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The US Supreme Court has the power of certiorari. It may pick its fights. As a beneficial side effect, the court may allocate its resources, in particular the time and energy the justices spend on a case, to worthy causes. In economic parlance, this discretion makes the court more efficient. Efficiency comes at a political cost, though. This discretion also gives the court political power. It may direct its verdict to causes that are politically most relevant, or it may put an issue on the political agenda. Officially German constitutional law does not have certiorari. The Constitutional Court must decide each and every case that is brought. Yet over time the court has crafted a whole arsenal of more subtle measures for managing the case load. This paper shows that it uses these tools to engage in its version of allocating resources to cases. It investigates whether the ensuing efficiency gain comes at the cost of biasing the court’s jurisprudence. The paper exploits a new comprehensive data set. It consists of all (mostly only electronically) published cases the court has heard in 2011. While the data is rich, in many technical ways it is demanding. The paper uses a factor analysis to create a latent variable: to which degree has the court taken an individual case seriously? It then investigates whether observed indicators for bias explain this latent variable. Since the paper essentially investigates a single (independent) case, in statistical terms the findings are to be interpreted with caution. The paper can only aim at finding smoking guns.
There are no published estimates of the health state utility values (HSUVs) for a broad range of eating disorders (EDs). HSUVs are used in economic evaluations to determine quality-adjusted life years or as a measure of disorder burden. The main objective of the current study is to present HSUVs for a broad range of EDs based on DSM-5 diagnoses.
We used pooled data of two Health Omnibus Surveys (2015 and 2016) including representative samples of individuals aged 15 + years living in South Australia. HSUVs were derived from the SF-6D (based on the SF-12 health-related quality of life questionnaire) and analysed by ED classification, ED symptoms (frequency of binge-eating or distress associated to binge eating) and weight status. Multiple linear regression models, adjusted for socio-demographics, were used to test the differences of HSUVs across ED groups.
Overall, 18% of the 5609 individuals met criteria for ED threshold and subthreshold. EDs were associated with HSUV decrements, especially if they were severe disorders (compared to non-ED), binge ED: −0.16 (95% CI −0.19 to −0.13), bulimia nervosa: −0.12, (95% CI −0.16 to −0.08). There was an inverse relationship between distress related binge eating and HSUVs. HSUVs were lower among people with overweight/obese compared to those with healthy weight regardless of ED diagnosis.
EDs were significantly associated with lower HSUVs compared to people without such disorders. This study, therefore, provides new insights into the burden of EDs. The derived HSUVs can also be used to populate future economic models.
The long-term warming on the Antarctic Peninsula in the second half of the 20th century prompted rapid retreat of glaciers on the peninsula and surrounding islands. Retreat accelerated until the beginning of the new millennium when the regional warming trend significantly decreased. The response of glaciers to the change in temperature trend has been observed around the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula but the timing of the shift from the surface lowering to mass gain remains unclear. Using historical aerial photographs, DEMs and satellite altimeter data from ICESat, we estimate areal and surface elevation changes of two small ice caps in the northern part of James Ross Island over the last 39 years. The glacierized area on Lachman Crags decreased from 4.337 ± 0.037 to 3.581 ± 0.014 km2 (−17.4%) between 1979 and 2006 and then increased to 3.597 ± 0.047 km2 (0.4%) until 2016. Surface lowering observed on ice caps after 1979 continued at least until 2008 as indicated by the ICESat data. The change from the lowering trend to increase in glacier surface elevation probably occurred after the ablation season 2008/09, which ranks among the warmest summers in the north-eastern Antarctic Peninsula since the mid-20th century.
