To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A 6–18 GHz high-power amplifier (HPA) design in GaN on SiC technology is presented. This power amplifier consists of a two-stage corporate amplifier with two and four transistors, respectively. It has been fabricated on UMS using their 0.25 µm gate length process, GH25. A study of the suitable attachment method and measurement on wafer and on jig are detailed. This HPA exhibits an averaged output power of 39.2 dBm with a mean gain of 11 dB in saturation and a 24.5% maximum power added efficiency in pulse mode operation with a duty cycle of 10% with a 25 µs pulse width.
Although mild to moderate major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the main reasons for consulting a general practitioner (GP), there is still no international consensus on the most appropriate therapeutic approach.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of watchful waiting (WW) compared with the use of antidepressants (ADs) for the treatment of mild to moderate depressive symptoms in 263 primary care (PC) usual-practice patients in a 12-month pragmatic non-randomised controlled trial. Both longitudinal and per-protocol analyses were performed, through a multilevel longitudinal analysis and a sensitivity analysis.
We observed a statistically significant time x treatment interaction in the severity of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS) in favour of the AD group at 6 months but not at 12 months. The effect size of this difference was small. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups in severity of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI) or health-related quality-of-life (EuroQol-5D, EQ-5D). Sensitivity analysis and per-protocol analysis showed no differences between the two groups in any of the evaluated scales.
Superiority of either treatment (WW and AD) was not demonstrated in patients treated for depression in PC after one year of follow-up.
The arterial switch operation is currently the gold standard technique for repair of transposition of the great arteries. Some atypical coronary patterns such as intramural, interarterial, and a unique posterior button are associated with more complexity and surgical risk. We report a successful Aubert operation for transposition of the great arteries associated with a single and interarterial coronary artery arising from a posterior sinus.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neuromuscular disease characterised by a progressive loss of motor neurons that usually results in paralysis and death within 2 to 5 years after disease onset. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in ALS remain largely unknown and to date there is no effective treatment for this disease. Here, we review clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that dysregulation of copper homeostasis in the central nervous system is a crucial underlying event in motor neuron degeneration and ALS pathophysiology. We also review and discuss novel approaches seeking to target copper delivery to treat ALS. These novel approaches may be clinically relevant not only for ALS but also for other neurological disorders with abnormal copper homeostasis, such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Prion diseases.
The AMIGA project carries out a multiwavelength study of the largest catalogue of isolated galaxies from the Local Universe (CIG, Karachentseva 1973). Compared to any other sample —field galaxies included— and using highly strict isolation criteria (unperturbed for at least ~3 Gyr, Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2005), all the results show that these galaxies have the lowest values of the physical magnitudes expected to be enhanced by interactions. This strongly supports isolated galaxies as ideal laboratories for the study of galaxy formation and evolution. Despite CIG galaxies show the lowest HI integrated profile asymmetry level when compared to any other sample, some cases present up to 50% HI asymmetry (Espada et al. 2011b). We aim to shed light over the causes and sources of such asymmetries with our deep radiointerferometric and optical observations of CIG targets. Since major mergers are ruled out by the isolation criteria, in this work we are addressing whether minor mergers, internal processes or primordial gas accretion are responsible for such asymmetries.
With the 3D data of SDSS-IV MaNGA (Bundy et al. 2015) spectra and multi-wavelength SED modeling, we expect to have a better understanding of the distribution of dust, gas and star formation of galaxy mergers. For a case study of the merging galaxy Mrk848, we use both UV-to-IR broadband SED and the MaNGA integral field spectroscopy to obtain its star formation histories at the tail and core regions. From the SED fitting and full spectral fitting, we find that the star formation in the tail regions are affected by the interaction earlier than the core regions. The core regions show apparently two times of star formation and a strong burst within 500Myr, indicating the recent star formation is triggered by the interaction. The star formation histories derived from these two methods are basically consistent.
We present an autonomous visual landmark recognition and pose estimation algorithm designed for use in navigation of spacecraft around small asteroids. Landmarks are selected as generic points on the asteroid surface that produce strong Harris corners in an image under a wide range in viewing and illumination conditions; no particular type of morphological feature is required. The set of landmarks is triangulated to obtain a tightly fitting mesh representing an optimal low resolution model of the natural asteroid shape, which is used onboard to determine the visibility of each landmark and enables the algorithm to work with highly concave bodies. The shape model is also used to estimate the centre of brightness of the asteroid and eliminate large translation errors prior to the main landmark recognition stage. The algorithm works by refining an initial estimate of the spacecraft position and orientation. Tests with real and synthetic images show good performance under realistic noise conditions. Using simulated images, the median landmark recognition error is 2m, and the error on the spacecraft position in the asteroid body frame is reduced from 45m to 21m at a range of 2km from the surface. With real images the translation error at 8km to the surface increases from 107m to 119m, due mainly to the larger range and lack of sensitivity to translations along the camera boresight. The median number of landmarks detected in the simulated and real images is 59 and 44 respectively. This algorithm was partly developed and tested during industrial studies for the European Space Agency’s Marco Polo-R asteroid sample return mission.
