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Biological transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) to vertebrate hosts by hematophagous insects poses a global threat because such arboviruses can result in a range of serious public health infectious diseases. Sindbis virus (SINV), the prototype Alphavirus, was used to track infections in the posterior midgut (PMG) of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes. Females were fed viremic blood containing a virus reporter, SINV [Thosea asigna virus-green fluorescent protein (TaV-GFP)], that leaves a fluorescent signal in infected cells. We assessed whole-mount PMGs to identify primary foci, secondary target tissues, distribution, and virus persistence. Following a viremic blood meal, PMGs were dissected and analyzed at various days of post blood-feeding. We report that virus foci indicated by GFP in midgut epithelial cells resulted in a 9.8% PMG infection and a 10.8% dissemination from these infected guts. The number of virus foci ranged from 1 to 3 per individual PMG and was more prevalent in the PMG-middle > PMG-frontal > PMG-caudal regions. SINV TaV-GFP was first observed in the PMG (primary target tissue) at 3 days post blood-feeding, was sequestered in circumscribed foci, replicated in PMG peristaltic muscles (secondary target tissue) following dissemination, and GFP was observed to persist in PMGs for 30 days postinfection.
Hot carrier based methods constitute a valuable approach for efficient and silicon compatible sub-bandgap photodetection. Although, hot electron excitation and transfer have been studied extensively on traditional materials such as Au and Ti, reports on alternative materials such as titanium nitride (TiN) are rare. Here, we perform hot hole photodetection measurements on a p-Si/metal thin film junction using Ti, Au and TiN. This material is of interest as it constitutes a refractory alternative to Au which is an important property for plasmonic applications where high field intensities can occur. In contrast to Au, a TiN/Si junction does not suffer from metal diffusion into the Si, which eases the integration with current Si-fabrication techniques. This work shows that a backside illuminated p-Si/TiN system can be used for efficient hot hole extraction in the IR, allowing for a responsivity of 1 mA/W at an excitation wavelength of 1250 nm and at zero bias. Via a comparison between TiN and other commonly used materials such as Au, the origin of this comparably high photoresponse can be traced back to be directly linked to a thin TiO2-x interfacial layer allowing for a distinct hot-hole transfer mechanism. Moreover, the fabrication of TiN nanodisk arrays is demonstrated which bears great promise to further boost the device efficiency.
When a rigid body collides with a liquid surface with sufficient velocity, it creates a splash curtain above the surface and entrains air behind the sphere, creating a cavity below the surface. While cavity dynamics has been studied for over a century, this work focuses on the water entry characteristics of deformable elastomeric spheres, which has not been studied. Upon free surface impact, an elastomeric sphere deforms significantly, giving rise to large-scale material oscillations within the sphere resulting in unique nested cavities. We study these phenomena experimentally with high-speed imaging and image processing techniques. The water entry behaviour of deformable spheres differs from rigid spheres because of the pronounced deformation caused at impact as well as the subsequent material vibration. Our results show that this deformation and vibration can be predicted from material properties and impact conditions. Additionally, by accounting for the sphere deformation in an effective diameter term, we recover previously reported characteristics for time to cavity pinch off and hydrodynamic force coefficients for rigid spheres. Our results also show that velocity change over the first oscillation period scales with the dimensionless ratio of material shear modulus to impact hydrodynamic pressure. Therefore, we are able to describe the water entry characteristics of deformable spheres in terms of material properties and impact conditions.
Within acute psychiatric inpatient services, patients exhibiting severely disturbed behaviour can be transferred to a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and/or secluded in order to manage the risks posed to the patient and others. However, whether specific patient groups are more likely to be subjected to these coercive measures is unclear. Using robust methodological and statistical techniques, we aimed to determine the demographic, clinical and behavioural predictors of both PICU and seclusion.
Data were extracted from an anonymised database comprising the electronic medical records of patients within a large South London mental health trust. Two cohorts were derived, (1) a PICU cohort comprising all patients transferred from general adult acute wards to a non-forensic PICU ward between April 2008 and April 2013 (N = 986) and a randomly selected group of patients admitted to general adult wards within this period who were not transferred to PICU (N = 994), and (2) a seclusion cohort comprising all seclusion episodes occurring in non-forensic PICU wards within the study period (N = 990) and a randomly selected group of patients treated in these wards who were not secluded (N = 1032). Demographic and clinical factors (age, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis, admission status and time since admission) and behavioural precursors (potentially relevant behaviours occurring in the 3 days preceding PICU transfer/seclusion or random sample date) were extracted from electronic medical records. Mixed effects, multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed with all variables included as predictors.