Dicamba-resistant (DR) kochia is an increasing concern for growers in the US Great Plains, including Kansas. Greenhouse and field experiments (Garden City and Tribune, KS, in the 2014 to 2015 growing season) were conducted to characterize the dicamba resistance levels in two recently evolved DR kochia accessions collected from fallow fields (wheat–sorghum–fallow rotation) near Hays, KS, and to determine the effectiveness of various PRE herbicide tank mixtures applied in fall or spring prior to the fallow year. Dicamba dose–response studies indicated that the KS-110 and KS-113 accessions had 5- to 8-fold resistance to dicamba, respectively, relative to a dicamba-susceptible (DS) accession. In separate field studies, atrazine-based PRE herbicide tank mixtures, dicamba + pendimethalin + sulfentrazone, and metribuzin + sulfentrazone when applied in the spring had excellent kochia control (85% to 95%) for 3 to 4 mo at the Garden City and Tribune sites. In contrast, kochia control with those PRE herbicide tank mixtures when applied in the fall did not exceed 79% at the later evaluation dates. In conclusion, the tested kochia accessions from western Kansas had evolved moderate to high levels of resistance to dicamba. Growers should utilize these effective PRE herbicide tank mixtures (multiple sites of action) in early spring to manage kochia seed bank during the summer fallow phase of this 3-yr crop rotation (wheat–corn/sorghum–fallow) in the Central Great Plains.
The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are the most frequently used observer-rated and self-report scales of depression, respectively. It is important to know what a given total score or a change score from baseline on one scale means in relation to the other scale.
We obtained individual participant data from the randomised controlled trials of psychological and pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorders. We then identified corresponding scores of the HAMD and the BDI (369 patients from seven trials) or the BDI-II (683 patients from another seven trials) using the equipercentile linking method.
The HAMD total scores of 10, 20 and 30 corresponded approximately with the BDI scores of 10, 27 and 42 or with the BDI-II scores of 13, 32 and 50. The HAMD change scores of −20 and −10 with the BDI of −29 and −15 and with the BDI-II of −35 and −16.
The results can help clinicians interpret the HAMD or BDI scores of their patients in a more versatile manner and also help clinicians and researchers evaluate such scores reported in the literature or the database, when scores on only one of these scales are provided. We present a conversion table for future research.
THE FACT THAT Hannah Arendt fled Germany in 1933 is fairly well known. It serves as a focal point of her biography and it powerfully represents the way in which Germany betrayed its own citizens who were Jewish. Arendt was both an émigré and a Jew. She was born in 1906 to acculturated and well-to-do parents in Hannover and grew up in Königsberg, where she quickly stood out as an exceptional student. Arendt went on to study philosophy and theology at the University of Marburg with Martin Heidegger and completed her dissertation under Karl Jaspers in 1928. One could have easily imagined her then as a potential representative of a new generation of German philosophers and of German-Jewish women. This, of course, never came to be. After a brush with the Gestapo in Berlin in 1933, Arendt realized that her life was in danger. She immigrated the same year to Paris, where she worked for the Zionist Youth-Immigration Organization (Aliyat Ha'Noar). Then, in 1941, she fled again, this time to New York, where she gradually gained recognition as a scholar, essayist, and public intellectual. Hannah Arendt is thus known today mostly as a German-Jewish émigré who had to start over in the United States after she was forced to escape Germany in order to save her life.
Those familiar with Arendt's biography are aware that she visited West Germany many times after the war ended and that she was often extremely critical of it. Arendt came to West Germany for the first time in 1949 on behalf of “Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, Inc.” to help organize the shipment of heirless Jewish books and other items from Germany to Jewish communities around the world. Shortly after this visit, in 1950, she published a critical report about Germany's inability and unwillingness to come to terms with its immediate past. “Nowhere is this nightmare of destruction and horror less felt and less talked about,” Arendt writes to her American audience, “as in Germany itself. A lack of response is evident everywhere, and it is difficult to say whether this signifies a half-conscious decision to yield to grief or a genuine inability to feel.”
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is first choice of treatment for depressive symptoms and disorders in adolescents, however improvements are necessary because overall efficacy is low. Insights on CBT components and contextual and structural characteristics might increase the efficacy. The aim of our approach is to evaluate the efficacy of CBT for youth with depression and investigate the influence of specific components, contextual and structural factors that could improve effects.