The extent to which markers have been used in chickpea breeding programmes has not been clearly determined. In the current study, phenotypic and marker-assisted selection (MAS) were employed to select blight resistant genotypes, comparing the effectiveness of both methods. The phenotypic evaluation showed that the resistance could be recessive in the material employed. However, the high distorted segregation towards the susceptible parent detected on linkage group four (LG4) could also explain the phenotype distribution of resistance. Phenotypic selection in F2:4 and F2:5 generations lead to an increase in the frequency of the allele associated with the resistance of the markers CaETR and GAA47, indicating the usefulness of these markers for MAS. The markers TA72 and SCY17 could be also useful for MAS but the high distorted segregation towards the susceptible parent in the region where these markers are located could explain their low effectiveness. The costs associated with phenotypic selection and MAS for ascochyta blight resistance during three cycles of selection are presented in the current study, showing that MAS was more expensive than phenotypic selection. Nevertheless, the use of markers reduced the time taken to select resistant lines. The markers analysed in the current study were useful to select genotypes resistant to ascochyta blight in chickpea breeding programmes, allowing pyramiding genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to different pathotypes. It is recommended that MAS should be employed in early generations of chickpea breeding programmes for the four QTL analysed because this makes it possible to develop populations with a high frequency of the favourable alleles conferring resistance to blight.
To validate an FFQ to assess antioxidant intake in overweight postmenopausal women.
A seventy-four-item antioxidant 1-month FFQ was developed based on major antioxidant sources in the American diet. Forty overweight postmenopausal women participated in a 9-month observational study and completed four sets of FFQ and 7 d food record (7dFR) every 3 months. Twelve-hour fasting blood was collected for plasma antioxidant measurement at the first visit.
Forty overweight postmenopausal women.
Spearman correlation coefficients of 1-month antioxidant intake estimated from the first set of FFQ and 7dFR ranged from 0·34 to 0·87, except for γ-tocopherol. The proportion of participants categorized into the extremely opposite tertiles averaged 7 %. Significant correlations were observed for diet–plasma vitamin C, α-tocopherol and carotenoids (P < 0·05). No time effect was observed on the dietary antioxidant intakes estimated from four 7dFR and four FFQ. Dietary antioxidants estimated from averaged four 7dFR showed moderate to high correlation with those estimated from averaged four FFQ and from each FFQ collected every 3 months. Bland–Altman plots did not show any systematic bias. Averaged misclassifications were below 10 % between these two instruments.
These findings attested a reasonable validity and a good acceptance of this 1-month FFQ in assessing both short-term and long-term diverse antioxidant intakes in these overweight postmenopausal women. The use of this FFQ in associating antioxidant intake with disease risk needs further investigation.
The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES), is a global robotic
observatory network, which started in 1998 with Spanish leadership devoted to study
optical emissions from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) that occur in the Universe. We present shot
history and current status of BOOTES network. The Network philosophy, science and some
details of 117 GRBs followed-up are discussed.
To validate a brief FFQ developed for capturing short-term antioxidant intake in a sample of US college students.
A seventy-four-item antioxidant FFQ was developed based on major antioxidant sources in the American diet. The FFQ was validated against 30 d food records (FR) and plasma antioxidant concentrations. The reliability of the FFQ was evaluated by two FFQ administered at a 1-month interval.
University of Connecticut, CT, USA.
Sixty healthy college students.
Estimates of dietary antioxidants from the FFQ were moderately to highly correlated with those estimated from the 30 d FR (r = 0·29–0·80; P < 0·05) except for γ-tocopherol and β-cryptoxanthin. Total antioxidant capacity from diet only or from diet and supplements estimated by the 30 d FR and FFQ were highly correlated (r = 0·67 and 0·71, respectively; P < 0·0001). The FFQ categorized 91 % of participants into the same or adjacent tertiles of antioxidant intake as the 30 d FR. Most dietary carotenoids estimated from the FFQ were correlated with plasma levels (P < 0·05). Correlation coefficients for test–retest reliability ranged from 0·39 to 0·86. More than 94 % of the participants were classified in the same or adjacent tertiles between the two administrations of the FFQ.
