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The objective was to compare the performance of the updated Charlson comorbidity index (uCCI) and classical CCI (cCCI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All cases of SAB in patients aged ⩾14 years identified at the Microbiology Unit were included prospectively and followed. Comorbidity was evaluated using the cCCI and uCCI. Relevant variables associated with SAB-related mortality, along with cCCI or uCCI scores, were entered into multivariate logistic regression models. Global model fit, model calibration and predictive validity of each model were evaluated and compared. In total, 257 episodes of SAB in 239 patients were included (mean age 74 years; 65% were male). The mean cCCI and uCCI scores were 3.6 (standard deviation, 2.4) and 2.9 (2.3), respectively; 161 (63%) cases had cCCI score ⩾3 and 89 (35%) cases had uCCI score ⩾4. Sixty-five (25%) patients died within 30 days. The cCCI score was not related to mortality in any model, but uCCI score ⩾4 was an independent factor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–3.74). The uCCI is a more up-to-date, refined and parsimonious prognostic mortality score than the cCCI; it may thus serve better than the latter in the identification of patients with SAB with worse prognoses.
Two metal fillers with TiC nanoparticles (TiC NPs) of less than 100 nm for the overlay process is an alternative to hardfacing for treating surfaces subjected to severe wear. In this work, the effect of tribological behavior for TiC NPs addition on two Co-based filler materials, as well as the dilutions, was studied. Mixtures of Co-based filler metals without and with 0.5% and 2% TiC NPs were deposited onto D2 steel plates using PTA (Plasma Transferred Arc). The BET surface area was 0.17 m2 g-1 and 0.31 m2 g-1, respectively, for Stellite 6 and 12. The distribution of ca 23% macroporous for Stellite 6 was sufficient to get inside the TiC NPs, as well as in the case of Stellite 12, with a pore distribution of ca 13%. Stellite 12 has an increase in the dilutions (70%) and enthalpies showed endothermic reactions. Stellite 6 with NPs was determined to be most effective in increasing the wear resistance.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from diethyl ether, butanol, hexane and ethyl acetate. A quartz tube with a stainless steel tube catalyst core with 0.019 m diameter and 0.6 m large formed the reactor. To avoid combustion, argon was used as the carrier gas. Time process ranged 30 to 60 min. The range of CNTs synthesis temperature was 680-850 °C for different precursors. Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs have demonstrated tangled CNTs growth in all samples, thus presenting difficult length measurement. The CNTs diameters from diethyl ether are 45-200 nm, butanol diameter range from 55-230 nm, hexane diameter range is 50-130 nm and ethyl acetate range from 100 to 300 nm. Carbon content for all samples was higher than 93 %, CNTs from butanol showed carbon concentration up to 99%. FTIR, Raman and X-Ray Spectroscopies spectra for all samples demonstrated the characteristics signals present in carbon nanotubes. This research proposes a simple, effective and innovative method to synthesize CNTs by CVD on iron stainless steel catalyst in combination with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and hexane as precursors by applying the principles of green chemistry, sustainability and its ease to be scaled.
The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this species are also provided in order to improve the actual larval rearing techniques of this fast-growing Neotropical catfish species.
We have carried out 1mm/3mm continuum and 12CO(2−1) line high resolution observations to identify the footprints of AGN feedback on 3C 236. The CO emission comes from a spatially resolved disk characterized by a regular rotating pattern. Within the limits imposed by the sensitivity and velocity coverage of our data, we do not detect any outflow signatures in the cold molecular gas. Re-inspection of optical and IR spectra, shows the presence of a previously unknown ionized gas outflow. The star-formation efficiency in 3C 236, is consistent with the value measured in normal galaxies, which follow the canonical Kennicutt-Schmidt law. This result, confirmed to hold in other young radio sources examined in this work, is in stark contrast with the factor of 10–50 lower SFE that has been claimed to characterize evolved powerful radio galaxies. The recent reactivation of the AGN in 3C 236 is a likely explanation for the early evolutionary status of its molecular disk.
This study consisted of the characterization of longitudinal cracking pattern observed in weld joint in the manufacture of 304L steel pipelines with thin wall thickness by GTAW process. These tubes are used in food and automotive industries. The cracks grown in the liquid-solid interdendritic zones at high temperatures. It was found that the cracks are associated with change on solidification mode and presence of the holes produced by shrinkage. The change in the solidification mode was associated with the presence of second phase particles. The results suggest that the formation of cracks is promoted by increasing current during the welding although the heat input is constant.
