To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the introduction to his landmark 2005 critical edition of Nicholas Love's Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ, Michael Sargent noted that ‘we simply have not yet done enough exploration of fifteenth-century vernacular theological literature’. Indeed, while the study of religious writing in English became a popular area of study in the late twentieth century, the vast majority of scholarship on such works focused largely on its position in relation to the intellectual and theological debate between fifteenth-century ecclesiastical authorities and Oxford theologian John Wycliff and his followers. This conflict has provided the contextual background for the study of the composition and circulation of much of the theological literature produced in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries. However, as is now becoming increasingly apparent, even if this conflict was as influential on the composition of religious writing during this period as scholars often posit, the circulation and copying of such texts by individual fifteenth-century readers suggest that the textual cultures of the era were in fact much more complex and flexible.
While a macro analysis of trends in English religious writing at the turn of the fifteenth century often focuses on the inherent tensions between such cultural landmarks as the 1401 Oxford Translation Debate and Archbishop Thomas Arundel's infamous 1409 ‘Constitutions’, famously explored in Nicholas Watson's hugely influential 1995 Speculum article, ‘Censorship and Cultural Change in Late-Medieval England’ – as well as their great textual champions, the Wycliffite Bible and Nicholas Love's Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ – a micro analysis of the circulation of individual texts copied in the period seems to suggest a pattern of praxis which Stephen Kelly and Ryan Perry have dubbed ‘devotional cosmopolitanism’: a practice in which supposedly ‘orthodox’ and ‘heterodox’ texts sit side by side with one another in theological and devotional miscellanies.
The methodological framework which shed light on such patterns in Kelly and Perry's work, and which informed much of the findings of this author's previous writing on Nicholas Love's Mirror, was developed as part of the Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded Geographies of Orthodoxy research project hosted by Queen's University Belfast and the University of St Andrews, which sought to build on works such as Sargent's critical edition of Love's Mirror.
The COVID-19 pandemic is giving way to increases in military engagements in health-related activities at the domestic level. This article situates these engagements amid issues of continuity, change, and resistance in contemporary redefinitions of military health roles. It positions the COVID-19 pandemic as a pivotal moment in global health military practice. I identify three emerging trends within national military responses to COVID-19: (1) Minimal technical military support; (2) Blended civil-military responses; and (3) Military-led responses. The dynamics that underpin each type of military involvement follow context-specific military political legacies. These levels of involvement also relate to national public health approaches and the degree of capacity within health care systems. Each identified trend points towards specific trajectories for the future co-constitution of global and local civil-military engagements.
Expansion of cultivated lands and field management impacts greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture soils. Soils naturally cycle GHGs and can be sources or sinks depending on physical and chemical properties affected by cultivation and management status. We looked at how cultivation history influences GHG emissions from subtropical soils. We measured CO2, N2O, and CH4 fluxes, and soil properties from newly converted and continuously cultivated lands during the summer rainy season in calcareous soils from south Florida. Newly converted soils had more soil organic matter (OM), more moisture, higher porosity, and lower bulk density, leading to more GHG emissions compared to historically cultivated soils. Although more nutrients make newly converted lands more desirable for cultivation, conversion of new areas for agriculture was shown to release more GHGs than cultivated lands. Our data suggest that GHG emissions from agricultural soils may decrease over time with continued cultivation.
We present two new Bayesian 14C models using IntCal20 that incorporate 17 new calibrated AMS ages for Early Bronze IV Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj and Middle Bronze Age Tell el-Hayyat, located in the northern Jordan Valley, Jordan. These freshly augmented suites of carbonized seed dates now include 25 AMS dates from Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj and 31 AMS dates from Tell el-Hayyat. The modeled founding date for Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj strengthens an emerging high chronology for Early Bronze IV starting by 2500 cal BC, while the end of its habitation by 2200 cal BC may exemplify a regional pattern of increasingly pervasive abandonment among late Early Bronze IV settlements in the Southern Levant. In turn, our modeled date for the Early Bronze IV/Middle Bronze Age transition at Tell el-Hayyat around 1900 cal BC pushes this interface about a century later than surmised traditionally, and its abandonment in Middle Bronze III marks an unexpectedly early end date before 1600 cal BC. These inferences, which coordinate Bayesian AMS models and typological ceramic sequences for Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj and Tell el-Hayyat, contribute to an ongoing revision of Early and Middle Bronze Age Levantine chronologies and uncoupling of their attendant interpretive links between the Southern Levant and Egypt.
