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In 1855 Siam signed the Bowring Treaty with Britain, the first of 15 unequal trade treaties with nations around the world. The treaties introduced to Siam extraterritoriality, or consular jurisdiction over foreign subjects in exclusion of Thai authorities’ jurisdiction, using specially established consular or international courts staffed by foreign judges. As well documented and discussed elsewhere, this extraterritoriality led to the pressure for the country to modernise its legal system and introduce legal codes modelled on codes in civil law countries such as France, Germany and Japan. Much less examined is the quiet and latent influence of common law during this important juncture of the country’s legal history. This chapter looks at some of the leading British lawyers in Siam who, following the abolition of the international court, sat in the Supreme Court of Siam, or Dika Court, as members of the ‘Committee of the Supreme Court’, an equivalence of modern day judges. The chapter examines their legal backgrounds, their legal careers in Siam, and their role as Supreme Court judges. As the chapter traces through their work, our inquiry reveals a fascinating dynamic of common law legal reasoning and principles in a civil law, code-based jurisdiction. This investigation into the role of these British judges during the formative years of Siam’s newly established legal system, often understated and unexplored in academic literature, is crucial for a more complete understanding of the country’s process of modernisation.
This article examines how and why smallholder peasants mobilize for collective action to put forward their claims. Taking the resistance by cotton farmers in Burkina Faso as a case study, it demonstrates that institutions of neoliberal governance – which are presented by their proponents as making governance more “effective” by improving the participation of various public and private stakeholders in different degrees – nevertheless fail to represent the interests of the large population of agrarian poor. In the 2010s, the cotton sector in Burkina Faso became a field of contention, with smallholder cotton producers mobilizing on a massive scale to take collective action. It is argued that the mobilization of cotton farmers can be explained through the effects of the sector's liberalization. Economic liberalization, which has been promoted by the World Bank since the mid-1990s, has changed the institutional setting of the sector and has significantly impacted the ways and means of collective claim-making available to farmers. Building on primary data (qualitative interviews, focus group discussions, observations) collected during several months of field research between 2018 and 2020, and analyses of press reports and a variety of documents, recent protests by cotton farmers are examined and related to these liberalization policies.
During the last glacial maximum the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets coalesced east of the Rocky Mountains and geomorphological evidence indicates ice flowed over the main ridge of the Rocky Mountains between ~54–56°N. However, this ice flow has thus far remained unconstrained in time. Here we use in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be dating to determine when Cordilleran ice stopped flowing over the mountain range. We dated eight samples from two sites: one on the western side (Mount Morfee) and one on the eastern side (Mount Spieker) of the Rocky Mountains. At Mount Spieker, one sample is rejected as an outlier and the remaining three give an apparent weighted mean exposure age of 15.6 ± 0.6 ka. The four samples at Mount Morfee are well clustered in time and give an apparent weighted mean exposure age of 12.2 ± 0.4 ka. These ages indicate that Mount Spieker became ice free before the Bølling warming and that the western front of the Rocky Mountains (Mount Morfee) remained in contact with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet until the Younger Dryas.
The use of global positioning system (GPS) units attached to collars is becoming increasingly common in primate studies (Anderson, pers. comm.; Crofoot et al. 2014; Di Fiore & Link 2013; Dore, pers. comm.; Klegarth et al. 2017; Markham & Altmann 2008; Markham et al. 2013; Sprague et al. 2004; Stark, pers. comm.). By deploying GPS collars, researchers can gain enhanced knowledge of primate group whereabouts and overall ranging and landscape use patterns at a high resolution (Crofoot et al. 2014). The utility of these systems has greatly expanded with the increasing spatial accuracy, reliability, and mechanisms (remote data download and drop-off units) of units that facilitate reasonably low impact on study animals (Klegarth et al. 2017; Matthews et al. 2013). While these collars open up new methodological and analytic possibilities for assessing primate ranging patterns and habitat use, they also present a diverse array of technical, structural, and ethical concerns with doing so (Hebblewhite & Haydon 2010; Todd & Shah 2012)
For some decades now, the study of history seems to have tumbled into a deep identity crisis. On the one hand, the teleological model of History as equivalent to the ‘History of Progress’ is increasingly questioned: the undeniable advance of modern information technology has deepened social inequalities rather than levelling them, and the gradual decline of the Western world has challenged the very basis of our understanding of history which was, hitherto, grounded in the idea that history inevitably tended to the victory of democracy, liberty, and rationality, and that these utterly Western values were necessarily superior to the allegedly traditional values of other cultures.
Hume considered his Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals to be one of his best works. In it he offers his most elegant and approachable account of the origins and scope of morality. With the hope of reaching a broad audience, he argues that morality is neither rigid nor austere, but is rather a product of sentiments that all human beings share, and which they are naturally inclined to recognize and act upon. In this Critical Guide, a team of distinguished scholars discuss each section of the Enquiry, its place in Hume's philosophy as a whole, and its historical context; their topics include the nature of morals, talents and moral virtues, benevolence, sympathy, and the sources of moral disagreement. The volume will be valuable for scholars and advanced students working on Hume.
