fish consumption with a focus on the potential hazards of mercury exposure, and compare the environmental variability of fish oils, selenium and mercury in fish. A major scientific gap identified is that fish tissue concentrations are rarely measured for both contaminants and nutrients across a range of species and geographic regions. Interpreting the implications of seafood for human health will require a better understanding of these multiple exposures, particularly as environmental conditions in the oceans change.
There is a well-established notion among Irish and British historians that local self-government began in Ireland in 1898, when the Local Government Act created the system of elective county councils to replace the old grand jury system in the government of the counties. The grand juries, it is well-known, were instruments of the Irish “landed interest”—the gentry and aristocracy—whose dominance over these bodies was protected by a rigid system of property qualifications and appointing procedures that admitted only trustworthy landowners to the jury seats. Since only the juries were empowered to levy and expend the county tax known as the “cess,” they were therefore also able to dominate the lesser county authorities, the county and baronial presentment sessions, through control of the purse. When the 1898 act abolished this aristocratic system and replaced it with a new system of representative county and district councils, the result was a de facto transfer of power in local government from the old landowning class to the peasantry. This view, which was first promoted by the founders of the 1898 act, has been repeated by numerous historians since then, and for lack of evidence to the contrary it prevails today.
Willian O'Brien, the nationalist M.P. and editor of the Parnellite newspaper United Ireland, might well have disputed this view if he were alive today. As a practicing politician who understood well the ways in which power can be exercised, he was more inclined to look at the practical operations of public bodies rather than their constitutions to determine which party held the real power. In his Recollections, which were published in 1905, O'Brien reminisced about the turbulent years of the great “land war” of 1879-1882 and recalled how, in 1882, that historic struggle between Irish landlord and tenant for control of the soil focused for a time in a struggle for control of the Irish boards of guardians, the 163 bodies which administered the Irish poor law in the localities.
High quality SiOx films were deposited onto InP substrates in the temperature range of 350 to 550°C and pressure range of 5 to 15 Torr. Depositions were made by means of rapid thermal low pressure chemical vapor deposition (RT-LPCVD) using oxygen (O2) and 2% diluted silane (SiH4) in argon (Ar) gas sources, with O2:SiH4 gas ratio of 5:1 to 50:1. High deposition rates of 15–50 nm/sec were obtained, providing uniform SiOx layers, with low stresses of −5×109 to −2×109 dyne-cm−2, and thermal stability on post deposition temperatures up to 1000°C. The SiOx films had refractive indexes between 1.44 and 1.50, densities of 2.25 to 2.37grcm−3 and exhibited wet etch rates of 0.2 to 0.8 nmsec.−1 through standard p-etch process. The influence of the various process parameters on the SiOx film properties was examined.
The viability of forming an ohmic contact to InGaAs/InP structures by means of a load-locked RT-LP(MO)CVD integrated process, was demonstrated. The wafer was loaded into the reactor chamber and was exposed to a sequence of dry and in-situ processes which led to the formation of an ohmic contact. After an in-situ cleaning of the wafer through a thermal cycle at 500°C under a flow of tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP), which provided the needed free hydrogen for a mild etching of the surface, however with an over pressure of P to eliminate surface degradation, a layer of silicon oxide (SiOx ) was rapid thermal chemical vapor deposited (RT-CVD) onto the InGaAs/InP sample via a rapid thermal cycle (500°C,30 s) in a low pressure O2 and 2% diluted SiH4. Dry etching of 50–150 μm wide contact stripes was carried out using a contact stencil mask by an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) dry etching. Subsequently the wafer was reloaded through the load-lock to the main chamber and a TiNx layer were selectively deposited into the via-holes and processed to provide an ohmic contact to the InGaAs/InP substrate. Finally, a blanket deposition of conducting cap layer was realized by means of RT-LP(MO)CVD. This work provides a solid demonstration to the feasibility of the single-wafer-integrated-process (SWIP) as an approach to replace the batch process traditionally used for manufacturing the InP-based optoelectronic devices.
Tungsten (W) films were deposited onto InP in a cold wall, rapid thermal low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (RT-LPCVD) reactor, from a tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) gas reduced by hydrogran (H2). W films of thickness 50 to 450 nm were deposited in the temperature range of 350° to 550°C, pressure range of 0.5 to 4.5 Torr and deposition rates up to 4 nm/sec with an apparent activation energy of about 1.12 eV. The film stress varied depending upon the deposition pressure, from low compressive for deposition at 0.5 Torr to moderate tensile for deposition at about 4.5 Torr. The films were aged at temperatures as high as 300°C for about 800 hr and exhibited an excellent mechanical stability. Post-deposition sintering of the W films at temperatures up to 600°C led to reduction of the resistivity with a minimum value of about 55μΩ-crn as a result of heating at 500°C. Conditions for both selective and blanket deposition were defined, and a dry etching process for further geometrical definitions of the films was developed, providing etch rates of 40 to 50 nm·sec-1. This report reflects the first attempt to deposit W films onto III-V semiconductor at a very high rate by means of RT-LPCVD.
Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma etching of a variety of III-V devices, including heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs), and lasers will be reviewed. In many of these devices, the metal contacts also perform as self-aligned, dry etch masks, so that mask erosion must be addressed. Sidewall smoothness is also an issue for most etched mesa lasers, and conditions for achieving the requisite smoothness will be discussed. The use of stencil masks for pattern transfer of large (∼100μm) features during cluster-tool, single wafer integrated processing raises the possibility of a completely in-situ fabrication technology without the need for lithography. The dry etching of a variety of ohmic and Schottky metallizations and also of dielectrics deposited in a low pressure, rapid thermal CVD system lays the foundation for integrated III-V device processing.