Adolescent diet, physical activity and nutritional status are generally known to be sub-optimal. This is an introduction to a special issue of papers devoted to exploring factors affecting diet and physical activity in adolescents, including food insecure and vulnerable groups.
Eight settings including urban, peri-urban and rural across sites from five different low- and middle-income countries.
Focus groups with adolescents and caregivers carried out by trained researchers.
Our results show that adolescents, even in poor settings, know about healthy diet and lifestyles. They want to have energy, feel happy, look good and live longer, but their desire for autonomy, a need to ‘belong’ in their peer group, plus vulnerability to marketing exploiting their aspirations, leads them to make unhealthy choices. They describe significant gender, culture and context-specific barriers. For example, urban adolescents had easy access to energy dense, unhealthy foods bought outside the home, whereas junk foods were only beginning to permeate rural sites. Among adolescents in Indian sites, pressure to excel in exams meant that academic studies were squeezing out physical activity time.
Interventions to improve adolescents’ diets and physical activity levels must therefore address structural and environmental issues and influences in their homes and schools, since it is clear that their food and activity choices are the product of an interacting complex of factors. In the next phase of work, the Transforming Adolescent Lives through Nutrition consortium will employ groups of adolescents, caregivers and local stakeholders in each site to develop interventions to improve adolescent nutritional status.
A comprehensive biovigilance programme was undertaken in 2018 to monitor potential insect vectors of viruses of grapevines (Vitis vinifera; Vitaceae) in two vineyards in Québec. Two hundred seventy-four insects were collected using yellow sticky traps and sweeping nets. Collected specimens were first classified into orders, with special attention given to the Hemiptera order, which is the main group of virus vectors. Hemipteran pests were identified to species. Among these specimens, one adult of Rossmoneura tecta McAtee (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was identified, the first report of this species in Canada. Empoasca vincula DeLong, Erythroneura acuticephala Robinson, and Erythroneura cymbium McAtee, three other species belonging to the same family and previously reported in other Canadian provinces, were also identified for the first time in Québec. Further investigations are being undertaken to test the ability of these species to transmit grapevine viruses.
To explore perceptions of how context shapes adolescent diet and physical activity in eight low- and middle-income (LMIC) sites at different stages of societal and economic transition.
Novel qualitative secondary analysis of eight data sets generated as part of the international Transforming Adolescent Lives through Nutrition (TALENT) collaboration.
Diverse sites in India and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Fifty-two focus group discussions with 491 participants (303 adolescents aged 10–17 years; 188 caregivers).
Analysis of pooled qualitative data identified three themes: (1) transitions in generational nutrition education and knowledge; (2) transition in caregiver–adolescent power balance and (3) the implications of societal and economic transition for diet and physical activity. Adolescents in urban and peri-urban areas could readily access ‘junk’ food. Diets in rural settings were determined by tradition, seasonality and affordability. Physical activity was inhibited by site-specific factors including lack of space and crime in urban settings, and the prioritisation of academic performance. Gender influenced physical activity across all sites, with girls afforded fewer opportunities.
Interventions to improve adolescent diet and physical activity in LMIC need to be complex, context-specific and responsive to transitions at the individual, economic and societal levels. Moreover, solutions need to acknowledge gender inequalities in different contexts, as well as structural and cultural influences on diet and physical activity in resource-limited settings. Programmes need to be effective in engaging and reconciling adolescents’ and caregivers’ perspectives. Consequently, there is a need for action at both the community-household level and also through policy.
