To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are public health problems worldwide, and present a risk to develop cardiovascular diseases. Previous findings mentioned that disruptions in the circadian clockwork may predispose to metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to find an association between seasonal changes in mood and behaviour and metabolic syndrome.
8028 participants (45% men) were interviewed face-to-face at home and assisted to a health status examination as part of a nationwide survey in Finland. Waist circumference, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and blood samples were taken for laboratory tests. They were assessed with the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) to measure seasonal changes in mood and behaviour, and the ATP-III criteria for metabolic syndrome.
Individuals with metabolic syndrome had bigger BMI (t=-42.7, df=3513, P<0.001), waist circumference (t=-47.2, df=6560, P<0,001), higher levels of glucose (t=-19.2, df=2339, P<0.001), total cholesterol (t=-13.2, df=6631, P<0.001), HDL cholesterol (t=48.5, df=5452, P<0.001), LDL cholesterol (t=-11.9, df=3800, P<0.001) and triglycerides (t=-37.5, df=2468, P<0.001). Global Seasonal Score (GSS) and seasonal changes in weight (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.39 to 1.78) were risk factors to develop metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference correlated with seasonal symptoms, in particular with seasonal changes in weight (r=0.20, df=5986, P<0.001).
Seasonal changes were associated with metabolic syndrome. Assessment of these changes may serve as a proxy for this syndrome. Abnormalities in the circadian clockwork may predispose to seasonal changes in weight and metabolic syndrome.
Stressful experiences affect biological stress systems, such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Life stress can potentially alter regulation of the HPA axis and has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. Little, however, is known about the relative influence of stressors that are encountered at different developmental periods on acute stress reactions in adulthood. In this study, we explored three models of the influence of stress exposure on cortisol reactivity to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) by leveraging 37 years of longitudinal data in a high-risk birth cohort (N = 112). The cumulative stress model suggests that accumulated stress across the lifespan leads to dysregulated reactivity, whereas the biological embedding model implicates early childhood as a critical period. The sensitization model assumes that dysregulation should only occur when stress is high in both early childhood and concurrently. All of the models predicted altered reactivity, but do not anticipate its exact form. We found support for both cumulative and biological embedding effects. However, when pitted against each other, early life stress predicted more blunted cortisol responses at age 37 over and above cumulative life stress. Additional analyses revealed that stress exposure in middle childhood also predicted more blunted cortisol reactivity.
Viral pneumonia is an important cause of death and morbidity among infants worldwide. Transmission of non-influenza respiratory viruses in households can inform preventative interventions and has not been well-characterised in South Asia. From April 2011 to April 2012, household members of pregnant women enrolled in a randomised trial of influenza vaccine in rural Nepal were surveyed weekly for respiratory illness until 180 days after birth. Nasal swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for respiratory viruses in symptomatic individuals. A transmission event was defined as a secondary case of the same virus within 14 days of initial infection within a household. From 555 households, 825 initial viral illness episodes occurred, resulting in 79 transmission events. The overall incidence of transmission was 1.14 events per 100 person-weeks. Risk of transmission incidence was associated with an index case age 1–4 years (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40–3.96), coinfection as initial infection (IRR 1.94; 95% CI 1.05–3.61) and no electricity in household (IRR 2.70; 95% CI 1.41–5.00). Preventive interventions targeting preschool-age children in households in resource-limited settings may decrease the risk of transmission to vulnerable household members, such as young infants.
Background: Psychotherapy homework completion is associated with positive treatment outcomes, but many patients show low adherence to prescribed assignments. Whether text-message prompts are effective in increasing adherence to assignments is unknown. Aims: To evaluate whether tailored daily text-message prompts can increase homework adherence in a stress/anxiety treatment. Method: This study used a randomised controlled single-case alternating treatment design with parallel replication in seven participants. Participants received a five-week relaxation program for stress and anxiety with daily exercises. The intervention consisted of daily text messages tailored for each participant. Phases with or without text messages were randomly alternated over the study course. Randomisation tests were used to statistically analyse differences in mean number of completed relaxation exercises between phases. Results: There was a significant (combined p = .018) effect of daily text messages on homework adherence across participants with weak to medium effect size improvements. No negative effects of daily text messages were identified. Conclusions: Tailored text messages can marginally improve adherence to assignments for patients in CBT. Further studies may investigate how text messages can be made relevant for more patients and whether text messages can be used to increase homework quality rather than quantity.
