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Oxygen was introduced into a single crystal of titanium in successive stages. The intensities of the h00 and 00l reflections were measured with a single-crystal diffractometer. The observed variation of the intensities with oxygen concentration was attributed to three factors: (1) the additional scattering from the oxygen atoms, (2) a change in the Debye-Waller factor, and (3) an exponential factor originating from the distortion around the oxygen atom. The theory of X-ray scattering from crystals containing centers of distortion was applied to the hexagonal titanium containing interstitial oxygen atoms. Using the variation of the lattice constant with oxygen concentration, it was possible to predict the intensity reduction due to lattice strains. It was concluded that it would have been possible to obtain an estimate of the defect concentration from the X-ray measurements of lattice expansion and intensity reduction.
We sought to evaluate the risk and image quality from cardiovascular CT in patients across all stages of single-ventricle palliation, and to define accuracy by comparing findings with intervention and surgery.
Consecutive CT scans performed in patients with single-ventricle heart disease were retrospectively reviewed at a single institution. Diagnosis, sedation needs, estimated radiation dose, and adverse events were recorded. Anatomical findings, image quality (1–4, 1=optimal), and discrepancy compared with interventional findings were determined. Results are described as medians with their 25th and 75th percentiles.
From January, 2010 to August, 2015, 132 CT scans were performed in single-ventricle patients of whom 20 were neonates, 52 were post-Norwood, 15 were post-Glenn, and 45 were post-Fontan. No sedation was used in 76 patients, 47 were under minimal or moderate sedation, and nine were under general anaesthesia. The median image quality score was 1.2. The procedural dose–length product was 24 mGy-cm, and unadjusted and adjusted radiation doses were 0.34 (0.2, 1.8) and 0.82 (0.55, 1.88) mSv, respectively. There was one adverse event. No major and two minor discrepancies were noted at the time of 79 surgical and 10 catheter-based interventions.
Cardiovascular CT can be performed with a low radiation exposure in patients with single-ventricle heart disease. Its accuracy compared with that of interventional findings is excellent. CT is an effective advanced imaging modality when a non-invasive pathway is desired, particularly if cardiac MRI poses a high risk or is contraindicated.
Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified. Random- and mixed-effects models were applied to test for average effect sizes and moderating variables. Overall, treatments showed high effect sizes in pre–post comparisons (Hedges' g = 1.34) and medium effect sizes as compared with control conditions (Hedges' g = 0.43). Treatments investigated by at least two studies were cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy for children (KIDNET) and classroom-based interventions, which showed similar effect sizes. However, studies were very heterogenic with regard to their outcomes. Effects were moderated by type of profession (higher level of training leading to higher effect sizes). A number of effective psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent survivors of disasters exist. CBT, EMDR, KIDNET and classroom-based interventions can be equally recommended. Although disasters require immediate reactions and improvisation, future studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous methodology are needed.
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy for cancer survivors (MCGP-CS) to improve personal meaning, compared with supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) and care as usual (CAU).
A total of 170 cancer survivors were randomly assigned to one of the three study arms: MCGP-CS (n = 57); SGP (n = 56); CAU (n = 57). The primary outcome measure was the Personal Meaning Profile (PMP; total score). Secondary outcome measures were subscales of the PMP, psychological well-being (Scales of Psychological Well-being; SPWB), post-traumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory), Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC), optimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised), hopelessness (Beck's Hopelessness Scale), psychological distress (anxiety and depression, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS) and quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire; EORTC QLQ-C30). Outcome measures were assessed before randomization, post-intervention, and after 3 and 6 months of follow-up (FU).
Linear mixed model analyses (intention-to-treat) showed significant differences between MCGP-CS, SGP and CAU on the total PMP score, and on (sub)scales of the PMP, SPWB, MAC and HADS. Post-hoc analyses showed significantly stronger treatment effects of MCGP-CS compared with CAU on personal meaning (d = 0.81), goal-orientedness (d = 1.07), positive relations (d = 0.59), purpose in life (d = 0.69); fighting spirit (d = 0.61) (post-intervention) and helpless/hopeless (d = −0.87) (3 months FU); and distress (d = −0.6) and depression (d = −0.38) (6 months FU). Significantly stronger effects of MCGP-CS compared with SGP were found on personal growth (d = 0.57) (3 months FU) and environmental mastery (d = 0.66) (6 months FU).
MCGP-CS is an effective intervention for cancer survivors to improve personal meaning, psychological well-being and mental adjustment to cancer in the short term, and to reduce psychological distress in the long run.
Satellite observations of the Merope and Barnard's Loop nebulae in the 1050 to 4250 Å spectral region show that the increase in the albedo of interstellar grains below 2000 Å occurs in individual reflection nebulae as well as in the general interstellar medium. Evidence for differences in the composition and size distribution of grains due to variations in the local radiation field is presented.
In GaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy as well as metal organic vapor phase epitaxy significant differences were found in the appearance of deep defects detected by thermal admittance spectroscopy as compared for deep level transient spectroscopy measurements. While, thermal admittance spectroscopy measurements which were made under zero bias conditions only show thermal emissions at activation energies between 130 and 170 meV, further deep levels existing in these GaN layers were evidenced by transient spectrocopy. This discrepancy is explained by a pinning effect of the Fermi level at the metal / GaN interface induced by high a concentration of the deep levels showing up in thermal admittance spectroscopy. We compare our results with a GaAs:Te Schottky- diode as a refernec sample. Here, both spectroscopic methods give exactly the same deep level emissions.
Deep defect levels in n-type GaN/AlN/6H-SiC- and GaN/AlGaN/6H-SiC- heterostructures grown by Metallorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy were analyzed by Thermal and Optical Admittance and Photocurrent Spectroscopy. The various thermal and optical transitions in the spectra originating from both the Schottky contact as well as the GaN/SiC- and AlGaN/GaN-heterojunctions were separated. This was achieved by variation of the modulation frequency, the use of different contact arrangements and by comparison with reference spectra from GaN/Sapphir samples and SiC substrates. In the GaN/AlGaN/SiC structures a bias voltage dependent peak shift was found which is correlated to an interface related defect distribution. In additionally to, SiC related defects, defect-band-transitions involving defects with transition energies at 2.2eV, 1.85eV, EG-(470±40) meV and EG-(65-95) meV were found for the GaN layer.
Clinical and ethical implications of personality and mood changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) are under debate. Although subjectively perceived personality changes are often mentioned by patients and caregivers, few empirical studies concerning these changes exist. Therefore, we analysed subjectively perceived personality and mood changes in STN-DBS PD patients.
In this prospective study of the ELSA-DBS group, 27 PD patients were assessed preoperatively and 1 year after STN-DBS surgery. Two categories, personality and mood changes, were analysed with semi-structured interviews. Patients were grouped into personality change yes/no, as well as positive/negative mood change groups. Caregivers were additionally interviewed about patients’ personality changes. Characteristics of each group were assessed with standard neurological and psychiatric measurements. Predictors for changes were analysed.
Personality changes were perceived by six of 27 (22%) patients and by 10 of 23 caregivers (44%). The preoperative hypomania trait was a significant predictor for personality change perceived by patients. Of 21 patients, 12 (57%) perceived mood as positively changed. Higher apathy and anxiety ratings were found in the negative change group.
Our results show that a high proportion of PD patients and caregivers perceived personality changes under STN-DBS, emphasizing the relevance of this topic. Mood changed in positive and negative directions. Standard measurement scales failed to adequately reflect personality or mood changes subjectively perceived by patients. A more individualized preoperative screening and preparation for patients and caregivers, as well as postoperative support, could therefore be useful.