Background: As of July 1, 2019, ~18% of all cases in the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were healthcare-associated (ie, nosocomial) infections (HAIs) and healthcare worker (HCW) infections. Although progress has been achieved, gaps remained in infection prevention and control (IPC), specifically, a need to reinforce standardized, evidence-based IPC practices to effectively address HAIs. The Ministry of Health (MOH), in collaboration with partners, developed an IPC tool kit consisting of >70 documents (ie, terms of reference, standard operating procedures, training modules, etc) to improve HCW IPC knowledge and practices at healthcare facilities among staff. The tool kit incorporated international IPC standards, DRC-specific experiences, and best practices. Thus, it serves as a technical and operational package, covering general guidance (standard precautions) and EVD specific issues. Methods: A decentralized rollout approach was used to disseminate the tool kit content at the various health-system levels over several months. Initially, national-level training of trainers was held, followed by subnational-level training of IPC supervisors and key IPC implementers, and lastly, training of healthcare facility (HCF) IPC focal persons. The 5-day training adhered to the MOH standard of 60% theory and 40% practice. Participants completed evaluations before and after training; changes in knowledge between the pre- and posttraining tests were analyzed and the results of the statistical tests were reported (P < .05 was considered statistically significant). Results: In total, 294 IPC supervisors were trained across 7 subnational commissions. Data were analyzed for 138 participants. Participants were 60.9% IPC supervisors, 8% WASH supervisors, and 31% others. MOH representation was 52.9% The average results before the test were 66% (19.8 of 30), the average posttest results were 72% (21.6 of 30)—a significant improvement. The worst-performing pretest IPC domain was IPC approach, and facility closure was the worst performing for posttest. As of November 11, 15.7% of all cases were HAIs. Conclusions: The IPC training program initiated during an outbreak can increase knowledge and potentially improve practices and confidence. An association with the downward HAI trend is yet to be validated. The MOH anticipates that this tool kit will be the go-to resource for future Ebola outbreaks and that it will be incorporated into the preservice medical curriculum to ensure a resilient heath system.
To explore the perceptions of adolescents and their caregivers on drivers of diet and physical activity in rural India in the context of ongoing economic, social and nutrition transition.
A qualitative study comprising eight focus group discussions (FGD) on factors affecting eating and physical activity patterns, perceptions of health and decision-making on food preparation.
Villages approximately 40–60 km from the city of Pune in the state of Maharashtra, India.
Two FGD with adolescents aged 10–12 years (n 20), two with 15- to 17- year-olds (n 18) and four with their mothers (n 38).
Dietary behaviour and physical activity of adolescents were perceived to be influenced by individual and interpersonal factors including adolescent autonomy, parental influence and negotiations between adolescents and caregivers. The home food environment, street food availability, household food security and exposure to television and digital media were described as influencing behaviour. The lack of facilities and infrastructure was regarded as barriers to physical activity as were insufficient resources for public transport, safe routes for walking and need for cycles, particularly for girls. It was suggested that schools take a lead role in providing healthy foods and that governments invest in facilities for physical activity.
In this transitioning environment, that is representative of many parts of India and other Lower Middle Income Countries (LMIC), people perceive a need for interventions to improve adolescent diet and physical activity. Caregivers clearly felt that they had a stake in adolescent health, and so we would recommend the involvement of both adolescents and caregivers in intervention design.
The outbreak of COVID-19 generated severe emotional reactions, and restricted mobility was a crucial measure to reduce the spread of the virus. This study describes the changes in public emotional reactions and mobility patterns in the Chinese population during the COVID-19 outbreak.
We collected data on public emotional reactions in response to the outbreak through Weibo, the Chinese Twitter, between 1st January and 31st March 2020. Using anonymized location-tracking information, we analyzed the daily mobility patterns of approximately 90% of Sichuan residents.
There were three distinct phases of the emotional and behavioral reactions to the COVID-19 outbreak. The alarm phase (19th–26th January) was a restriction-free period, characterized by few new daily cases, but a large amount public negative emotions [the number of negative comments per Weibo post increased by 246.9 per day, 95% confidence interval (CI) 122.5–371.3], and a substantial increase in self-limiting mobility (from 45.6% to 54.5%, changing by 1.5% per day, 95% CI 0.7%–2.3%). The epidemic phase (27th January–15th February) exhibited rapidly increasing numbers of new daily cases, decreasing expression of negative emotions (a decrease of 27.3 negative comments per post per day, 95% CI −40.4 to −14.2), and a stabilized level of self-limiting mobility. The relief phase (16th February–31st March) had a steady decline in new daily cases and decreasing levels of negative emotion and self-limiting mobility.
During the COVID-19 outbreak in China, the public's emotional reaction was strongest before the actual peak of the outbreak and declined thereafter. The change in human mobility patterns occurred before the implementation of restriction orders, suggesting a possible link between emotion and behavior.