The brief FFQ demonstrated reasonable validity for capturing a comprehensive antioxidant intake profile. This FFQ is applicable in epidemiological or clinical studies to capture short-term antioxidant intake or to simply document the variations of antioxidant intake in intervention trials. Cross-validation studies are warranted in other target populations.
Over the last 20 years surveys of the population of the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus in Doñana National Park and its surroundings in Spain have produced estimates of a total population of 50–60 in fragmented patches. The population was estimated to be 26 adults in 2002–2003. Use of camera trapping and other field methods during 2004–2008 allowed us to determine the abundance of the lynx and to estimate demographic statistics. Estimated annual abundance of adult and subadult lynxes averaged 38 individuals (range 35–43). Although the population exhibited a continuous distribution it was concentrated in three major areas, including Doñana National Park, with an average area occupied of 620 km2. Our results suggest that the Doñana Iberian lynx population now has a different structure from that in the 1990s and in particular a more continuous spatial distribution. These results indicate an improved, but not secure, scenario for the population. The continuous geographical distribution suggests the population is currently less vulnerable to extinction than 10 years ago. Conservation actions now need to focus outside Doñana National Park on the reconversion of pine plantations into original Mediterranean scrubland habitat, and the continuity and intensification of ongoing restocking with rabbits in fenced areas.
Distributions of deep-sea fish, benthic invertebrates and the effects of deep-sea bottom trawling were studied based on data collected in 2005 from a joint collaboration survey undertaken between the Spanish Institute of Oceanography and a deep-sea trawler on the Hatton Bank (north-east Atlantic). A total of 163 valid bottom trawl hauls (600–1600 m) were analysed. The main trawlable grounds were located on the sedimentary seabed of the western flank of the bank (Hatton Drift). Grenadiers and smoothheads were predominant in the trawl catches (67% and 11.8% by weight respectively). Both species were abundant along the western flank. Deep-water sharks accounted for 7.4% of weight, and were abundant along the south-eastern slopes. Chimerids, lotids, morids and other deep-sea species were also taken as by-catch. Grenadiers and deep-water sharks dominated the discards. By-catches of cold-water corals were generally associated with the rocky outcrop and were more abundant at the top of the bank. Abundant by-catches of large sponges, characteristic of sponge-dominated biotopes, were taken from the eastern flank.
This study describes the results of the health programme implemented in the Valencian Community (Spain) to achieve an early diagnosis of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin American women and their newborns. During 2009 and 2010, 1975 women living in the health districts of three university hospitals were enrolled via midwives or at the time of delivery. Diagnosis of disease was performed using two serological tests with different antigens. Congenital infection was diagnosed by parasitological, molecular or serological methods from blood samples obtained at birth or in subsequent controls. The overall seroprevalence of Chagas infection in pregnant women from 16 different endemic countries was 11·4%. Infection was higher in those from countries in the Gran Chaco Region (Bolivia, 34·1%; Paraguay, 7·4%; Argentina, 5·3%). Eight newborn infants from Bolivian mothers had congenital Chagas which represents a vertical transmission rate of 3·7%. In conclusion, this work supports the benefits of offering an early diagnosis to pregnant women and newborns during routine prenatal healthcare.
Three sampling surveys were carried out, by SCUBA diving, in the Algarve (southern Portugal) in December 2007. A total of 57 species of gymnolaemate Bryozoa were identified. Of these, eight species were new to science (Mollia cristinae sp. nov., Hippoporina teresae sp. nov., Schizoporella spinosa sp. nov., Fenestrulina inesae sp. nov., Celleporina derungsi sp. nov., Dentiporella saldanhai sp. nov., Rhynchozoon celestinoi sp. nov. and Rhynchozoon rosae sp. nov.). Another 16 species are cited for the first time in Portuguese waters; of these, Stephanollona contracta is cited for the first time in European continental waters. Reference material deposited in several collections was also revised, and lectotypes and paralectotypes were selected for Mollia multijuncta and Dentiporella sardonica, species subjected to diverse interpretations. In addition Rhynchozoon revelatus was found to be a junior synonym of D. sardonica. The species collected in the study area reflect the existence of Lusitanian, Mauretanian and Mediterranean influences; the latter influence is of interest as the Mediterranean species found were previously considered endemic to the Mediterranean Sea and are usually found in shallow waters. Finally, a large degree of intracolonial variability was observed in some of the species studied, especially in Stephanollona armata, which may be taken into account in studies of the geographical variability and differentiation of cryptic species.
Three new species of Iberian cheilostomate bryozoans are described from material held in our own collection as well as in the bryozoan collection in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid. Chaperiopsis hirsuta sp. nov., from the Mediterranean, is the second species of this genus in European waters. Metroperiella gay sp. nov. and Schizoporella artabra sp. nov. are described from material collected in Galicia (north-western Spain).