In this chapter I argue that despite Hume’s explicit criticisms of enthusiasm and superstition in the Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (EPM), his more important targets are the orthodox and moderate Protestants of his time who would also scorn enthusiasm and superstition, and those philosophers who mixed Protestant accounts of virtue and duty with their philosophy. I show that Hume rejects central aspects of two prominent Protestant texts, The Whole Duty of Man and the Westminster Confession of Faith, but also borrows some of their language and mimics their style. Hume rejects The Whole Duty of Man’s catalog of duties limited to voluntary traits, and the Confession’s account of the sole purpose of man as well as its view of human nature. Still, in EPM Hume seems to use the style and language of these texts in order to be equally influential, to push religion back into the temple (and out of the public space), and to bring his moral philosophy out of the closet into common life in order to give it more extensive recognition as the accurate description of virtue and vice. EPM, therefore, is Hume’s own secular but religiously styled credo on duty and virtue.
In the Introduction to this Critical Guide to Hume’s Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (EPM) we bring to light several reasons for which this book merits attention, and we offer an overview of the chapters. The Guide reveals Hume’s commitment to his earlier principles but also his shift in style and focus. It contributes to a general understanding of Hume’s position in his time, as a typical Enlightenment philosopher with an unorthodox agenda, and in ours, as a thinker whose views are alive in contemporary debates. EPM was Hume’s favorite performance, and this guide supports Hume’s ambition to see EPM receive the attention and study he thought it deserved.
The field of self-assembly has moved far beyond early work, where the focus was primarily the resultant beautiful two- and three-dimensional structures, to a focus on forming materials and devices with important properties either otherwise not available, or only available at great cost. Over the last few years, materials with unprecedented electronic, photonic, energy-storage, and chemical separation functionalities were created with self-assembly, while at the same time, the ability to form even more complex structures in two and three dimensions has only continued to advance. Self-assembly crosscuts all areas of materials. Functional structures have now been realized in polymer, ceramic, metallic, and semiconducting systems, as well as composites containing multiple classes of materials. As the field of self-assembly continues to advance, the number of highly functional systems will only continue to grow and make increasingly greater impacts in both the consumer and industrial space.
According to the World Health Organization, epilepsy accounts for 1% of the global burden of disease, defined as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), the number of years lost due to disability and premature death . This is equivalent to lung cancer in men and to breast cancer in women. Among primary diseases of the brain, epilepsy ranks with depression and other affective disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, and substance abuse.
While negative affect reliably predicts binge eating, it is unknown how this association may decrease or ‘de-couple’ during treatment for binge eating disorder (BED), whether such change is greater in treatments targeting emotion regulation, or how such change predicts outcome. This study utilized multi-wave ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess changes in the momentary association between negative affect and subsequent binge-eating symptoms during Integrative Cognitive Affective Therapy (ICAT-BED) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help (CBTgsh). It was predicted that there would be stronger de-coupling effects in ICAT-BED compared to CBTgsh given the focus on emotion regulation skills in ICAT-BED and that greater de-coupling would predict outcomes.
Adults with BED were randomized to ICAT-BED or CBTgsh and completed 1-week EMA protocols and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) at pre-treatment, end-of-treatment, and 6-month follow-up (final N = 78). De-coupling was operationalized as a change in momentary associations between negative affect and binge-eating symptoms from pre-treatment to end-of-treatment.
There was a significant de-coupling effect at follow-up but not end-of-treatment, and de-coupling did not differ between ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Less de-coupling was associated with higher end-of-treatment EDE global scores at end-of-treatment and higher binge frequency at follow-up.
Both ICAT-BED and CBTgsh were associated with de-coupling of momentary negative affect and binge-eating symptoms, which in turn relate to cognitive and behavioral treatment outcomes. Future research is warranted to identify differential mechanisms of change across ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Results also highlight the importance of developing momentary interventions to more effectively de-couple negative affect and binge eating.
A Digital Twin as a virtual representation of a physical system is becoming a key technology. While potential benefits are evident, there is no approach in literature or practice comprehensively supporting its introduction. In an industrial case study, a generic procedure model for the conception and implementation of a Digital Twin was developed. The relations between use cases, usage data, and virtual models resulted in a target concept as well as requirements for the implementation. Thereby, companies can access the potentials of a Digital Twin taking into account their specific situation.
Over the last two decades, a concept called Digital Twin has evolved rapidly. Yet, there is no unified definition of the term. Based on a literature study and an industrial case study, an overarching definition of Digital twins is presented. Three characteristics were identified – representation of a physical system, bidirectional data exchange, and the connection along the entire lifecycle. Further, three sub-concepts are presented, namely: Engineering Twin, Production Twin, and Operation Twin. The presented paper thus formulates a consistent and detailed definition of Digital Twins.