Adolescents living in resource-limited settings remain a neglected population regarding their nutritional health. We reviewed what studies on nutrition have been conducted for adolescents living in Côte d’Ivoire.
A scoping literature review, searching for any quantitative studies published from 1 January 2000 to 1 May 2019, referenced in PubMed and grey literature, related to adolescent nutritional status and diet, written in English or French.
Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa
Adolescent girls and boys (aged 10–19 years).
We used three search strategies to explore studies related to (1) diet and nutritional practices, (2) anthropometry and (3) micronutrient intakes/status. Each identified 285, 108 and 84 titles and abstracts, respectively, resulting in 384 full-text articles to review. Finally, after adding five relevant studies from the grey literature, thirty articles were included. Two-thirds were cross-sectional observation studies. The main topics were anaemia and parasitic diseases. Among seven intervention studies, most focused on micronutrient supplementation or deworming. No studies on macronutrients or food supplementation were found. Overall, studies showed a high prevalence of undernutrition, along with emerging overweight and obesity. Anaemia and Fe deficiency were highly prevalent, with Fe supplementation showing modest improvements. Malaria and gut parasite infections remain a major burden, affecting adolescents’ nutritional status.
Few specific relevant studies have been published regarding adolescent nutrition in Côte d’Ivoire, and most studies being focused on younger children. There are knowledge gaps about many nutritional aspects in this population, which urgently need to be addressed.
To explore, from the perspectives of adolescents and caregivers, and using qualitative methods, influences on adolescent diet and physical activity in rural Gambia.
Six focus group discussions (FGD) with adolescents and caregivers were conducted. Thematic analysis was employed across the data set.
Rural region of The Gambia, West Africa.
Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Four FGD, conducted with forty adolescents, comprised: girls aged 10–12 years; boys aged 10–12 years; girls aged 15–17 years, boys aged 15–17 years. Twenty caregivers also participated in two FGD (mothers and fathers).
All participants expressed an understanding of the association between salt and hypertension, sugary foods and diabetes, and dental health. Adolescents and caregivers suggested that adolescent nutrition and health were shaped by economic, social and cultural factors and the local environment. Adolescent diet was thought to be influenced by: affordability, seasonality and the receipt of remittances; gender norms, including differences in opportunities afforded to girls, and mother-led decision-making; cultural ceremonies and school holidays. Adolescent physical activity included walking or cycling to school, playing football and farming. Participants felt adolescent engagement in physical activity was influenced by gender, seasonality, cultural ceremonies and, to some extent, the availability of digital media.
These novel insights into local understanding should be considered when formulating future interventions. Interventions need to address these interrelated factors, including misconceptions regarding diet and physical activity that may be harmful to health.
Our objective was to investigate associations of body size (birth weight and body mass index (BMI)) and growth in height, body fat (adiposity) and lean mass during childhood and adolescence, with risk markers for diabetes in young South Asian adults. We studied 357 men and women aged 21 years from the Pune Children’s Study birth cohort. Exposures were 1) birth weight, 21-year BMI, both of these mutually adjusted, and their interaction, and 2) uncorrelated conditional measures of growth in height and proxies for gain in adiposity and lean mass from birth to 8 years (childhood) and 8 to 21 years (adolescence) constructed from birth weight, and weight, height, and skinfolds at 8 and 21 years. Outcomes were plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test and derived indices of insulin resistance and secretion. Higher 21-year BMI was associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, and lower disposition index. After adjusting for 21-year BMI, higher birth weight was associated with lower 120-min glucose and insulin resistance, and higher disposition index. In the growth analysis, greater adiposity gain during childhood and adolescence was associated with higher glucose, insulin and insulin resistance, and lower disposition index, with stronger effects from adolescent gain. Greater childhood lean gain and adolescent height gain were associated with lower 120-min glucose and insulin. Consistent with other studies, lower birth weight and higher childhood weight gain increases diabetes risk. Disaggregation of weight gain showed that greater child/adolescent adiposity gain and lower lean and height gain may increase risk.
To describe the anthropometry, socioeconomic circumstances, diet and screen time usage of adolescents in India and Africa as context to a qualitative study of barriers to healthy eating and activity.