The kinetics of glauconite dissolution have been determined in the pH range 2—10 (T = 25°C) using flow-batch reactor experiments. Besides the kinetic characteristics, the structural and textural aspects which could influence its long-term reactivity have also been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET surface area measurements. The results from these analyses showed that glauconite follows a dual dissolution pathway which is pH-dependent, being more stable at neutral or slightly alkaline pH values. Under acidic conditions, glauconite is slightly more soluble than other ubiquitous silicates present in the marine sediments. The dissolution mechanism is incongruent at very acid pH values and tends to be congruent for intermediate and neutral ones. In addition, the results from the structural analyses suggest that the dissolution is a two-step process: the first one involves the disorder of the octahedral and tetrahedral layers, probably following a turbostratic mechanism which is evident in the XRD spectra as selective broadening of several reflections. In the second step, the dissolution of the cations from interlayer positions takes place and leads to the formation of an amorphous residue which acts as a passivating layer and reduces the reactive surface considerably. The influence of these aspects on CO2 capture via carbonation reactions is discussed.
Relict endangered populations may be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. A data series for the period 1974–2003 was used to examine shifts in brown bear Ursus arctos food habits in its south-westernmost European population. This focused on the hyperphagic season, when bears gain the fat that is essential for winter dormancy and reproduction. General climatic indicators were predictors of diet trends. Other variables potentially able to modify brown bear food habits at the local scale were accounted for by considering two areas where local conditions changed in different ways during the study period. General climatic indicators such as temperature and the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index were good predictors of some diet trends, although local factors seemed to modulate the potential response of food habits to recent climate change. Boreal and temperate food items decreasingly contributed to brown bear diet, replaced by increasing contributions of southern foods, which suggested that warmer temperatures might determine the occurrence of some food items in the diet of Cantabrian brown bears through effects on plant distribution and phenology. At the local scale, high cattle density in one of the study areas limited food sources available for brown bears. Important food sources for brown bears, such as heath-like Vaccinium formations and old-growth oak forest in the Cantabrian Mountains, require increased levels of protection.
A Neospora caninum 17–19 kDa antigenic protein fraction (p17) in one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is the immunodominant antigen recognized by sera from bovines naturally infected by N. caninum. To identify the proteins making up the p17 fraction, we screened a new N. caninum tachyzoite cDNA library with an affinity-purified antibody against p17 (APA17). We isolated several cDNA clones with 100% sequence identity to the NcGRA7 gene. This previously described gene encodes a dense granule protein with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa. A second line of evidence emerged through a combined proteomic approach associating two-dimensional PAGE (2D-PAGE) to Western blotting and to mass spectrometry to characterize the p17 fraction. Two acidic immunodominant but minority protein spots were recognized by APA17 and by bovine sera. These antigens of 17 and 33 kDa are respectively composed of 4 and 2 isoforms. Furthermore, p17 isolation by 2D-PAGE and peptide sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry yielded a partial sequence of 17 amino acids, which allowed the putative amino terminal region of the NcGRA7 protein to be identified unambiguously.The NcGRA7 protein, without the putative signal peptide at the NH2-terminus, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and when the purified recombinant protein (rNcGRA7) was analysed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, 2 bands of 24 and 33 kDa were resolved and identified as NcGRA7. These results demonstrate that the immunodominant 17 kDa antigen of N. caninum is encoded by the NcGRA7 gene.
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the composition of goat meat, in terms of the fatty acid composition of the different fat deposits. For this purpose, we used two groups of 12 female goats each of which had recently undergone a double birth. The animals were maintained under semi-extensive conditions and trough-fed with a concentrate that was either non-supplemented or supplemented with 50 g/kg of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich fat protected against ruminant metabolism. The kid goats born to each group were suckled by their dams and a representative sample of each was slaughtered at 45 days after birth. The milk produced by the dams receiving the fat-supplemented diet contained fat with a lower content of saturated fatty acids and a higher content of n-3 PUFA, trans-C18: 1 and CLA. The kid goats suckled by these dams grew faster and the legs of the carcasses presented greater muscular development compared with the non-fat-supplemented diet group. The cover, intermuscular and intramuscular fat presented a different fatty acid composition, with a higher proportion of n-3 PUFA, trans C18: 1 and CLA, while that of n-6 PUFA remained unchanged. The change in the lipid metabolism of the kid goats was made evident by the blood levels of certain biochemical parameters. We discuss the improvement in the quality of the meat obtained, taking into account the feeding strategy provided and the class of animal in question.