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This article explores whether immigration plays a role in determining national welfare state effort in 16 European countries. It examines the relationship between stocks of migrants, the foreign-born population, on two different indicators of welfare state effort – social welfare spending as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) and a welfare generosity index. The nexus between immigration and welfare is a controversial and highly sensitive political issue, and as such it typically divides opinion. Traditionally, it has been argued that increases in immigration create pressures for governments to reduce levels of social welfare provision. By building on theories and results from the political economy literature, this article provides further evidence on the debate through using a fresh approach to operationalize welfare state effort. The empirical results show that the foreign-born population has a positive and statistically significant relationship with social welfare spending and no statistically significant association with the welfare generosity index. The findings provide no evidence to support the hypothesis that the higher levels of immigration lead to reduced levels of social welfare provision. On the contrary, these findings lend support to the view that increasing immigration leads to welfare state expansion rather than retrenchment, and that European welfare states remain resilient in the face of the globalization of migration.
The novel Volumetric Image Matching Environment for Radiotherapy (VIMER) was developed to allow users to view both computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) datasets within the same 3D model in virtual reality (VR) space. Stereoscopic visualisation of both datasets combined with custom slicing tools and complete freedom in motion enables alternative inspection and matching of the datasets for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT).
Material and methods:
A qualitative study was conducted to explore the challenges and benefits of VIMER with respect to image registration. Following training and use of the software, an interview session was conducted with a sample group of six university staff members with clinical experience in image matching.
User discomfort and frustration stemmed from unfamiliarity with the drastically different input tools and matching interface. As the primary advantage, the users reported match inspection efficiency when presented with the 3D volumetric renderings of the planning and secondary CBCT datasets.
This study provided initial evidence for the achievable benefits and limitations to consider when implementing a 3D voxel-based dataset comparison VR tool including a need for extensive training and the minimal interruption to IGRT workflow. Key advantages include efficient 3D anatomical interpretation and the capability for volumetric matching.
This paper reports the preliminary results from two short seasons of fieldwork that the Tunisian–British Bulla Regia Archaeological Report was able to undertake in September 2016 and 2017. In 2016, the work focused on a geophysical survey of the western cemetery and revealed a complex landscape of funerary enclosures and mausolea outside the protected boundaries of the site, likely to be of Roman date. In 2017, photogrammetric techniques were used to record and plan a Late Antique church and cemetery that was discovered during a rescue excavation in 2010. The church consists of three naves and a series of funerary annexes, which contained burials covered by mosaic or stone epitaphs, including those marking the graves of two bishops and two priests. The church is surrounded by an extensive cemetery with a variety of different tomb types, such as mosaic caissons and simple stepped masonry tombs. The mosaics, inscriptions and finds (ceramics, glass, coins) support a fourth to sixth/seventh century date for the church and cemetery.
Indonesia's national ulama council, the Majelis Ulama Indonesia, or MUI, has successfully transformed itself during the reform era reversing its earlier relationship with government. It is the MUI that now sets the agenda on appropriate ways to recognize, protect, and promote the majority faith. However it does not operate entirely separate to the state, indeed, there are numerous points of contact and mutual dependence between this group of Islamic scholars and state agencies.
This article offers two case studies on religious freedom demonstrating different aspects of the MUI's self-appointed role of national mufti. The first case study demonstrates how the MUI has taken control of the high ground of religious doctrine. Through its response to blasphemy cases and deviant Muslim activities the MUI defines appropriate, orthodox Muslim conduct. The second case study deals with the revised regime of halal food certification. Here the state has sought to bring the MUI back into its embrace, partly as a result of corruption scandals. In doing so, however, Islam continues to be further entrenched in state law and regulation.
Indonesian Islam was said to be deconfessionalized, reflecting the nature of the former authoritarian and bureaucratic state's engagement with various Islamic institutions. The changing role of the MUI demonstrates that the state and law are becoming increasingly confessionalized. This change has significant implications for Indonesia's democratic constitutional framework, evident in what these cases say about the enjoyment of the fundamental right of citizenship.
In contrast to opposite-sex unmarried partners, same-sex partners did not receive recognition as ‘families’ under Article 8(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights until recently. But as same-sex couples in Europe increasingly sought recognition and protection of their relationships, a number of them turned to Article 8, read with Article 14, at Strasbourg, arguing that the state is under an obligation stemming from Article 14 to avoid discrimination against them within the scope of respect for family life under Article 8(1). This chapter traces a movement at Strasbourg from eventual recognition of same-sex couples as ‘families’ to (qualified) recognition of their right to a registered partnership under Article 8. At present, a right of opposite-sex couples to choose a registered partnership under Article 8 has not been established. That is because, as this chapter explains, they can access formalisation of their union via marriage, as they can do in all Member States. The Strasbourg Court currently takes the view that the decision whether to enable such couples to have a choice between marriage and a registered partnership is within the margin of appreciation of the Member State.