Previous research suggests that the experience of abuse and neglect in childhood has negative implications for physical health in adulthood. Using data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 115), the present research examined the predictive significance of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical/cognitive neglect for multilevel assessments of physical health at midlife (age 37–39 years), including biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, self-reports of quality of health, and a number of health problems. Analyses revealed that childhood physical/cognitive neglect, but not physical or sexual abuse, predicted all three health outcomes in middle adulthood, even when controlling for demographic risk factors and adult health maintenance behaviors. We discuss possible explanations for the unique significance of neglect in this study and suggest future research that could clarify previous findings regarding the differential impact of different types of abuse and neglect on adult health.
An established finding in research on infant-directed speech (IDS) is that vowels are hyperarticulated compared to adult-directed speech (ADS). Studies showing this investigate point vowels, leaving us with a rather weak foundation for concluding whether IDS vowels are hyperarticulated within a particular language. The aim of this study was to investigate a large sample of vowels in IDS and to elicit speech in a natural situation for mother and infant. Acoustical and statistical analyses for /æ:, æ, ø:, ɵ, o:, ɔ, y:, y, ʉ:, ʉ, e:, ɛ/ show a selective increase in formant frequencies for some vowel qualities. In addition, vowels had higher fundamental frequency and were generally longer in IDS, but the difference between long and short vowels were comparable between IDS and ADS. With an additional front articulation and less lip protrusion in IDS compared to ADS, it is argued that IDS is hypoarticulated.
African newspapers published in vernacular languages, particularly papers sponsored by colonial governments, have been understudied. A close reading of their contents and related archival sources provides insights into diverse ways in which the colonized framed and made claims. New kinds of claims were mediated by the government-sponsored vernacular press no less than by nationalists. Just as vernacularism was not nativism, African aspirations that posed no direct challenge to the colonial order did not necessarily entail mimicry. I show also how Europeans who debated a newspaper for Africans in the 1930s Zambia voiced diverse approaches to print culture, addressing a variety of objectives. The newspaper that emerged, Mutende, was replaced by provincial newspapers in the 1950s, and I focus on one of these: the Chinyanja-language Nkhani za kum'mawa, published under African editorship in Eastern Province between 1958 and 1965. Its modes of addressing African publics were neither nationalist nor colonial in any straightforward senses. Its editors and readers deliberated on what it meant to be from the province in an era of labor migration, how African advancement and dependence on Europeans were to be envisaged, and how relationships between women and men should be reconfigured. To hold divergent views on a world in flux, they had to keep something constant, and the order of governance itself remained beyond dispute. But this did not preclude emergent possibilities. The newspaper's columns and letters to the editor reveal claims on novel opportunities and constraints of a sort that mainstream nationalist historiography, with its meta-narrative of anti-colonialism, has rendered invisible.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) constitutes a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with degeneration of, predominantly, the frontal and temporal lobes. The clinical heterogeneity is evident, and early diagnosis is a challenge. The primary objectives were to characterize psychotic symptoms, initial clinical diagnoses and family history in neuropathologically verified FTD-patients and to analyze possible correlations with different neuropathological findings.
The medical records of 97 consecutive patients with a neuropathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) were reevaluated. Psychotic symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideas), initial diagnosis and family history for psychiatric disorders were analyzed.
Psychotic symptoms were present in 31 patients (32%). There were no significant differences in age at onset, disease duration or gender between patients with and without psychotic symptoms. Paranoid ideas were seen in 20.6%, and hallucinations and delusions in 17.5% in equal measure. Apart from a strong correlation between psychotic symptoms and predominantly right-sided brain degeneration, the majority of patients (77.4%) were tau-negative. Only 14.4% of the patients were initially diagnosed as FTD, while other types of dementia were seen in 34%, other psychiatric disorders in 42%, and 9.2% with other cognitive/neurological disorders. The patients who were initially diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder were significantly younger than the patients with other initial clinical diagnoses. A positive heredity for dementia or other psychiatric disorder was seen in 42% and 26% of the patients respectively.
Psychotic symptoms, not covered by current diagnostic criteria, are common and may lead to clinical misdiagnosis in FTD.
An evaluation was conducted to determine which syndromic surveillance tools complement traditional surveillance by serving as earlier indicators of influenza activity in Sweden. Web queries, medical hotline statistics, and school absenteeism data were evaluated against two traditional surveillance tools. Cross-correlation calculations utilized aggregated weekly data for all-age, nationwide activity for four influenza seasons, from 2009/2010 to 2012/2013. The surveillance tool indicative of earlier influenza activity, by way of statistical and visual evidence, was identified. The web query algorithm and medical hotline statistics performed equally well as each other and to the traditional surveillance tools. School absenteeism data were not reliable resources for influenza surveillance. Overall, the syndromic surveillance tools did not perform with enough consistency in season lead nor in earlier timing of the peak week to be considered as early indicators. They do, however, capture incident cases before they have formally entered the primary healthcare system.