A modified polyol synthesis has been utilized to study the different structures obtained in the bimetallic system of platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd). Some results are shown in this work. Thermal methods under refluxing, carrying on the reaction up to 285 ºC, have been assayed to reduce metallic salts using ethylene glycol (EG) as reducer and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as protective reagent of the formed bimetallic nanoparticles. The special core-shell structure has been observed in these bimetallic nanoparticles, whose synthesis was assisted by Ag, showing polyhedral shapes. The average diameter size of the core has been estimated at 10 nm, and the diameter size of the shell in 13 nm, consequently the thickness of the shell is around 1.5 nm. Nanoparticles were structurally characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) equipped with detector to generate high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images. This kind of structures have been studied and utilized to increase successfully the catalytic properties of monometallic nanoparticles of Pt or Pd according to other works. Here, the synthesis procedure is described; as the main results, several images are presented showing the obtained bimetallic core-shell structures and their fast Fourier transform (FFT), and also the size and the elemental analysis of the nanoparticles are reported, concluding that this synthesis method is very efficient for preparing bimetallic core shell structures.
The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.
Interpolation properties of the class of disjointly strictly singular operators on Banach lattices are studied. We also give some applications to compare the lattice structure of two rearrangement invariant function spaces. In particular, we obtain suitable analytic characterisations of when the inclusion map between two Orlicz function spaces is disjointly strictly singular.
A variety of recent measurements has shown that the phase diagrams of Langmuir monolayers of relatively simple amphiphiles such as fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl esters are remarkably complex. Nine condensed phases have been identified; their structures can be related to those of known smectic phases. A key distinction between phases is the orientation of the molecular tilt azimuth with respect to the local hexagonal order of the head groups. When monolayers are examined by fluorescence microscopy, regions of uniform tilt can be observed if the exciting radiation is polarized with respect to the surface normal. The tilt regions form patterns similar to those observed in freely suspended films of smectic liquid crystals. The patterns can be changed by compressing the film and by changing the temperature. Transitions between different phases can be observed.
Nanocapsules of Bi2S3 with diameters between 5 and 10 nm and shells with an amorphous atomic distribution were synthesized at room temperature, with bismuth nitrate and thiourea as precursors. Aging the solution for several days a black powder precipitated made of a mixture of one amorphous phase and crystalline Bi2S3. When two capsules interacted between each other, the capsule regions in contact crystallized into bismuth sulfide, which explains the origin of the crystalline phase observed in the X-ray diffraction pattern. At this temperature, aggregation of the small nanocapsules also gave rise to necklaces of capsules, which eventually gave rise to nanotubes; these necklaces ordered forming bundles parallel to their largest dimension. When the solution was annealed at temperatures lower than 100 °C, aggregation gave rise to capsules as large as 1 μm in diameter, and tubes with similar diameters; in this case aggregation occurred between small and large nanocapsules. Because of the monomers aggregating had an external spherical symmetry and the low annealing temperatures, which were not high enough to produce sintering, all capsules and tubes formed during aggregation had porous walls, making these materials interesting for many applications.
Pooling samples may provide a valuable alternative to individual testing for pathogen surveillance purposes. We studied the reliability of measuring the level of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in bulk-tank milk (BTM) to estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in dairy sheep in 34 flocks. We then estimated the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in 154 dairy sheep flocks according to the level of antibodies in BTM. We tested for the accuracy of our estimation at the population level by comparing predicted mean C. burnetii flock seroprevalence with that obtained in another survey performed on the same population. Our findings showed that testing BTM by ELISA is a cost-effective and relatively good index of the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in dairy sheep and may be a useful tool for epidemiological surveillance at the population level.
In Spain, trichinellosis represents a public health problem, with an average of five outbreaks per year, wild boar meat being the main source of infection. A trichinellosis survey (2007–2008 hunting campaign) was carried out on wild boars in the Toledo Mountains (south-western Spain, EU) in the context of a surveillance programme on wildlife diseases. A total of 2216 wild boars from different locations of the region were examined. The examination was carried out by veterinarians in the local abattoir (Matadero Municipal de Toledo). The positive samples were sent to the Department of Parasitology (Facultad de Farmacia, UCM) for experimental isolation and specific identification by inter-simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR). Using this technique we identified 17 isolates as Trichinella spiralis with an electrophoretic profile indistinguishable from the T. spiralis reference strain (ISS48). We confirmed that ISSR-PCR is a robust technique for the molecular identification of Trichinella isolates. According to our results, the prevalence of T. spiralis in wild boars from the Toledo Mountains (>800 m above sea level) during the hunting season was approximately 0.77%. The prevalence of T. spiralis (100% of our observations) is a good example of the persistence of this species in sylvatic conditions (coming from the domestic cycle), if a good wild host is abundant. Our observations confirm the major prevalence of T. spiralis over T. britovi in this region, as well as the risk to human health represented by the consumption of uninspected wild boar meat.
