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There is a growing call to understand the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on organizational outcomes, especially in developing economies. Given the strong link between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and organizational performance and survival, on one hand, and the constant need in the literature to understand their antecedents, on the other hand, this study adopts the social cognitive theory to examine the relationship between employees’ perceptions of their organizations’ engagement in CSR and their individual engagement in OCB in Nigeria. Based on the relevance of organizational learning culture to both CSR and OCB, the study further examines the mediating role of organizational learning culture in the relationship between employees’ perceptions of their organization's CSR engagement and their individual engagement in OCB. We tested these relationships in a sample of 254 employees drawn from banking, oil and gas, manufacturing and service industries. The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between employees’ perceptions of their organizations’ engagement in CSR and their exhibition of OCB. This relationship is mediated by organizational learning culture. The implications of the results for CSR, especially in non-enabling institutional contexts, were discussed.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often precedes Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD), and in a high proportion of individuals affected by MCI, there are already neuropathological processes ongoing that become more evident when patients progress to AD. Accordingly, there is a need for reliable biomarkers to distinguish between normal aging and incipient AD. Recent research suggests that, in addition to established biomarkers such as CSF Aß42, total tau and hyperphosphorylated tau, resting state connectivity established by functional magnetic resonance imaging might also be a feasible biomarker for prodromal stages of AD. In order to explore this possibility, we investigated resting state functional connectivity as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profiles in patients with MCI (n = 30; age 66.43 ± 7.06 years) and cognitively healthy controls (n = 38; age 66.89 ± 7.12 years). CSF Aß42, total tau and hyperphosphorylated tau concentrations were correlated with measures of cognitive performance (immediate and delayed recall, global cognition, processing speed). Moreover, MCI-related alterations in intrinsic functional connectivity within the default mode network were investigated using functional resting state MRI. As expected, MCI patients showed decreased CSF Aß42 and increased total tau concentrations. These alterations were associated with cognitive performance. However, there were no differences between MCI patients and cognitively healthy controls regarding intrinsic functional connectivity. In conclusion, our results indicate that CSF protein profiles seem to be more closely related to cognitive decline than alterations in resting state activity. Thus, resting state connectivity might not be a reliable biomarker for early stages of AD.
Retreat of calving glaciers worldwide has contributed substantially to sea-level rise in recent decades. Mass loss by calving contributes significantly to the uncertainty of sea-level rise projections. At Bowdoin Glacier, Northwest Greenland, most calving occurs by a few large events resulting from kilometre-scale fractures forming parallel to the calving front. High-resolution terrestrial radar interferometry data of such an event reveal that crevasse opening is fastest at low tide and accelerates during the final 36 h before calving. Using the ice flow model Elmer/Ice, we identify the crevasse water level as a key driver of modelled opening rates. Sea water-level variations in the range of local tidal amplitude (1 m) can reproduce observed opening rate fluctuations, provided crevasse water level is at least 4 m above the low-tide sea level. The accelerated opening rates within the final 36 h before calving can be modelled by additional meltwater input into the crevasse, enhanced ice cliff undercutting by submarine melt, ice damage increase due to tidal cyclic fatigue, crevasse deepening or a combination of these processes. Our results highlight the influence of surface meltwater and tides on crevasse opening leading to major calving events at grounded tidewater glaciers such as Bowdoin.
Infectious diseases are a worrisome threat to endangered great apes. Among the Taï chimpanzee communities, both naturally occurring and human-introduced diseases have been responsible for population declines in the past 40 years. The establishment of a long-term health monitoring programme as an integral part of the habituation project has allowed for unprecedented insights on such happenings. Mortality events took place both in an extremely rapid manner, as observed during Ebola and human pneumovirus outbreaks, or in a long but persistent fashion, as observed with sylvatic anthrax. The evidence gathered provides information on which diseases are naturally circulating in this rainforest and lays the groundwork for the development of One Health strategies to improve both great ape and human health.
Microbial communities impact a variety of processes including a host’s ability to access nutrients and maintain health, but can also include pathogens with a detrimental impact. Since the spread of anatomically modern humans across the planet, we have drastically changed the way we live (e.g. agriculture, antibiotic usage). These changes presumably affected our microbial communities. To examine the microbial communities of our ancestors, researchers use two approaches: first, the study of present-day hunter-gatherer societies, suggesting modern humans lost much of their microbial diversity; second, comparative analyses of our closest relatives in their natural environment. We review studies of the microorganisms in the chimpanzees of Taï National Park (particularly bacteria and retroviruses). We discuss how microorganisms are transmitted between chimpanzees, which microorganisms coevolved with their hosts and which were transmitted between chimpanzees and their prey. We examine how the close evolutionary relationship of primates and humans facilitates the zoonotic transmission of microorganisms and how disease ecology informs assessments of human disease risk.
The Taï Chimpanzee Project (Taï National Park, Cote D'Ivoire) has yielded unprecedented insights into the nature of cooperation, cognition, and culture in our closest living relatives. Founded in 1979 by Christophe and Hedwige Boesch, the project has entered its 40th year of continuous research. Alongside other famous long-term chimpanzee study sites at Gombe and Mahale in East Africa, the tireless work of the team at Taï has contributed to the fields of behavioural ecology and anthropology, as well as improving public awareness of the urgent need to protect this already endangered species. Encompassing important research topics including chimpanzee ecology, reproductive behaviour, tool use, culture, communication, cognition and conservation, this book provides an engaging account of how Taï chimpanzees are adapted to African jungle life and how they have developed unique forms of cooperation with less violence, regular adoptions and complex cultural differences between groups.
This introduction provides the setting of the book and the conceptual framework used to rethink how we understand identity on the Swahili coast. It provides historiography and the organization of the book.
Bagamoyo holds a central place in the history of the 1888 Coastal Rebellion as the site of the most violent and prolonged struggle of the entire episode. Examining events there, I consider two approaches which support spatial identity as an influential force: the organization of the uprising, in which the spatial attachments of the hinterland (Zaramo, Doe, and Kwere) and upcountry (Nyamwezi) peoples to the town play a role in influencing their solidarity with the townspeople; and how a framework that emphasizes the spatial origins of each group of rebels involved in the Bagamoyo uprising distinguishes between the different communities obfuscated by the broader category of Swahili society. Despite the far reaching presence of Swahili culture along the coastline, the Swahili were not simply interchangeable from one town to the next. I also investigate the level of violence used by the Germans along the coast to show how this was contingent on the local particularities of each place. Together these points highlight the need for considering the importance of place for explaining local behavior in the context of a widespread rebellion.
This chapter focuses on how diverse societies came to attach themselves to Bagamoyo and, thus, became “owners of the town” in their own unique ways. It argues that, even though various peoples settled at different times, each was just as significant to the town’s growth as the others; to think in dichotomous terms of insiders and outsiders, core and peripheral, civilized and heathen, frustrates a more informed understanding of how Bagamoyo evolved from a fishing village to a trading entrepôt. Although the Shomvi did think in these dichotomous terms to maintain their elite status and protect their privileges, their actual interactions and ties with Bagamoyo’s other communities belied a greater level of tolerance than their posturing might otherwise have indicated. The acceptance of groups of people from different cultural backgrounds could prove economically – and even politically – beneficial for the Shomvi, so long as the newcomers did not threaten their influence.