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Following Veronica Forrest-Thomson’s lead, Gareth Farmer repositions Plath’s work in experimental British, European and American lineages, testing the complexity of her ‘poetic artifice’ against Forrest-Thomson’s theory and offering ‘other’ intellectual and literary contexts of her work. Such contexts activate alternative questions for the poetry, such as the role and function of form in carrying epistemological and cognitive information, or the ways in which poetry offers a critique of lyric singularity, address and subjectivity. A more sustained concentration on Plath’s poetic artifice offers new intellectual contexts as well as alternative horizons for understanding the afterlife of her work.
Brain neoplasms are the second-most prevalent cancer of childhood for which surgical resection remains the main treatment. Intraoperative MRI is a useful tool to optimize brain tumor resection. It is, however, not known whether intraoperative MRI can detect complications such as hyperacute ischemic infarcts.
A retrospective analysis of pre- and intraoperative MRIs including DWI sequence and correlation with early and 3-month postoperative MRIs was conducted to evaluate the incidence of hyperacute arterial infarct during pediatric brain tumor resection. Patient demographics, pathological type, tumor location, resection type as well as preoperative tumoral vessel encasement, evolution of the area of restricted diffusion were collected and analyzed comparatively between the group with acute infarct and the control group. Extent of the hyperacute infarct was compared to both early postsurgical and 3-month follow-up MRIs.
Of the 115 cases, 13 (11%) developed a hyperacute arterial ischemic infarct during brain tumor resection. Tumoral encasement of vessels was more frequent in the infarct group (69%) compared to 25.5% in the control group. Four cases showed additional vessel irregularities on intraoperative MRI. On early follow-up, the infarcted brain area had further progressed in six cases and was stable in seven cases. No further progression was noted after the first week post-surgery.
Hyperacute infarcts are not rare events to complicate pediatric brain tumor resection. Tumoral encasement of the circle of Willis vessels appears to be the main risk factor. Intraoperative DWI underestimates the final extent of infarcted tissue compared to early postsurgical MRI.
Colostrum plays an essential role in ensuring the survival, growth and health of piglets by providing energy, nutrients, immunoglobulins, growth factors and many other bioactive components and cells. Both colostrum yield and composition are highly variable among sows, yet mechanisms and factors that regulate colostrogenesis are not fully known. Unlike sow milk yield, sow colostrum yield is not highly determined by litter size and suckling intensity but is largely driven by sow-related factors. Colostrum synthesis is under hormonal control, with prolactin and progesterone concentrations prepartum having, respectively, positive and negative influences on colostrum yield. Less is known about the endocrine control of the end of colostrogenesis in swine, which is characterized by the closure of tight junctions in the mammary epithelium and the cessation of transfer of immunoglobulin G (IgG) into lacteal secretions. Recent studies indicate that exogenous hormones may influence colostrogenesis. Inducing parturition by injecting prostaglandin F2α on day 114 of gestation in combination with an oxytocin-like molecule reduced colostrum yield, and injection of prostaglandin F2α alone either reduced colostrum yield or had no effect. Injecting a supraphysiological dose of oxytocin to sows in the early postpartum period delayed the tightening of mammary tight junctions, thereby prolonging the colostral phase and increasing concentrations of IGF-I and IgG and IgA in early milk. The development of strategies to improve colostrum composition in swine through maternal feeding has been largely explored but very few attempts were made to increase colostrum yield. This is most likely because of the difficulty in measuring colostrum yield in swine. The fatty acid content of colostrum greatly depends on the amount of lipids provided in the sow diet during late gestation, whereas the fatty acid profile is largely influenced by the type of lipid being fed to the pregnant sow. Moreover, various ingredients that presumably have immuno-modulating effects (such as fish oil, prebiotics and probiotics) increased concentrations of IgG, IgA and/or IgM in sow colostrum when they were provided during the last weeks of gestation. Finally, there is some evidence that sow nutrition during late gestation may influence colostrum yield but this clearly warrants more research. This review emphasizes that although progress has been made in understanding the control of colostrogenesis in swine, and that strategies exist to manipulate fat and immunoglobulin contents of colostrum, ways to increase colostrum yield are still lacking.
