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What's the word that describes the process of making supportive noises when you're listening to someone? What is syntax and how does it differ from grammar? Do you know what a morpheme is? And did you know that it's not only an atom that has a nucleus? The Babel Lexicon of Language is an entertaining and accessible introduction to the key terminology involved in the study of language. It defines over 500 terms and uses contemporary language examples, explaining complex issues in an easy-to-understand way. Written by the expert editorial team behind Babel, the popular language magazine, and assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, The Babel Lexicon of Language is an invaluable resource for students, teachers and anyone with an interest in language.
This chapter examines the narratives (media, policy and statistical) around the notion of the ‘linguistic other’ in England and elsewhere in Europe. We argue that these narratives are closely bound up with the way nation states define their policies for social integration of migrant communities and, in particular, migrant children in schools. At the heart of the debates around conflicting narratives about the role of schools in this context is the question of linguistic diversity and second (or host) language development. Also in this chapter we review, from a sociological perspective, how researchers and policy-makers have endeavoured to understand the concept and practice of social integration in this context. In particular, we highlight the tensions between the focus on micro-level experience and on the macro-level socio-political implications. We provide a review of recent empirical studies on EAL internationally and reflect on current issues in light of recent policy developments. We discuss the variations that can be found across Europe in terms of mainstreaming and inclusion.
This chapter introduces the framework of a model of inclusive pedagogy that consists of four key dimensions: attitudinal inclusion, academic inclusion, linguistic inclusion and social inclusion. We illustrate the issues through reference to teacher data elicited at the project secondary schools. We discuss the prevalence of linguistic diversity in English schools that makes teachers’ knowledge about such language diversity essential to effectiveness in the classroom and, in light of this, we identify key forms of ‘bilingual assistance’ which support EAL pedagogy. The final section of the chapter presents an outline of a teacher knowledge framework which we argue needs to form the basis of teacher professional development in the EAL context.
This chapter discusses the policy and educational context of provision for newcomer migrant children in Europe and the United Kingdom (including a review of relevant EU documentation relating to the social and academic integration of newcomer children in schools) before focusing on the specific context of the East of England which is the setting for our empirical study. We review statistical data relating to regional provision of support for EAL in schools and discuss the findings of a regional school survey conducted for the project.
This introductory chapter sets out the rationale for the book and in particular for its focus on the relationship between social integration and language development in the experiences of newcomer school students with English as an additional language. It also provides a critical examination and definitional review of key terms and concepts at the heart of the discussion: EAL, newly arrived, mainstreaming, language development and social integration.
The final chapter summarises the main findings discussed in the book and looks ahead at future challenges and possibilities, drawing out implications from the research described in the earlier chapters with the aim of informing an improved understanding of the interdependence between social integration and language development in the schooling of newcomer EAL students. We conclude by identifying three key dimensions of a framework for optimal analysis and enhancement of the socio-educational experience of newcomer EAL students. These dimensions require further attention from researchers and practitioners: interdependence of second language development and social integration; inclusive pedagogy; and transactional home–school–home communication.
This chapter discusses salient methodological considerations and challenges in undertaking empirical research with young, newly arrived migrant students. This includes questions relating to negotiating access, sampling of core participants, the role of language and use of interpreters, and the importance of giving migrant students a voice as part of an overall holistic approach which focuses on the student perspective and the relationship of this to school and parental perspectives. Approaches to assessing language development and social integration are explored. Such considerations raise questions about the relevance of conducting research with newcomer migrant students in a range of different countries and contexts. This chapter also provides an overview of the research design adopted in the studies funded by the Bell Foundation and explores how such methodological considerations were taken into account throughout the study.
This chapter challenges the concept of school–home communication by offering a transactional notion of the home–school–home communication model (drawn from communication theory). We review the classic and more recent international literature on school–home communication in relation to newly arrived migrant children and the need to consider whether the presence of such children challenges the ‘one size fits all’ model. We use the dynamic notion of transactional communication to consider the empirical findings of the three-year research programme, covering secondary and primary schooling, and recommend alternative and more empowering constructions of school communication systems (its modes, processes, content and operationalisation). Our conclusions are of direct relevance to education practitioners, school community liaison officers and migrant communities themselves.
This chapter provides a longitudinal analysis of progression in a sample of EAL students newly arrived in the United Kingdom, highlighting the development of competence in different features of English language use in speaking and writing. In addition, we discuss evidence of change in the students’ experience of social integration as revealed in two sets of interviews with EAL students of different ages and national backgrounds and we consider how the students’ reported experience of social integration impacted on their linguistic and academic performance in the school over the two-year period following arrival. The chapter closes with an examination of the use of direct speech in English as a discursive framework in which they were able to dramatise their social experiences and to self-identify in the new environment.
