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In her introductory contribution by the former President of the ICC, Judge Silvia Fernández de Gurmendi, highlights the practical importance of theories of punishment in international criminal law in general and the work of the ICC in particular. She particularly discusses three goals of international criminal justice: conflict prevention, that is deterrence, reconciliation and rehabilitation. Regarding the former, she sees the impunity gap – which is due to the nature of the crimes and the lack of universality of the ICC’s jurisdiction – as the main obstacles for a potent deterrent effect to ensue. As regards the reconciliation she emphasizes the importance of ‘ownership’, accomplished by victims participation, and, in this regard, the importance of outreach. Regarding reconciliation, the outlines the elements of restorative justice in the ICC, and the problems connected to reparations and the limited scope of cases. Finally, as a third rationale for punishment, she discusses the rehabilitation of the convicted perpetrators.
Transition metal dichalcogenide materials MX2 (M = Mo;W;X = S; Se) are being thoroughly studied due to their novel two-dimensional structure, that is associated with exceptional optical and transport properties. From a computational point of view, Density Functional Theory simulations perform very well in these systems and are an indispensable tool to predict and complement experimental results. However, due to the time and length scales where even the most efficient DFT implementations can reach today, this methodology suffers of stringent limitations to deal with finite temperature simulations or electron-lattice coupling when studying excitation states: the unit cells required to study, for instance, systems with thermal fluctuations or large polarons would require a large computational power. Multi-scale techniques, like the recently proposed Second Principles Density Functional Theory, can go beyond these limitations but require the construction of tight-binding models for the systems under investigation. In this work, we compare two such methods to construct the bands of WSe2. In particular, we compare the result of (i) Wannier-based model construction with (ii) the band fitting method of Liu et al., where the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band are modeled by three bands symmetrized to have mainly Tungsten dz2, dxy and dx2-y2character. Our results emphasize the differences between these two approaches and how band fitting model construction leads to an overestimation of the localization of the real-space basis in a tight-binding representation.
This article analyzes the causes for the long-term success of the Barcelona (Spain) and São Paulo (Brazil) automobile industry clusters. Comparative evidence suggests that both clusters emerged in the early twentieth century through the formation of Marshallian external economies. Nevertheless, neither Barcelona nor São Paulo reached mass automobile production before 1950. The consolidation of the clusters required the adoption of strategic industrial policy during the golden age of capitalism. This policy succeeded in encouraging a few hub firms to undertake mass production by using domestic parts. The strategic policy also favored these leading corporations transferring their technical, organizational, and distribution capabilities, which in turn amplified the advantages of the clusters. Local institutions did not make a significant contribution.
Depending on the real parameter λ > 0, we derive existence and non-existence results. The proof of our existence result relies on sharp Calderón–Zygmund type regularity results for the fractional Poisson equation with low integrability data. We also obtain existence results for related problems involving different nonlocal diffusion terms.
Plasma terminating disruptions in tokamaks may result in relativistic runaway electron beams with potentially serious consequences for future devices with large plasma currents. In this paper, we investigate the effect of plasma elongation on the coupled dynamics of runaway generation and resistive diffusion of the electric field. We find that elongated plasmas are less likely to produce large runaway currents, partly due to the lower induced electric fields associated with larger plasmas, and partly due to direct shaping effects, which mainly lead to a reduction in the runaway avalanche gain.
This article presents new evidence and analysis on age heaping—a proxy for numeracy and therefore for human capital—in New Spain during the Enlightenment. Human capital plays an important role in economic growth and welfare. It is also one of the dimensions of inequality. Our results are at odds with many of the usual assumptions on which most Mexicanist historiography is based. Age heaping levels of males and females and ethnic groups across locations in Central New Spain are estimated and compared through ad hoc indicators with other countries. We infer that a more empirical emphasis on the institutional legacy of the viceregal period and more attention to human capital since pre-Conquest times will benefit the progress of Hispanic American economic history.
Although it is known that certain emotion regulation processes produce a buffering effect on the relationship between life events and well-being, this issue has been poorly studied in the elderly population. Thus, the aim of the present study is to test and confirm a comprehensive model of the impact that past life events have on older adults’ psychological distress, exploring the possible mediating roles of emotion regulation processes. These include rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth.
In this cross-sectional study, 387 people over 60 years old residing in the community were assessed on life events, physical functioning, emotion regulation variables, psychological well-being, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The structural model tested achieved a satisfactory fit to the data, explaining 73% of the variance of older adults’ psychological distress. In addition, the main results suggest possible mediation effects of both the physical functioning and the emotional variables: rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth in the face of hardship.