Cross-sectional survey, including measured height and weight and derived rates of stunting, low BMI, overweight and obesity. Parental schooling and employment status, household assets and amenities, and adolescents’ dietary diversity, intake of snack foods, mobile/smartphone ownership and TV/computer time were obtained via a questionnaire.
Four settings each in Africa (rural villages, West Kiang, The Gambia; low-income urban communities, Abidjan, Cote D’Ivoire; low/middle-class urban communities, Jimma, Ethiopia; low-income township, Johannesburg, South Africa) and India (rural villages, Dervan; semi-rural villages, Pune; city slums, Mumbai; low-middle/middle-class urban communities, Mysore).
Convenience samples (n 41–112 per site) of boys and girls, half aged 10–12 years and another half aged 15–17 years, were recruited for a qualitative study.
Both undernutrition (stunting and/or low BMI) and overweight/obesity were present in all settings. Rural settings had the most undernutrition, least overweight/obesity and greatest diet diversity. Urban Johannesburg (27 %) and Abidjan (16 %), and semi-rural Pune (16 %) had the most overweight/obesity. In all settings, adolescents reported low intakes of micronutrient-rich fruits and vegetables, and substantial intakes of salted snacks, cakes/biscuits, sweets and fizzy drinks. Smartphone ownership ranged from 5 % (West Kiang) to 69 % (Johannesburg), higher among older adolescents.
The ‘double burden of malnutrition’ is present in all TALENT settings. Greater urban transition is associated with less undernutrition, more overweight/obesity, less diet diversity and higher intakes of unhealthy/snack foods.
To explore influences on adolescent diet and physical activity, from the perspectives of adolescents and their caregivers, in Jimma, Ethiopia.
Qualitative design, using focus group discussions (FGD).
A low-income setting in Jimma, Ethiopia.
Five FGD with adolescents aged 10–12 years and 15–17 years (n 41) and three FGD with parents (n 22) were conducted.
Adolescents displayed a holistic understanding of health comprising physical, social and psychological well-being. Social and cultural factors were perceived to be the main drivers of adolescent diet and physical activity. All participants indicated that caregivers dictated adolescents’ diet, as families shared food from the same plate. Meals were primarily determined by caregivers, whose choices were driven by food affordability and accessibility. Older adolescents, particularly boys, had opportunities to make independent food choices outside of the home which were driven by taste and appearance, rather than nutritional value. Many felt that adolescent physical activity was heavily influenced by gender. Girls’ activities included domestic work and family responsibilities, whereas boys had more free time to participate in outdoor games. Girls’ safety was reported to be a concern to caregivers, who were fearful of permitting their daughters to share overcrowded outdoor spaces with strangers.
Adolescents and caregivers spoke a range of social, economic and cultural influences on adolescent diet and physical activity. Adolescents, parents and the wider community need to be involved in the development and delivery of effective interventions that will take into consideration these social, economic and cultural factors.
To explore, adolescents’ and caregivers’ perspectives, about shaping of diet and physical activity habits in rural Konkan, India.
Five focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with adolescents and two with caregivers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.
FGD were conducted in secondary schools located in remote rural villages in the Ratnagiri district, Konkan region, Maharashtra, India.
Forty-eight adolescents were recruited including twenty younger (10–12 years) and twenty-eight older (15–17 years) adolescents. Sixteen caregivers (all mothers) were also recruited.
Three themes emerged from discussion: (i) adolescents’ and caregivers’ perceptions of the barriers to healthy diet and physical activity, (ii) acceptance of the status quo and (iii) salience of social and economic transition. Adolescents’ basic dietary and physical activity needs were rarely met by the resources available and infrastructure of the villages. There were few opportunities for physical activity, other than performing household chores and walking long distances to school. Adolescents and their caregivers accepted these limitations and their inability to change them. Increased use of digital media and availability of junk foods marked the beginning of a social and economic transition.
FGD with adolescents and their caregivers provided insights into factors influencing adolescent diet and physical activity in rural India. Scarcity of basic resources limited adolescent diet and opportunities for physical activity. To achieve current nutritional and physical activity recommendations for adolescents requires improved infrastructure in these settings, changes which may accompany the current Indian social and economic transition.