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Being perceived as consistent is a crucial concern for political actors’ in their efforts to mobilize public opinion. This study comprises an analysis of the self-reflexive performance of consistency by Israeli politicians, focusing on the definitions and types of ‘consistency’ in political talk and their consequences. Through an analysis of 194 meta-discursive statements between 2006 and 2017, we illustrate that consistency constitutes a spatiotemporal coordination among cognitions, actions (words and deeds), and the external world, while also being viewed as potentially transforming political reality. Perceived as a sought-after value indicative of truth-telling, determination, and clarity, political actors view consistency as an essential character trait, associated with ideological fortitude, and a basis for practical policy realization. (Consistency, ideology, political discourse, meta-discourse)*
Although international precommitment regimes offer a tool to escape the apparent contradiction between sovereignty and the international protection of democracy and human rights, they raise theoretical and practical questions. This article draws on multinational archival research to explore an overlooked historical episode and suggest new thinking regarding the logjams over sovereignty, incapacity of global decision making, and humanitarian imperialism. In 1945 and 1946, the American states engaged in a debate over the Larreta Doctrine, a Uruguayan proposal about the parallelism between democracy and human rights, and the regional rights and duties to safeguard these values. In the ensuing debate, the Uruguayan foreign minister elaborated a tripartite precommitment mechanism to create a web of national commitments to democratic governance and the domestic protection of human rights, to establish a regional insurance policy against failures to maintain those commitments, and to obligate the great power and neighboring states to precommit to working through the regional system instead of unilaterally. As a proposal that emerged from a weak state—and garnered support from states that faced internal and external threats to democracy and rights—the Larreta Doctrine offers insights on the central tension between state sovereignty and international commitments.
Can children tell how different a speaker's accent is from their own? In Experiment 1 (N = 84), four- and five-year-olds heard speakers with different accents and indicated where they thought each speaker lived relative to a reference point on a map that represented their current location. Five-year-olds generally placed speakers with stronger accents (as judged by adults) at more distant locations than speakers with weaker accents. In contrast, four-year-olds did not show differences in where they placed speakers with different accents. In Experiment 2 (N = 56), the same sentences were low-pass filtered so that only prosodic information remained. This time, children judged which of five possible aliens had produced each utterance, given a reference speaker. Children of both ages showed differences in which alien they chose based on accent, and generally rated speakers with foreign accents as more different from their native accent than speakers with regional accents. Together, the findings show that preschoolers perceive accent distance, that children may be sensitive to the distinction between foreign and regional accents, and that preschoolers likely use prosody to differentiate among accents.
The Colombian government’s peace accord with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – FARC) generated hope for an end to Colombia’s more than fifty-year civil war. One of the thorniest elements of the peace process is justice for massive conflict-related human rights violations. Both during the negotiations and in the implementation of the accord, debate has raged on the effects of transitional justice on Colombia’s long-term peace and human rights.
Immune system markers may predict affective disorder treatment response, but whether an overall immune system marker predicts bipolar disorder treatment effect is unclear.
Bipolar CHOICE (N = 482) and LiTMUS (N = 283) were similar comparative effectiveness trials treating patients with bipolar disorder for 24 weeks with four different treatment arms (standard-dose lithium, quetiapine, moderate-dose lithium plus optimised personalised treatment (OPT) and OPT without lithium). We performed secondary mixed effects linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking and body mass index to investigate relationships between pre-treatment white blood cell (WBC) levels and clinical global impression scale (CGI) response.
Compared to participants with WBC counts of 4.5–10 × 109/l, participants with WBC < 4.5 or WBC ≥ 10 showed similar improvement within each specific treatment arm and in gender-stratified analyses.
An overall immune system marker did not predict differential treatment response to four different treatment approaches for bipolar disorder all lasting 24 weeks.
Although searches so far have been restricted to a few small rockets and balloons, some 40 discrete x-ray sources have already been resolved against a diffuse, nearly isotropic background radiation. The strongest source is about 2000 times as bright as the weakest detectable with present rocket instruments. Nearly all of the discrete sources lie close to the galactic plane and most likely are members of the spiral arms of the Milky Way. One x-ray source at high galactic latitude is identifiable with a distant radio galaxy, Virgo A, and its x-ray luminosity is 70 times its radio power. The diffuse background radiation seems to be resolvable into at least two components: one may be associated with the interaction of cosmic rays and the microwave photons of the cosmological 3 K background; the other with bremsstrahlung from hot, intergalactic gas.
Computed tomography (CT), commonly known as CAT scanning (computerized axial tomography), is a technology that produces an image of the internaI structure of a cross sectional slice through an object via the reconstruction of a matrix of X-ray attenuation coefficients. This non-destructive method is fast (50 ms to 7 min per image depending on the technological generation of the instrument) and requires minimal sample preparation. Images are generated from digital computations, and instruments essentially have a linear response. This allows quantitative estimations of density variations, dimensions and areas directly from console displays.
As a technique for non-destructive materials analysis, computed tomography (CT) has been especially useful for studying the dependence of the structure of ceramics on manufacturing processes. CT also has been used for characterizing the lithology of reservoir cores while they are still contained in preservation material or a core barrel.
The parameter measured by CT is the X-ray attenuation coefficient, which is a function of both material density and material composition.
In early October 2014, 7 months after the 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa began, a cluster of reported deaths in Koinadugu, a remote district of Sierra Leone, was the first evidence of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the district. Prior to this event, geographic isolation was thought to have prevented the introduction of Ebola to this area. We describe our initial investigation of this cluster of deaths and subsequent public health actions after Ebola was confirmed, and present challenges to our investigation and methods of overcoming them. We present a transmission tree and results of whole genome sequencing of selected isolates to identify the source of infection in Koinadugu and demonstrate transmission between its villages. Koinadugu's experience highlights the danger of assuming that remote location and geographic isolation can prevent the spread of Ebola, but also demonstrates how deployment of rapid field response teams can help limit spread once Ebola is detected.
The objective of this qualitative analysis was to explore caregiver perceptions and experiences of receiving or not receiving a genetic diagnosis following genome-wide sequencing (GWS) in children with suspected genetic disorders.
One caregiver for each child completed an online survey two weeks after enrolling in the Clinical Assessment of the Utility of Sequencing and Evaluation as a Service (CAUSES) study, beginning in January 2016, and again about six months after receiving the GWS results. The survey covered the caregivers' experiences and quality of life and children's healthcare resource utilization, and provided open-ended questions for comments. The follow-up survey was completed by twenty families who had received a diagnosis with their GWS results and by twenty-two families who had not received a diagnosis. A thematic analysis of the free-text comments from both groups was performed using NVivo 11.4.2.
Caregivers from both groups expressed similar experiences of negative socioeconomic effects of caregiving, particularly related to employment and time burden. Caregivers who did not receive a diagnosis with the GWS results were generally hopeful of receiving a diagnosis in the future and reported expectations of a positive benefit from receiving a diagnosis, both in terms of access to additional resources and of positive psychological effects. The absence of a diagnosis was a source of anxiety for many caregivers. By contrast, caregivers who had received a diagnosis reported positive, neutral, and negative psychological effects from the knowledge gained; no participants commented on the consequences for access to additional services or other socioeconomic effects.
Our findings suggest that caregivers may have high expectations for what a diagnosis can provide to them and their families, which may not be fully met once a diagnosis is obtained. The study underpins the importance of patient-centered communication of genomic testing results so that families can set realistic expectations of what having a diagnosis will achieve.