A selective deposition of W(Zn) metallization, for formation of diffused ohmic contacts onto InP-based material was realized by means of rapid thermal, low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (RT-LPMOCVD). The W(Zn) layers were deposited using a reactive gas mixture that contained diethylzinc (DEZn), WF6, H2 and Ar, at temperatures of 450 to 550°C and pressures in the range of 1–5 torr. Uniform andcontinuous layers of W(Zn), 30 to 120 nm thick, were obtained. These layers contained Zn at concentrations higher than 1×l018 cm−3, which was subsequentially in-diffused into the underlying semiconductor layer to form highly doped semiconductor layers as thick as 0.2μm. As a result, the specific contact resistance of the W(Zn)/ In0.53Ga0.47 As contact was reduced to minimum value of 5×l0−6 Ω·cm2. The W(Zn) film were found to be mechanically stable with a small compressive stress of 5.10−8 dyne. cm−2, and dry etch rates of up to 90 nmmin.
High quality InP and In0.53Ga0.67As undoped and Zn-doped layers were grown by means of rapid thermal low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (RTLPMOCVD) technique, using tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) and tertiarybutylarsine (TBA), as the phosphorus and arsenic sources. The InP films were grown at a P:In ratios of about 75 and the InGaAs films were grown at a As:In ration of about 2, low temperatures at the range of 450-550°C, pressures it the range of 1-4 tons, and growth rates of 2-3 nm/sec. All the film growth conditions were optimized to yield defect-free layers with featureless morphology, which reflected at a minimum backscattering yield (Xmin) as low as 3.1% for the InP and 3.6% for the InGaAs. These films presented a good electrical properties, as well, with hole mobility of 4200 cm2/Vs for the undoped-InP layers and 75 cm2/Vs for the undoped-InGaAs layers.
Notwithstanding the preponderance of clerics among early modern scientific practitioners, only scant attention has been paid to the ramifications of their “calling” on their ability to engage freely in scientific studies. Indeed, the overall failure to calibrate the compatibility between full-fledged secular studies and a clerical vocation has led to misconceptions concerning the nature of the participation of ordained men in early modern science. It is not simply that ministerial duties imposed considerable demands on their time and energy; more significantly, the essence of this vocation was such as to impinge fundamentally on their ability to dedicate themselves to science or, most important of all, on their willingness to acknowledge publicly their contribution. A focus on the inner tensions that plagued practitioners in holy orders during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries will both highlight the insurmountable challenges posed by the specialized and secularized nature of the “new science” on clerics – irrespective of denomination – and explain their eventual marginalization in the scientific endeavor.
If I can sell her virginity twice, I double my investment.
— Brothel owner
Sometimes, I have to teach them with the stick.
— Woman owner of “sex coffee shop”
We think: if she's young, she's clean — no AIDS.
— Customer in a massage parlour
U.S. anti-drug assistance to the Burmese government has failed …
— Robert S. Gelbard,
U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
The road to hell is paved with good intentions … and it's the best paved road in Bangkok.
This chapter is a preliminary attempt to share some thoughts on two topics that have compelled attention — public or private — in most human societies: sex and drugs. Or more precisely, the relationship between sex and drugs; not as conjectured (or remembered) by the worried parents of teenage daughters, but as commodities in international trade. In the specific case of mainland Southeast Asia and China, what is the relationship through time of opiate production to the production of sexual services?
The mythic narrative of narcotics and sexual degradation (and like many mythic narratives, it embodies elements of “reality”) can be read in newspapers, quoted from non-governmental organization (NGO) reports, or seen on TV:
Miba, innocent and simple hill tribe girl from the “colorful” Akha tribe, is rescued from a brothel (often by the BBC, CH-4, ABC, or “60 Minutes” film crew). She has been sold by her father, who is an unrepentant heroin addict. Desperate for money to feed his vile habit (but not, the implication goes, desperate enough to work for it), he (supposedly) sees his daughters as a crop to be harvested when they are ripe.
There frequently follows a learned interview that calls for the reform of patriarchal societies and explains that “Asian Cultures” (all of them!) have always devalued daughters, which was why Miba was sold in the first place.
A multiethnic cohort of adult members of the Kaiser Permanente
Medical Care Program
(55300 men and 65271 women) was followed for 15 years (1979–93) to
assess the association
between total cholesterol and risk of infections (other than respiratory
and HIV) diagnosed in
the in-patient setting. Using multivariate Cox regression, total cholesterol
was inversely and
significantly related to urinary tract, venereal, musculo-skeletal, and
all infections among men;
and to urinary tract, all genito-urinary, septicaemia or bacteraemia, miscellaneous
unspecified, and all infections among women. The reduction of risk of all
with a 1 s.d. increase in total cholesterol was
8% in both men (95% CI, 4–12%) and women
(95% CI, 5–11%). For urinary tract infections among men, as for septicaemia
and nervous system infections among women, the risk relation was restricted
to persons aged
55–89 years. Nervous system infections were positively related to
total cholesterol among
women aged 25–54. In both genders, the significant inverse association
with all infections
persisted after excluding the first 5 years of follow-up. Collectively,
these data are suggestive of
an inverse association, although not entirely consistent, between
total cholesterol and incidence
of infections either requiring hospitalization or acquired in the hospital.
Further research is
needed to elucidate whether these associations are biologically plausible
uncontrolled confounding by unmeasured risk factors.