A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted, searches were undertaken in CINAHL, CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed and PsycINFO. Outcomes were meta-analyzed and confidence in results was assessed using the GRADE-method. Meta-regression was used to pinpoint components or other factors that were associated with an in- or decrease of effects of CBT.
We included 31 trials with 4335 participants. Moderate-quality evidence was found for CBT reducing depressive symptoms at the end of treatment and at follow-up, and CBT as indicated prevention resulted in 63% less risk of being depressed at follow-up. CBT containing a combination of behavioral activation and challenging thoughts component (as part of cognitive restructuring) or the involvement of caregiver(s) in intervention were associated with better outcomes for youth on the long term.
There is evidence that CBT is effective for youth with a (subclinical) depression. Our analyses show that effects might improve when CBT contains the components behavioral activation and challenging thoughts and also when the caregiver(s) are involved. However, the influential effects of these three moderators should be further tested in RCTs.
We report on the concept of an innovative source to produce polarized proton/deuteron beams of a kinetic energy up to several GeV from a laser-driven plasma accelerator. Spin effects have been implemented into the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code VLPL (Virtual Laser Plasma Lab) to make theoretical predictions about the behavior of proton spins in laser-induced plasmas. Simulations of spin-polarized targets show that the polarization is conserved during the acceleration process. For the experimental realization, a polarized HCl gas-jet target is under construction using the fundamental wavelength of a Nd:YAG laser system to align the HCl bonds and simultaneously circularly polarized light of the fifth harmonic to photo-dissociate, yielding nuclear polarized H atoms. Subsequently, their degree of polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. The final experiments, aiming at the first observation of a polarized particle beam from laser-generated plasmas, will be carried out at the 10 PW laser system SULF at SIOM, Shanghai.
The response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill was impacted by heat. We evaluated the association between environmental heat exposure and self-reported heat-related symptoms in US Coast Guard Deepwater Horizon disaster responders.
Utilizing climate data and postdeployment survey responses from 3648 responders, we assigned heat exposure categories based on both wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and heat index (HI) measurements (median, mean, maximum). We calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) via adjusted Poisson regression models with robust error variance to estimate associations with reported heat-related symptoms. We also evaluated the association between use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and heat-related symptoms.
Those in the highest WBGT median–based heat exposure category had increased prevalence of heat-related symptoms compared to those in the lowest category (PR=2.22 [95% CI: 1.61, 3.06]), and there was a significant exposure-response trend (P<.001). Results were similar for exposure categories based on WBGT and HI metrics. Analyses stratified by use of PPE found significantly stronger associations between environmental heat exposure and heat-related symptoms in those who did not use PPE (PR=2.23 [95% CI: 1.10, 4.51]) than in those who did (PR=1.64 [95% CI: 1.14, 2.36]).
US Coast Guard Deepwater Horizon disaster responders who experienced higher levels of environmental heat had higher prevalences of heat-related symptoms. These symptoms may impact health, safety, and mission effectiveness. As global climate change increases the frequency of disasters and weather extremes, actions must be taken to prevent heat-related health impacts among disaster responders. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:561-569)
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between oil spill exposure, trauma history, and behavioral health 6 years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DHOS). We hypothesized that prior trauma would exacerbate the relationship between oil spill exposure and behavioral health problems.
The sample included 2,520 randomly selected adults in coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico. Participants reported their level of oil spill exposure, trauma history, depression, anxiety/worry, illness anxiety, and alcohol use.
Individuals with more traumatic experiences had a significantly higher risk for all measured behavioral health problems after controlling for demographic factors and DHOS exposure. Those with higher levels of DHOS exposure were not at greater risk for behavioral health problems after controlling for prior trauma, with the exception of illness anxiety. There was no evidence that trauma history moderated the association between DHOS exposure and behavioral health.
Findings suggest that trauma exposure may be a better indicator of long-term behavioral health risk than DHOS exposure among disaster-prone Gulf Coast residents. DHOS exposure may be a risk factor for illness anxiety but not more general behavioral health concerns. Trauma history did not appear to exacerbate risk for behavioral health problems among Gulf residents exposed to the DHOS. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:497-503)
We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.