Mammary development takes place during the growing and gestation periods in swine but it also continues after farrowing. In fact, a significant proportion of mammary accretion occurs during lactation and is stimulated by suckling. After piglets are weaned, there is involution of the mammary glands and the process of mammogenesis starts again during the next parity. Suckling of a teat for the first 12 to 14 h after farrowing is not sufficient to maintain lactation, and mammary involution accompanied by alterations in gene transcription will take place. The involution process is reversible within 1 day postpartum but is not reversible if a mammary gland is unsuckled for 3 days. Mammary glands that undergo involution early in lactation do not show further involution in the post-weaning period. The action of a teat being suckled does not only affect mammary development in the ongoing lactation but it also impacts mammogenesis in the following lactation. Indeed, when a mammary gland is not suckled in first parity it has a diminished development and lower milk yield in second parity. Furthermore, it was shown that suckling of a teat for only the first 2 days postpartum in primiparous sows is sufficient to ensure optimal mammary development and milk yield from that teat in the next lactation. The behavior of nursing piglets in early lactation is also affected by whether or not a teat was previously used. Such knowledge on lactation biology is essential in order to develop the best adapted management strategies for the currently used hyperprolific sow lines and to optimize growth rate of their piglets. This review gives an update on the role of suckling for mammary development in lactating sows and on how it can affect management strategies of primiparous sows.
Background: Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are congenital structural abnormalities of the brain, and represent the most common cause of medication-resistant focal epilepsy in children and adults. Recent studies have shown that somatic mutations (i.e. mutations arising in the embryo) in mTOR pathway genes underlie some FCD cases. Specific therapies targeting the mTOR pathway are available. However, testing for somatic mTOR pathway mutations in FCD tissue is not performed on a clinical basis, and the contribution of such mutations to the pathogenesis of FCD remains unknown. Aim: To investigate the feasibility of screening for somatic mutations in resected FCD tissue and determine the proportion and spatial distribution of FCDs which are due to low-level somatic mTOR pathway mutations. Methods: We performed ultra-deep sequencing of 13 mTOR pathway genes using a custom HaloPlexHS target enrichment kit (Agilent Technologies) in 16 resected histologically-confirmed FCD specimens. Results: We identified causal variants in 62.5% (10/16) of patients at an alternate allele frequency of 0.75–33.7%. The spatial mutation frequency correlated with the FCD lesion’s size and severity. Conclusions: Screening FCD tissue using a custom panel results in a high yield, and should be considered clinically given the important potential implications regarding surgical resection, medical management and genetic counselling.
For patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing side-effects or non-response to their first antidepressant, little is known regarding the effect of switching between a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).
To compare the switch between the TCA nortriptyline and the SSRI escitalopram.
Among 811 adults with MDD treated with nortriptyline or escitalopram for up to 12 weeks, 108 individuals switched from nortriptyline to escitalopram or vice versa because of side-effects or non-response (trial registration: EudraCT No.2004-001723-38 (https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/) and ISRCTN No.03693000 (http://www.controlled-trials.com)). Patients were followed for up to 26 weeks after switching and response was measured with the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating scale (MADRS). We performed adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models with full information maximum likelihood estimation reporting β-coefficients with 95% CIs.
Switching antidepressants resulted in a significant decrease in MADRS scores. This was present for switchers from escitalopram to nortriptyline (n = 36, β = −0.38, 95% CI −0.51 to −0.25, P<0.001) and from nortriptyline to escitalopram (n = 72, β = −0.34, 95% CI −0.41 to −0.26, P<0.001). Both switching options resulted in significant improvement among individuals who switched because of non-response or side-effects. The results were supported by analyses on other rating scales and symptom dimensions.