Given the current context of the experience of migration on schools in England and Europe, and the competing policies and approaches to social integration in schools, there is a need to understand the connection between language development and social integration as a basis for promoting appropriate policies and practices. This volume explores the complex relationship between language, education and the social integration of newcomer migrant children in England, through an in-depth analysis of case studies from schools in the East of England. The authors set this evidence against the background of policy debates in the wider international setting, including a critical discussion of assumptions underlying national narratives of mainstreaming and assimilation. In the light of an absence of national guidelines for appropriate practice in schools, the authors outline a model of inclusive pedagogy for English as an additional language (EAL) and a framework of home-school communication to promote effective EAL parental engagement in schools.
Monolayer (ML) molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) is a novel 2-dimensional (2D) semiconductor whose properties have many applications in devices. Despite its potential, ML MoS₂ is limited in its use due to its degradation under exposure to ambient air. Therefore, studies of possible degradation prevention methods are important. It is well established that air humidity plays a major role in the degradation. In this paper, we investigate the effects of substrate hydrophobicity on the degradation of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ML MoS2. We use optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman mapping to investigate the degradation of ML MoS2 grown on SiO2 and Si3N4 that are hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, respectively. Our results show that the degradation of ML MoS₂ on Si3N4 is significantly less than the degradation on SiO2. These results show that using hydrophobic substrates to grow 2D transition metal dichalcogenide ML materials may diminish ambient degradation and enable improved protocols for device manufacturing.
This study examines how human capital develops in response to early-life weather and pollution exposures in the Philippines. Both pollution and weather are examined in relation to short- and long-term human capital outcomes. We combine a three-decade longitudinal survey measuring human capital development, a database of historical weather, and multiple databases characterizing carbon monoxide and ozone in the Philippines during the 1980s. We find evidence that extreme precipitation and temperature affect short-term anthropometric outcomes, but long-term outcomes appear unaffected. For long-term cognitive outcomes, we find that early-life pollution exposures negatively affect test scores and schooling. These long-term responses to early-life pollution exposures extend to the labor market with reduced hours worked and earnings. The implication is that a 25 per cent reduction in early-life ozone exposure would increase per person discounted lifetime earnings by $1,367, which would scale to $2.05 billion at the national level (or 2 per cent of 2005 GDP).
The scarcity of Romano-British human remains from north-west England has hindered understanding of burial practice in this region. Here, we report on the excavation of human and non-human animal remains1 and material culture from Dog Hole Cave, Haverbrack. Foetal and neonatal infants had been interred alongside a horse burial and puppies, lambs, calves and piglets in the very latest Iron Age to early Romano-British period, while the mid- to late Roman period is characterised by burials of older individuals with copper-alloy jewellery and beads. This material culture is more characteristic of urban sites, while isotope analysis indicates that the later individuals were largely from the local area. We discuss these results in terms of burial ritual in Cumbria and rural acculturation. Supplementary material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068113X20000136), and contains further information about the site and excavations, small finds, zooarchaeology, human osteology, site taphonomy, the palaeoenvironment, isotope methods and analysis, and finds listed in Benson and Bland 1963.
Cohorting patients who are colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) protects uncolonized patients from acquiring MDROs in healthcare settings. The potential for cross transmission within the cohort and the possibility of colonized patients acquiring secondary isolates with additional antibiotic resistance traits is often neglected. We searched for evidence of cross transmission of KPC+ Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) colonization among cohorted patients in a long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH), and we evaluated the impact of secondary acquisitions on resistance potential.
Genomic epidemiological investigation.
A high-prevalence LTACH during a bundled intervention that included cohorting KPC-Kp–positive patients.
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and location data were analyzed to identify potential cases of cross transmission between cohorted patients.
Secondary KPC-Kp isolates from 19 of 28 admission-positive patients were more closely related to another patient’s isolate than to their own admission isolate. Of these 19 cases, 14 showed strong genomic evidence for cross transmission (<10 single nucleotide variants or SNVs), and most of these patients occupied shared cohort floors (12 patients) or rooms (4 patients) at the same time. Of the 14 patients with strong genomic evidence of acquisition, 12 acquired antibiotic resistance genes not found in their primary isolates.
Acquisition of secondary KPC-Kp isolates carrying distinct antibiotic resistance genes was detected in nearly half of cohorted patients. These results highlight the importance of healthcare provider adherence to infection prevention protocols within cohort locations, and they indicate the need for future studies to assess whether multiple-strain acquisition increases risk of adverse patient outcomes.