The Strasbourg jurisprudence in the area of registered partnerships takes a restrained stance, due to its reliance on finding a consensus in Member States on affording same-sex couples access to a means of formalising their union. A number of the decisions have arisen in the context of transsexual relationships, but the fact that part of the case law concerns transsexuals should not be allowed to obscure the analogies that are explicitly – and can be impliedly – drawn in it in relation to non-transsexual couples seeking to access registered partnerships. Thus, while the discussion below of necessity covers cases that on a superficial reading appear to be partially unrelated to access to registered partnerships, that is not in fact the case, as this chapter seeks to demonstrate. As this chapter concludes, at present the Strasbourg Court has demonstrated, partially via the vehicle of certain transsexual cases, that it is prepared to give some, qualified, support to acceptance of a positive obligation under Article 8 to introduce registered partnerships in Member States that have not so far introduced them.
The effects of employee-perceived leadership paradigms on multiple measures of firm performance collected from managers and customers in small businesses were examined. Four leadership paradigms operating in Australian retail pharmacies were assessed against six performance measures – financial outcomes, staff and customer satisfaction, productivity, retaining staff, and manager retention. Structural equation modeling, regression, and analysis of variance were employed to test the hypotheses. Predictions that firms characterized by visionary and organic/distributed leadership would outperform those using classical and transactional leadership were supported on all measures. Furthermore, the emerging organic leadership paradigm outperformed the others on every measure.
The objectives of the present study were to describe and compare the characteristics and reports of end-of-life experiences (ELEs) by healthcare professionals at different institutions and to investigate the influence of religious beliefs on these reports.
A multicenter study was carried out in Brazil that included six nursing homes (NHs), a cancer hospital (ONC), and a palliative care (PC) unit. Sociodemographic data, ELE reports (Fenwick's questionnaire), religiosity (the Duke Religion Index), spirituality (the Spirituality Self-Rating Scale), and mental health (the DASS-21 questionnaire) were assessed. The analysis was performed using ANOVA and chi-square tests in order to compare ELE perceptions in these different settings.
A total of 133 healthcare professionals (46 ONC, 36 PC, and 51 NH) were interviewed, 70% of whom recounted at least one ELE report in the previous five years. The most common ELEs were “visions of dead relatives collecting the dying person” (88.2%), “a desire to mend family rifts” (84.9%), and “visions of dead relatives near the bed providing emotional comfort” (80.6%). Most healthcare professionals (70–80%) believed that these experiences had a spiritual significance and were not due to biological effects. Comparison among settings revealed that those working in the PC unit had more reports, a greater openness about the issue, and more interest in training. Individual religious beliefs had no influence on perception of ELEs.
Significance of Results:
Our study revealed that ELE reports are not uncommon in clinical practice and seem to be little influenced by religious or spiritual beliefs. Although strongly reported in all settings, palliative care professionals tend to be more open to this issue and have a stronger perception of ELEs.
The Last Glacial–Interglacial Transition (LGIT; 15,000–11,000 cal BP) was characterized by complex spatiotemporal patterns of climate change, with numerous studies requiring accurate chronological control to decipher leads from lags in global paleoclimatic, paleoenvironmental, and archaeological records. However, close scrutiny of the few available tree-ring chronologies and radiocarbon-dated sequences composing the IntCal13 14C calibration curve indicates significant weakness in 14C calibration across key periods of the LGIT. Here, we present a decadally resolved atmospheric 14C record derived from New Zealand kauri spanning the Lateglacial from ~13,100–11,365 cal BP. Two floating kauri 14C time series, curve-matched to IntCal13, serve as a 14C backbone through the Younger Dryas. The floating Northern Hemisphere (NH) 14C data sets derived from the YD-B and Central European Lateglacial Master tree-ring series are matched against the new kauri data, forming a robust NH 14C time series to ~14,200 cal BP. Our results show that IntCal13 is questionable from ~12,200–11,900 cal BP and the ~10,400 BP 14C plateau is approximately 5 decades too short. The new kauri record and repositioned NH pine 14C series offer a refinement of the international 14C calibration curves IntCal13 and SHCal13, providing increased confidence in the correlation of global paleorecords.
Research on the potato-root eelworm Heterodera rostochiensis has been severely handicapped by the fact that it is virtually impossible to estimate the infectivity of individual cysts. Since the infectivity of an individual cyst is determined by the number of viable larvae present within it, the problem can be settled in one of two ways—either by means of a technique which recovers all the viable larvae and rejects the non-viable or by estimating firstly the total contents and then the proportion of them which is viable. Techniques for the recovery of larvae from cysts have been described by Fenwick (1941) and Fenwick and Franklin (1940). The former of these sought to express soil infectivity directly in terms of available larvae per gm. of soil while the latter was concerned merely with obtaining a representative sample of larvae from a given batch of cysts. Neither claimed to estimate viability of the contents. A further technique (Bracey, 1946) which was described in a paper circulated among interested workers was a modification of that described by Fenwick and Franklin (loc. cit.) and claimed to express viability of cyst contents directly as a percentage.