PICU cases were significantly more likely to be younger in age, have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and to be held on a formal section compared with patients who were not transferred to PICU; female sex and longer time since admission were associated with lower odds of transfer. With regard to behavioural precursors, the strongest predictors of PICU transfer were incidents of physical aggression towards others or objects and absconding or attempts to abscond. Secluded patients were also more likely to be younger and legally detained relative to non-secluded patients; however, female sex increased the odds of seclusion. Likelihood of seclusion also decreased with time since admission. Seclusion was significantly associated with a range of behavioural precursors with the strongest associations observed for incidents involving restraint or shouting.
Whilst recent behaviour is an important determinant, patient age, sex, admission status and time since admission also contribute to risk of PICU transfer and seclusion. Alternative, less coercive strategies must meet the needs of patients with these characteristics.
A detailed understanding of the response of mineral phases to the radiation fields experienced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) is currently poorly constrained. Prolongued ion irradiation has the potential to affect both the physical integrity and oxidation state of materials and therefore may alter a structure's ability to react with radionuclides. Radiohalos (spheres of radiation damage in minerals surrounding radioactive (α-emitting) inclusions) provide useful analogues for studying long term α-particle damage accumulation. In this study, silicate minerals adjacent to Th- and U-rich monazite and zircon were probed for redox changes and long/short range disorder using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) at Beamline I18, Diamond Light Source. Fe3+ → Fe2+ reduction has been demonstrated in an amphibole sample containing structural OH– groups – a trend not observed in anhydrous phases such as garnet. Coincident with the findings of Pattrick et al. (2013), the radiolytic breakdown of OH– groups is postulated to liberate Fe3+ reducing electrons. Across all samples, high point defect densities and minor lattice aberrations are apparent adjacent to the radioactive inclusion, demonstrated by micro-XRD.
III Zw 2 shows dramatic radio outbursts roughly every five years. Here we present the light curves and VLBA observations of the latest flare with an excellent time sampling. We have detected superluminal motion with a lower limit for the apparent expansion speed of 1.25±0.09 c at 43 GHz. Spectral and spatial evolution are closely linked and the evolution of III Zw 2 in a turnover frequency vs. linear size diagram is similar to the correlation for GPS and CSS sources. Before and after this rapid expansion we observe a period of virtually no expansion. However, at 15 GHz III Zw 2 shows a constant slow expansion (∼0.6 c). The difference is qualitatively explained by optical depth effects in an ‘inflating-balloon model’, describing the evolution of radio lobes on an ultra-compact scale. The stop-and-go behaviour could be explained by a jet interacting with a molecular cloud or the molecular torus.
Recent evidence points to partially shared genetics of neuropsychiatric disorders.
We examined risk of intellectual disability and other neuropsychiatric outcomes in 3174 children of mothers with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or unipolar major depression compared with 3129 children of unaffected mothers.
We used record linkage across Western Australian population-based registers. The contribution of obstetric factors to risk of intellectual disability was assessed.
Children were at significantly increased risk of intellectual disability with odds ratios (ORs) of 3.2 (95% CI 1.8–5.7), 3.1 (95% CI 1.9–4.9) and 2.9 (95% CI 1.8–4.7) in the maternal schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression groups respectively. Multivariate analysis suggests familial and obstetric factors may contribute independently to the risk. Although summated labour/delivery complications (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–2.0) just failed to reach significance, neonatal encephalopathy (OR = 7.7, 95% CI 3.0–20.2) and fetal distress (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–2.7) were independent significant predictors. Rates of rare syndromes in children of mothers with mental disorder were well above population rates. Risk of pervasive developmental disorders, including autism, was significantly elevated for children of mothers with bipolar disorder. Risk of epilepsy was doubled for children of mothers with unipolar depression.
Our findings provide epidemiological support for clustering of neuropsychiatric disorders. Further larger epidemiological studies are warranted.
Experiments demonstrate the ~77× amplification of 0.5 to 3.5-ps pulses of seed light by interaction with Langmuir waves in a low density (1.2 × 1019 cm−3) plasma produced by a 1-ns, 230-J, 1054-nm pump beam with 1.2 × 1014 W/cm2 intensity. The waves are strongly damped (kλD = 0.38, Te = 244 eV) and grow over a ~ 1 mm length, similar to what is experienced by scattered light when it interacts with crossing beams as it exits an ignition target. The amplification reduces when the seed intensity increases above ~1 × 1011 W/cm2, indicating that saturation of the plasma waves on the electron kinetic time scale (<0.5 ps) limits the scatter to ~1% of the available pump energy. The observations are in agreement with 2D PIC simulations in this case.