These findings confirm the importance of emotion regulation processes in the final stages of life. They reveal the various adaptive and maladaptive mechanisms that underlie the relationship between life events and psychological distress. The findings suggest – both in the explanatory models of psychological well-being and in psychotherapeutic interventions – the importance of emotion regulation in the elderly population’s health.
As a consequence of axenic growth and the elimination of accompanying bacterial flora, Entamoeba histolytica virulence decreases rapidly, and pathogenicity is lost. This paper evaluated the impact of vitamin supplementation on the pathogenicity of E. histolytica. Growth of E. histolytica trophozoites, cultured axenically in PEHPS (a Spanish acronym for the main ingredients – casein peptone, liver, pancreas extract and bovine serum) medium, with or without vitamins, exhibited a similar growth rate. However, the vitamin-enriched PEHPS preparations expressed 2.65 times more haemolytic activity (at 60 min: 98 vs 48%, P < 0.05), 2.5 times more phospholipase A2 activity at 150 min of incubation and generated more hepatic abscesses (88 vs 60%, P = 0.05) than the preparations without vitamins. The haemolytic and phospholipase A2 activity for the PEHPS − V preparations were restored following vitamin supplementation with A and D. These data highlight, for the first time, that vitamins and specifically vitamin A and D were essential for the recovery of amoebic virulence, lost through axenic growth.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been linked to academic underachievement, but previous studies had methodological limitations. We investigated the association between SAD and objective indicators of educational performance, controlling for a number of covariates and unmeasured confounders shared between siblings.
This population-based birth cohort study included 2 238 837 individuals born in Sweden between 1973 and 1997, followed-up until 2013. Within the cohort, 15 755 individuals had a recorded ICD-10 diagnosis of SAD in the Swedish National Patient Register. Logistic regression models tested the association between SAD and educational performance. We also identified 6488 families with full siblings discordant for SAD.
Compared to unexposed individuals, individuals diagnosed with SAD were less likely to pass all subjects in the last year of compulsory education [adjusted odds ratios (aOR) ranging from 0.19 to 0.44] and less likely to be eligible for a vocational or academic programme in upper secondary education [aOR = 0.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30–0.33) and aOR = 0.52 (95% CI 0.50–0.55), respectively], finish upper secondary education [aOR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.19–0.20)], start a university degree [aOR = 0.47 (95% CI 0.45–0.49)], obtain a university degree [aOR = 0.35 (95% CI 0.33–0.37)], and finish postgraduate education [aOR = 0.58 (95% CI 0.43–0.80)]. Results were attenuated but remained statistically significant in adjusted sibling comparison models. When psychiatric comorbidities were taken into account, the results were largely unchanged.
Treatment-seeking individuals with SAD have substantially impaired academic performance throughout the formative years. Early detection and intervention are warranted to minimise the long-term socioeconomic impact of the disorder.
The implications of cannabis use in the onset of early psychosis and the severity of psychotic symptoms have resulted in a proliferation of studies on this issue. However, few have examined the effects of cannabis use on the cognitive symptoms of psychosis (i.e., neurocognitive functioning) in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to assess the neurocognitive functioning of cannabis users (CU) and nonusers (NU) with FEP.
Of the 110 studies identified through the systematic review of 6 databases, 7 met the inclusion criteria, resulting in 14 independent samples and 78 effect sizes. The total sample included 304 CU with FEP and 369 NU with FEP. The moderator variables were age at first use, duration of use, percentage of males, and age.
Effect sizes were not significantly different from zero in any neurocognitive domain when users and NU were compared. Part of the variability in effect sizes was explained by the inclusion of the following moderator variables: (1) frequency of cannabis use (β = 0.013, F = 7.56, p = 0.017); (2) first-generation antipsychotics (β = 0.019, F = 34.46, p ≤ 0.001); and (3) country where the study was carried out (β = 0.266, t = 2.06, p = 0.043).
This meta-analysis indicates that cannabis use is not generally associated with neurocognitive functioning in patients with FEP. However, it highlights the deleterious effect of low doses of cannabis in some patients. It also stresses the importance of the type of antipsychotic prescription and cannabis dose as moderator variables in the neurocognitive functioning of CU with FEP.