These results suggest that switching from a TCA to an SSRI or vice versa after non-response or side-effects to the first antidepressant may be a viable approach to achieve response among patients with MDD.
Declarations of interest
K.J.A. holds an Alberta Centennial Addiction and Mental Health Research Chair, funded by the Government of Alberta. K.J.A. has been a member of various advisory boards, received consultancy fees and honoraria, and has received research grants from various companies including Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceuticals Research and Development and Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals Limited. D.S. has served on advisory boards for, and received unrestricted grants from, Lundbeck and AstraZeneca. A.F. and P.M. have received honoraria for participating in expert panels for Lundbeck and GlaxoSmithKline.
Robert Burns has written an important book on an institution that, while central to systems of criminal and civil justice, has been curiously neglected by academic lawyers. Some reasons for this neglect are addressed in an oblique fashion in his book, for they are linked to what he has described as the “Received View” of the trial. In this view, the trial is a formal process of fact finding and law application, where roles and responsibilities of judge, counsel, and jury are laid down according to a predetermined understanding of the rule of law. Since the trial is viewed merely as a mechanism for law application, academic lawyers have, by and large, preferred to focus on the appellate decisions that are seen as shaping the substance of the law. However, there are other reasons for this neglect, and they are linked to more recent trends in the academic study of the law. The sociological study of civil and criminal justice has been concerned with processes of plea bargaining and settlement, and with other means of diverting cases from the formal institutions of law, in seeking to argue that in practice the trial is not central to the operation of law. And while the critical legal studies movement has criticized the formalism and abstraction of legal scholarship, it has not sought to anchor the study of law in the concrete practices of legal institutions such as the trial, but instead in the social and political forces that shape law making—a position that has largely accepted the formalist account of the trial as a forum of rule application. We thus have two significant schools, one pulling toward the abstraction of rules from the context of their application, the other pulling towards the context in which rules are used or created, and the trial has been left somewhere in the middle.
For analysts as much as for advocates of ethnic nationalism, language is an important elemental symbol of national identity. The relationship between language and nationalism has received attention in the scholarly literature, as has the role of linguistic problems in the resurgence of minority nationalism in the USSR, along with state-sponsored intervention in linguistic processes in that country.
The purpose of this study is to present some preliminary and necessarily tentative results of a larger, ongoing and incomplete quantitative study of ethnic recruitment to and participation in central decision-making institutions in Communist societies. The time frame of the study is the post-Stalin period, more precisely, the 20th through the 25th CPSU Congresses, 1956-76. The concern of the larger study is to develop a model of consociationalism versus imperium as alternative approaches to the governance of multi-ethnic Communist societies. Clearly, a country such as Yugoslavia more closely approximates the former model, and the USSR the latter.
The inclusion of ‘A Letter Written by Fulke Greville to His Cousin Greville Varney Residing in France’ in the first collected edition of Greville's works in 1633 generated controversy from the beginning. Even before the book could be distributed, John Varney (Greville Varney's brother) wrote to Sir John Coke, who evidently supervised publication of the 1633 folio, and bitterly protested the publication of the letter. His objections rested on his belief that the letter wrongly implied the Varneys’ dependency upon their affluent kinsman, Fulke Greville. And John Varney hotly charged that the late Lord Brooke had somehow contrived by means of this letter, left among his papers, to clear himself posthumously of accusations that he had once used the Varneys harshly. Finally, Varney claimed to Coke that this letter was never written to his brother at all. The real recipient, he declared, was John Harris, a cousin to the Varneys who was then living in France.
This study considers the relationships between first-year law students' admission credentials, the amount of time they spend in study, and the grades they receive on examination. Findings include that there is a significant drop in effort during the first year, that while effort invested in study pays off in improved grades this effort is much less significant in explaining grades than is student ability as measured by LSAT and undergraduate grades, that students in the middle and bottom of the class are helped more by substantial study than are those in the top, that class attendance is much more valuable in raising grades than is equivalent time in other study, and that none of the various study techniques examined could be linked with major differences in results.