Of all possible black hole sources, the event horizon of the Galactic Center black hole, Sgr A*, subtends the largest angular scale on the sky. It is therefore a prime candidate to study and image plasma processes in strong gravity and it even allows imaging of the shadow cast by the event horizon. Recent mm-wave VLBI and radio timing observations as well as numerical GRMHD simulations now have provided several breakthroughs that put Sgr A* back into the focus. Firstly, VLBI observations have now measured the intrinsic size of Sgr A* at multiple frequencies, where the highest frequency measurements have approached the scale of the black hole shadow. Moreover, measurements of the radio variability show a clear time lag between 22 GHz and 43 GHz. The combination of size and timing measurements, allows one to actually measure the flow speed and direction of magnetized plasma at some tens of Schwarzschild radii. This data strongly support a moderately relativistic outflow, consistent with an accelerating jet model. This is compared to recent GRMHD simulation that show the presence of a moderately relativistic outflow coupled to an accretion flow Sgr A*. Further VLBI and timing observations coupled to simulations have the potential to map out the velocity profile from 5-40 Schwarzschild radii and to provide a first glimpse at the appearance of a jet-disk system near the event horizon. Future submm-VLBI experiments would even be able to directly image those processes in strong gravity and directly confirm the presence of an event horizon.
As the rate of terrorism increases, it is important for health care providers to become familiar with the management of injuries inflicted by blasts and explosions. This article reviews the ocular injuries associated with explosive blasts, providing basic concepts with which to approach the blast-injured patient with eye trauma. We conducted a literature review of relevant articles indexed in PubMed between 1948 and 2007. Two hundred forty-four articles were reviewed. We concluded that ocular injury is a frequent cause of morbidity in blast victims, occurring in up to 28% of blast survivors. Secondary blast injuries, resulting from flying fragments and debris, cause the majority of eye injuries among blast victims. The most common blast eye injuries include corneal abrasions and foreign bodies, eyelid lacerations, open globe injuries, and intraocular foreign bodies. Injuries to the periorbital area can be a source of significant morbidity, and ocular blast injuries have the potential to result in severe vision loss.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2010;4:154-160)
We have demonstrated that a number of known good dies (KGDs) can be precisely aligned in batch and stacked on LSI wafers by our chip-to-wafer three-dimensional (3D) integration technology using an innovative self-assembly technique. Compared with conventional robotic pick-and-place chip assembly, the fluidic self-assembly can provide high-throughput chip alignment and bonding, and the resulting self-assembled chips have high alignment accuracy of approximately 0.3 micron on average. Immediately after chip release, the chips are aligned onto the predetermined hydrophilic bonding areas in a short time within 0.1 sec by the surface tension of aqueous liquid used in our self-assembly. By using the self-assembly, a number of KGDs with different chip sizes, different materials and different devices can be stacked in high yield to give highly integrated 3D chips we call the 3D Super Chip.
Establishing a cost-effective technology for the metallization of through-Si vias (TSV) is an important factor in the realization and volume manufacturing of 3D-stacked integrated circuits (3D-SIC). Cu electroplating, which is the preferred technique, should provide not only a void-free TSV fill, but also short filling time and small overburden. The duration of the plating process is a significant contributor to the overall 3D process cost, and thus needs to be minimized. The overburden, the thickness of the material deposited on the top surface of the wafer, has to be limited for compatibility with the following processing steps (e.g. chemical mechanical polishing, CMP).
In this paper we report on Cu plating of TSV-s with a thin Ta film on the field. The thin Ta film is sputtered on top of the Ta barrier/Cu seed, and inhibits Cu plating outside the TSV-s. We show that the use of this Ta-cap and in situ electrochemical monitoring techniques leads to significant savings in plating and polishing time, and thus savings in manufacturing costs of 3D-stacked integrated circuits.
The texture and microstructure of electrodeposited Ni layers formed in an additive-free Watt's bath were investigated. The microstructure of the electrodeposited Ni layer consists of fine columnar grains extending along the growth direction. The major texture components of electrodeposited Ni layers on Ni-P substrate were (112) and (110) fibers. On the other hand, electrodeposited Ni layers on Cu substrate had a strong (110) fiber texture. In the vicinity of the interface between the electrodeposited Ni layer and the Cu substrate, obvious epitaxial regions were not observed. Many twins parallel to the growth direction were observed in the electrodeposited Ni layer. It is suggested that grains with a twin relationship grew preferentially during the electrodeposition reaction.
Three-dimensional (3D) integration is an emerging technology that vertically stacks and interconnects multiple materials, technologies and functional components to form highly integrated micro/nano-systems. This paper reviews the materials and technologies for three wafer bonding approaches to 3D integration using adhesive, metal, and metal/adhesive as the bonding interfaces. Similarities and differences in architectural advantages and technology challenges are presented, with recent research advances discussed.
Low temperature (≤400°C) growth of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) is carried out using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. After an initial preparation step poly-Si was grown on the substrates. Optical band gap studies of the poly-Si films have been correlated to hydrogen content of the films as well as to their photoconductivity. Furthermore, the suitability of these films for use as information storage materials for future generation 3-D flash memory devices is investigated using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements via metal-insulator-semiconductor device structures. C-V analysis indicates strong charge storage behavior for the poly-Si films.