This article argues that the “declarative” parastate of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) claiming sovereignty over Western Sahara is better understood as a hybrid between a parastate and a state-in-exile. It relies more on external, “international legal sovereignty,” than on internal, “Westphalian” and “domestic” sovereignty. While its Algerian operational base in the Tindouf refugee camps makes it work as a primarily extraterritorial state-in-exile de facto, the SADR maintains control over one quarter of Western Sahara’s territory proper allowing it to at least partially meet the requirements for declarative statehood de jure. Many case-specific nuances surround the internal sovereignty of the SADR in relation to criteria for statehood: territory, population, and government. However, examining this case in a comparative light reveals similarities with other (secessionist) parastates. The SADR exists within the context of a frozen conflict, where the stalemate has been reinforced by an ineffective internationally brokered peace settlement and the indefinite presence of international peacekeeping forces. Global powers have played a major role in prolonging the conflict’s status quo while the specific resilience of the SADR as a parastate has been ensured by support from Algeria as an external sponsor. The path to sovereignty appears to be blocked in every possible way.
The willow sawfly, Nematus oligospilus (Förster), is a pest in Salix commercial forests and has been reported worldwide. Female adults must recognize a suitable host plant to oviposit, since her offspring lack the ability to move to another host. We evaluated the effect of conspecific herbivory on the oviposition choices of N. oligospilus females by providing damaged (DP) and undamaged (UP) plants of Salix humboldtiana, a native willow from South America, as oviposition substrates. Local and systemic effects were studied. For the local treatment, a twig from the DP with damaged leaves was contrasted to a twig from a UP in dual choice experiments. For systemic treatment, a twig from the DP with intact leaves was contrasted to a twig from a UP. We estimated the use of olfactory and contact cues by comparing volatile emission of DP and UP, and by analysing the behaviour of the females during host recognition after landing on the leaf surface. In the context of the preference–performance hypothesis (PPH), we also tested if oviposition site selection maximizes offspring fitness by evaluating neonate hatching, larval performance and survival of larvae that were born and bred on either DP or UP. Our results demonstrate that previous conspecific herbivory on S. humboldtiana has a dramatic impact on female oviposition choices and offspring performance of the sawfly N. oligospilus. Females showed a marked preference for laying eggs on UP of S. humboldtiana. This preference was found for both local and systemic treatments. Volatile emission was quantitatively changed after conspecific damage suggesting that it could be related to N. oligospilus avoidance. In the dual choice preference experiments, the analysis of the behaviour of the females once landing on the leaf surface suggested the use of contact cues triggering egg laying on leaves from UP and avoidance of leaves from DP. Furthermore, 48 h of previous conspecific feeding was sufficient to dramatically impair neonate hatching, as well as larval development and survival, suggesting a rapid and effective reaction of the induced resistance mechanisms of the tree. In agreement with the PPH, these results support the idea that decisions made by colonizing females may result in optimal outcomes for their offspring in a barely studied insect model, and also opens the opportunity for studying tree-induced defences in the unexplored South American willow S. humboldtiana.
This chapter offers a brief review of some issues related to the economics of minimum wage regulations. More concretely, I will organize my discussion around two major headings: Why minimum wages? And what are the effects of minimum wages on employment, technological change, and inequality?
Despite the much improved therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment that have been developed over the past 50 years, cancer remains a major cause of mortality globally. Considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence has demonstrated an association between ingestion of food and nutrients with either an increased risk for cancer or its prevention. There is rising interest in exploring agents derived from natural products for chemoprevention or for therapeutic purposes. Honey is rich in nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds, as well as in natural antioxidants, and its potential beneficial function in human health is becoming more evident. A large number of studies have addressed the anti-cancer effects of different types of honey and their phenolic compounds using in vitro and in vivo cancer models. The reported findings affirm that honey is an agent able to modulate oxidative stress and has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and anti-metastatic properties. However, despite its reported anti-cancer activities, very few clinical studies have been undertaken. In the present review, we summarise the findings from different experimental approaches, including in vitro cell cultures, preclinical animal models and clinical studies, and provide an overview of the bioactive profile and bioavailability of the most commonly studied honey types, with special emphasis on the chemopreventive and therapeutic properties of honey and its major phenolic compounds in cancer. The implications of these findings as well as the future prospects of utilising honey to fight cancer will be discussed.
This article argues that efforts to implement collective property ownership via community land trusts (CLTs) in Latin America can be seen as a viable means for reducing socio-spatial inequalities, strengthening the urban poor’s ‘right to the city,’ and enabling more substantive social citizenship. It begins by arguing that, in Latin America, market models intended to strengthen individual property rights can increase urban inequality and spatial exclusion. It then examines recent measures undertaken to reverse the negative impacts of these patterns, focusing explicitly on the adoption of CLTs and how they serve as a means for strengthening urban citizenship. After highlighting the fact that CLTs have proliferated in the US and Europe but not Latin America, we explain how and why a few Latin American countries have nonetheless embraced CLTs. Building on deeper analysis of two cases in the region, Puerto Rico and Brazil, we show that despite the legal and governance constraints of Latin American cities, CLTs can materialise when local authorities join with citizens to embrace these models.