Le paradigme actuellement dominant dans les recherches sur l’antisémitisme correspond à la vision proposée dans l’Encyclopaedia Britannica (1910) : « L’antisémitisme est une question exclusivement politique et européenne. » Si cette conception a donné lieu à des études empiriques majeures, elle recèle des problèmes conceptuels, dont le moindre n’est pas qu’elle se contente de recycler l’idée que les antisémites se font d’eux-mêmes, à savoir que leur préoccupation n’est pas religieuse mais liée à des considérations objectives. Le présent article démontre en quoi les discours déployés et l’attrait politique de l’antisémitisme doivent être distingués de sa réception et de sa compréhension sociale ; il suggère que le « nouvel » Antisemitismus, tel qu’il a été compris dans les faits, est d’une nature différente de ce qui avait été l’intention de ses partisans. Ce soi-disant « nouvel antisémitisme » implique l’influence omniprésente, forte et néanmoins subtile d’une ancienne trinité d’éléments « spirituels » sous-jacents : la religion institutionnalisée (Olaf Blaschke) ; le religieux dans un sens diffus, ou « métabolisé » (Marcel Gauchet) ; la religiosité comme posture personnelle, qui guide les antisémites en tant qu’individus (Gavin Langmuir). Ces dimensions ont imprégné les positions et les désaccords d’un antisémitisme ordinaire agissant sur le plan politique, social, économique, culturel et « racial ». Elles véhiculent son message, jusque dans les strates intellectuelles et émotionnelles les plus profondes, auprès de populations qui ont baigné dans l’antijudaïsme pendant des siècles (David Nirenberg). D. Nirenberg ayant analysé l’imaginaire social de l’antijudaïsme, il reste à voir où et comment il rejoint et sous-tend discrètement l’antisémitisme politique.
We put one of the predictions of adverse-selection models to the test, using data from the Danish automobile insurance market: that there is a positive correlation between claims risk and insurance coverage. We can find a statistically significant insurance coverage--risk correlation when coverage is expressed relative to the insurance premium, but not when it is expressed in monetary terms.
This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or continuity of externalizing behavior mediated these pathways. Results indicated that EIPV in early childhood directly predicted perpetration and victimization at age 23. There were significant indirect effects from EIPV to dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23. Independent of EIPV, externalizing behavior in middle childhood also predicted dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23, but this pathway stemmed from maltreatment. These results highlight that the timing of EIPV and both the timing and the continuity of externalizing behavior are critical risks for the intergenerational transmission of dating violence. The findings support a developmental perspective that negative early experiences and children's externalizing behavior are powerful influences for dating violence in early adulthood.
We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines, respectively, against laboratory-confirmed influenza infections in patients with influenza-like illness who visited physicians participating in the Bayern Influenza Sentinel in Bavaria, Germany during 2010/2011. Swab specimens were analysed for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3) and B by PCR. VE was estimated using the test-negative case-control study design and logistic regression. In total, 1866 patients (790 cases, 1076 controls) were included. The VE of trivalent vaccines administered in season 2010/2011 against laboratory-confirmed infection with any influenza virus, adjusted for age group, sex, chronic illness and week of arrival of the specimen, was 67·8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39·2–82·9)]. The adjusted VE of monovalent influenza vaccines administered in season 2009/2010 against laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in 2010/2011 was 38·6% (95% CI −70·0 to 77·8). This is the first VE study conducted in Bavaria. We concluded that the trivalent influenza vaccines were effective in our study population.
Long-term monitoring programmes of a comparatively small area complement larger scale, but temporally limited surveys and can provide extensive datasets on seasonal occurrence and fine-scale habitat use of multiple species. A marine mammal monitoring programme, involving year-round, land-based observations, has been conducted in Broadhaven Bay candidate Special Area of Conservation, north-west Ireland, during 2002, 2005 and 2008–2011. Nine cetacean and two seal species have been recorded, with grey seal, harbour porpoise, common and bottlenose dolphins, and minke whale present throughout the year. Generalized additive models, taking into account observer effort, sighting conditions (sea state) and interannual variation, did not reveal any significant seasonal patterns in the occurrence of grey seals, bottlenose dolphins and minke whales. On the other hand, common dolphin presence in Broadhaven Bay was highest during autumn and winter. Bottlenose dolphins could be separated spatially from both common dolphins and minke whales in a classification tree by their preferential use of the shallower inshore areas of the bay (<30 m depth). However, common dolphins and minke whales, which occurred mainly in the deeper outer section of Broadhaven Bay, could not be spatially distinguished from each other, and grey seals were distributed over the entire bay. Broadhaven Bay represents an important marine mammal habitat with respect to overall species diversity and the regular occurrence of bottlenose dolphin, harbour porpoise, grey and harbour seals (all listed under Annex II of the EU Habitats Directive).