From 1979 to August 1987, there have been 178 cases of meningococcal disease in Iquique, Chile, a city of about 140000. The attack rate for the last 5 years has been in excess of 20/100000 per year, more than 20 times greater than for the country overall. The mortality rate was 6%. The disease occurred in patients with ages from 4 months to 60 years, but 89% of cases were in patients <21 years. The largest number of cases were in the age group 5–9 years (n = 54), but the highest incidence occurred in children less than 1 year of age (72·8/100000 per year). The male/female ratio was 1·2. Cases occurred all year round with little seasonal variation. Of the 178 cases, 173 were biologically confirmed. Serogroup analysis of strains from 135 patients revealed A = 1, B = 124, C = 10. Forty-four group B strains from 1985–7 were serotyped: 15:P1.3 = 36, 15:NT = 4, 4:P1.3 = 2, NT:NT = 2. Ten of 11 of the outbreak strains tested were sulfadiazine-resistant. This is the first recognized outbreak caused by a Gp B:15 strain in South America. It shares many of the characteristics of outbreaks caused by closely related strains in Europe, such as a predilection for older children and adolescents, sulfadiazine-resistance, and sustained high attack rates. The Iquique strain (B:15:P1.3) belongs to the same genetic clone (ET-5 complex) as the Norway (B:15:P1.16) and the Cuban (B:4:P1.15) strains.
Ontologies are frequently used in the context of software and technology engineering. These can be grouped into two main categories, depending on whether they are used to describe the knowledge of a domain (domain ontologies) or whether they are used as software artifacts in software development processes. This paper presents some experiences and lessons learnt from the effective use of an ontology for Software Measurement, called software measurement ontology (SMO). The SMO was developed some years ago as a result of a thorough analysis of the software measurement domain. Its use as a domain ontology is presented first, a description of how the SMO can serve as a conceptual basis for comparing international standards related to software measurement. Second, the paper describes several examples of the applications of SMO as a software artifact. In particular, we show how the SMO can be instantiated to define a data quality model for Web portals, and also how it can be used to define a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) for measuring software entities. These examples show the significant role that ontologies can play as software artifacts in the realm of model-driven engineering and domain-specific modeling.
The transition from conventional to organic farming is accompanied by changes in soil chemical properties and processes that could affect soil fertility. The organic system is very complex and the present work carries out a short-term comparison of the effects of organic and conventional agriculture on the chemical properties of a silty loam soil (Xerofluvent) located in the Guadalquivir River Valley, Seville, Spain, through a succession of five crop cycles over a 3-year period. Crop rotation and varieties were compared in a conventional system using inorganic fertilizer and two organic systems using either plant compost or manure. At the end of the study, organic farming management resulted in higher soil organic carbon (OC), N and available P, K, Fe and Zn. The available Mn and especially Cu values did not show significant differences. In general, treatment with manure resulted in more rapid increases in soil nutrient values than did plant compost, which had an effect on several crop cycles later. The present study demonstrated that the use of organic composts results in an increase in OC and the storage of nutrients, which can provide long-term fertility benefits. Nevertheless, at least 2–3 years of organic management are necessary, depending on compost characteristics, to observe significant differences. Average crop yields were 23% lower in organic crops. Nevertheless, only two crops showed statistically significant differences.
We determined the rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infection in infants and the effect of an infection control program during 4 winter seasons. The rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infection decreased from 6.09 episodes per 100 patients admitted during the first study year to 1.46 episodes per 100 patients admitted during the last study year.
Arthrowallemia anam. gen. nov., characterized by
holothallic conidiogenesis, secession randomly schizolytic,
and cylindrical, septate,
brown conidia emerging from conspicuous unbranched conidiophores,
is described and illustrated. The type species, A. formosa sp.
nov., was collected on unidentified decaying leaves in Cuba.
Notes on similar genera are given.
Laryngeal papillomatosis is one of the first diseases where interferon (IFN) was found to be effective. In 1983, a programme for the treatment of all such cases started in Cuba. Up to December 1991, 125 patients (92 children, 33 adults) have been treated: 102 with leucocyte IFN-α, 12 with recombinant IFN-α-2b, and 11 have received both preparations. Case management consisted of surgical removal of the lesions followed by an IFN schedule starting with 105 IU/kg of weight in children or 6 × 106 IU in adults, i.m. daily. The dose was progressively reduced, as long as no relapses occurred. At the end of the one-year schedule the doses were reduced to 5 × 104 IU/kg in children or 3 × 106 IU in adults, weekly. If there was a relapse, it was removed surgically and the patient returned to a higher dose level. Most cases (89; 71 per cent) have not relapsed after the treatment; 60 of them have been followed for more than three years. In those with relapses, the frequency of recurrence decreased in all but four patients. The treatment seemed to be more effective if initiated less than three months after the disease onset. The tracheostomy could be removed in five out of seven patients who needed it before the IFN treatment and was necessary in only three new cases during IFN treatment. In two of these, decannulation was possible later on. In a total of 14 patients relapses persisted after several cycles of IFN treatment. They were considered resistant to such treatment. No severe side effects were reported. The most frequent ones were fever, drowsiness, increased bronchial secretion, chills and headache. The establishment of this programme has maintained the disease under control in Cuba.