We derive general analytical expressions for the aerodynamic force and moment on a flapping flexible foil undergoing a prescribed undulatory motion in a two-dimensional, incompressible and linearized potential flow from the vortical impulse theory. We consider a fairly broad class of foil motion, characterized by nine non-dimensional parameters in addition to the reduced frequency. Quite simple analytical expressions are obtained in the particular case when just a chordwise flexure mode is superimposed to a pitching or heaving motion of the foil, for which the optimal conditions generating a maximum thrust force and a maximum propulsion efficiency are mapped in terms of the reduced frequency and the relative amplitude and phase shift of the deflection of the foil. These results are discussed in relation to the optimal conditions for a pitching or heaving rigid foil. The present theoretical results are compared with available numerical data for some particular undulatory motions of the flexible foil, with good agreement for small amplitudes of the oscillations and sufficiently high Reynolds number.
Dissipation of S-metolachlor, a soil-applied herbicide, on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida was evaluated using field studies in 2013 to 2016. S-metolachlor was applied PRE at 2,270 g ha−1 on organic and mineral soils with 75% and 1.6% organic matter, respectively. The rate of dissipation of S-metolachlor was rapid on mineral soils compared with organic soils. Dissipation of S-metolachlor on organic soils followed a negative linear trend resulting in half-lives (DT50) ranging from 50 to 126 d. S-metolachlor loss on organic soils was more rapid under high soil-moisture conditions than in corresponding low soil-moisture conditions. On mineral soils, dissipation of S-metolachlor followed an exponential decline. The DT50 of S-metolachlor on mineral soils ranged from 12 to 24 d. The short persistence of S-metolachlor on mineral soils was likely attributed to low organic matter content with limited adsorptive capability. The results indicate that organic matter content and soil moisture are important for persistence of S-metolachlor on organic and mineral soils used for sugarcane production in Florida.
As island ecosystems are among the most critical breeding habitats for seabirds, their protection should enhance population viability for many species. The Peruvian Diving-petrel Pelecanoides garnotii breeds only in Chile and Perú, is an endangered seabird with historically large populations of over 100,000 breeding pairs, but fewer than 1,000 remained in the 1980s and it became the first endangered seabird of the Humboldt Current System. In Chile, they breed on five islands, three of which are legally protected, but only two have a management plan. Between 2010 and 2014, we evaluated the density of nests, burrow occupancy, and colony patch sizes on the islands to estimate the breeding population. The population trend was assessed by compiling historical data available in the literature and several unpublished technical reports. The current breeding population size in Chile was ∼12,500 breeding pairs (95% CI: 10,613–14,676 pairs) that is ∼34% of the breeding pairs reported for Peru (∼36,450 pairs). Choros Island, the only island with adequate protection, accounted for ∼95% of the total breeding population of the Peruvian Diving-petrel in Chile. Historical population trends showed a significant increase in breeding pairs during recent years on Choros Island. It seems that the adequate legal protection of Choros Island is leading to the recovery of Peruvian Diving-petrels, demonstrating that protection of breeding colonies remains an essential strategy for the conservation of endemic seabirds.
As the Inca Empire was predominantly agrarian, the integration of local farming communities into a corporate agricultural system constituted a great challenge for the imperial political economy. The authors thus analyse an unusual circular structure in the Altos de Arica region of northern Chile, which resembles an important building—called ‘sunturhuasi’—in the capital, Cusco. They explore this structure using three-dimensional modelling, identifying its probable use in astronomical observations and hence its clear connection with the Inca agricultural calendar, ultimately suggesting that it was central to an imperial built environment related to the political economy of maize production.
Human immunodeficiency virus infected patients have a three-fold increased risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The British HIV Association recommends human immunodeficiency virus testing in all new diagnoses of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
This observational study aimed to examine the current routine practice of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with newly diagnosed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and to address the importance of this test in promoting the early diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus.
All head and neck cancer multidisciplinary teams in England were questioned on their protocol for human immunodeficiency virus testing in new diagnoses of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Only 1 out of 30 hospitals leading head and neck multidisciplinary teams (3.3 per cent) routinely offered human immunodeficiency virus testing in this high-risk patient group.
This observational study highlights that head and neck specialists are not aware of, and are consequently not complying with, routine human immunodeficiency virus testing as recommended by the British HIV Association guidelines.