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As the pace of biomedical innovation rapidly evolves, there is a need to train researchers to understand regulatory science challenges associated with clinical translation. We describe a pilot course aimed at addressing this need delivered jointly through the Mayo Clinic Center for Clinical and Translational Science and the Yale-Mayo Center for Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation. Course design was informed by the Association for Clinical and Translational Science’s Regulatory Science Working Group’s competencies. The course used didactic, case-, and problem-based learning sessions to expose students to regulatory science concepts. Course evaluation focused on student satisfaction and learning. A total of 25 students enrolled in the first two course deliveries. Students represented several disciplines and career stages, from predoctoral to faculty. Students reported learning “an incredible amount” (7/19, 36.8%) or “a lot” (9/19, 47.4%); this was reflected in individual coursework and their course evaluations. Qualitative feedback indicated that assignments that challenged them to apply the content to their own research were appreciated. The heterogeneity of students enrolled, coupled with assessments and course evaluations, supports the statement that there is a growing need and desire for regulatory science-focused curricula. Future research will determine the long-term impact.
Astigmatism is a common ocular condition that causes reduced visual acuity. The condition is highly prevalent in cataract patients, with preoperative astigmatism of at least 0.5 diopters being present in 78 percent of cataractous eyes. Residual uncorrected astigmatism after cataract surgery is associated with significant costs, primarily driven by the lifetime cost of spectacles (estimated at EUR 1,608 to EUR 3,608 in Europe). Toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) are a safe and effective way of correcting astigmatism, while also reducing the need for spectacles after cataract surgery. The objective of this review was to assess the published evidence relating to spectacle independence in patients implanted with toric IOLs, compared with those receiving non-toric IOLs with or without astigmatism reducing surgical interventions (SI).
A systematic literature search was conducted of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library databases. Articles were selected if they included adult patients undergoing phacoemulsification who had age-related cataracts and preoperative regular corneal astigmatism of at least 0.5 diopters, and assessed spectacle independence as an outcome.
Seven studies met the inclusion criteria: four randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized comparative study comparing toric IOLs with non-toric IOLs, and two randomized controlled trials comparing toric IOLs with non-toric IOLs plus SI. Spectacle independence was evaluated as the number of patients who reported not requiring spectacles for distance viewing at 3 or 6 months. Figures for spectacle independence ranged from 60 to 100 percent for toric IOLs, 31 to 50 percent for non-toric IOLs, and 36 to 65 percent for non-toric IOLs plus SI. In each study, toric IOLs demonstrated superior spectacle independence compared with the control group.
The benefits of toric IOL implantation for astigmatic cataract patients included a higher rate of spectacle independence, compared with non-toric IOLs with or without SI. For this group of patients, the lifetime economic burden of spectacle acquisition costs can be reduced with the implantation of toric IOLs during cataract surgery.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
While research on conspiracy theories and those who believe them has recently undergone a renaissance, there still exists a great deal of uncertainty about the measurement of conspiratorial beliefs and orientations, and the consequences of a conspiratorial mindset for expressly political attitudes and behaviors. We first demonstrate, using data from the 2012 American National Election Study, that beliefs in a variety of specific conspiracy theories are simultaneously, but differentially, the product of both a general tendency toward conspiratorial thinking and left/right political orientations. Next, we employ unique data including a general measure of conspiratorial thinking to explore the predictors of specific conspiracy beliefs. We find that partisan and ideological self-identifications are more important than any other variable in predicting ‘birther’ beliefs, while conspiratorial thinking is most important in predicting conspiracy beliefs about the assassination of John F. Kennedy and the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
The correlation between ideology and partisanship in the mass public has increased in recent decades amid a climate of persistent and growing elite polarization. Given that core values shape subsequent political predispositions, as well as the demonstrated asymmetry of elite polarization, this article hypothesizes that egalitarianism and moral traditionalism moderate the relationship between ideology and partisanship in that the latter relationship will have increased over time only among individuals who maintain conservative value orientations. An analysis of pooled American National Election Studies surveys from 1988 to 2012 supports this hypothesis. The results enhance scholarly understanding of the role of core values in shaping mass belief systems and testify to the asymmetric nature and mass public reception of elite cues among liberals and conservatives.
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described in humans and various animal species in different regions of the world. However, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in non-human primates and the corresponding risk of zoonotic transmission is scarce. To determine whether primates in captivity are affected by HEV infection, we investigated 259 individual sera of clinically healthy non-human primates of 14 species from nine German zoos. Using a commercial double-antigen-sandwich ELISA and a commercial IgG ELISA, 10 animals (3·9%) reacted positive in at least one assay. Three ape species and one Old World monkey species were among the seropositive animals: bonobo (Pan paniscus), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus). Testing for anti-HEV-IgM antibodies by commercial ELISA and for viral RNA by reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction resulted in negative results for all animals indicating the absence of acute HEV infections. In the past, no clinical signs of hepatitis were recorded for the seropositive animals. The results suggest that non-human primates in zoos can get naturally and subclinically infected with HEV or related hepeviruses. Future studies should evaluate potential sources and transmission routes of these infections and their impact on human health.
Air target recognition is a critical step in the radar processing chain and reliable features are necessary to make a decision. The number and position of jet engines are useful features to perform a pre-classification and give a list of possible targets. To extract these features, a sparse decomposition framework for inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images is presented. With this framework different components of the target can be detected, if signal models for these parts are available. To use it for the detection of jet engines, a review of a signal model for air intakes, which was developed by Borden, is given. This model is based on the common assumption that the propagation of electromagnetic waves inside jet engines has the same dispersive behavior as inside waveguides. With this model a decomposition of a real ISAR image, measured with the tracking and imaging radar system of Fraunhofer FHR, into point-like scattering centers and jet engines is presented.
It is increasingly essential for medical researchers to be literate in statistics, but the requisite degree of literacy is not the same for every statistical competency in translational research. Statistical competency can range from ‘fundamental’ (necessary for all) to ‘specialized’ (necessary for only some). In this study, we determine the degree to which each competency is fundamental or specialized.
We surveyed members of 4 professional organizations, targeting doctorally trained biostatisticians and epidemiologists who taught statistics to medical research learners in the past 5 years. Respondents rated 24 educational competencies on a 5-point Likert scale anchored by ‘fundamental’ and ‘specialized.’
There were 112 responses. Nineteen of 24 competencies were fundamental. The competencies considered most fundamental were assessing sources of bias and variation (95%), recognizing one’s own limits with regard to statistics (93%), identifying the strengths, and limitations of study designs (93%). The least endorsed items were meta-analysis (34%) and stopping rules (18%).
We have identified the statistical competencies needed by all medical researchers. These competencies should be considered when designing statistical curricula for medical researchers and should inform which topics are taught in graduate programs and evidence-based medicine courses where learners need to read and understand the medical research literature.
The recent reform of the Unified National Civil and Commercial Code will bring about significant changes in the Argentine legal system. The aim of this article is to analyze their impact in relation to the area of cultural heritage, especially in regard to the public property status of archaeological and paleontological heritage. Changes adopted—in contrast to those proposed, which referred to the issues related to indigenous communities and the protection of collective rights—are also discussed. The latter is the most innovative aspect of the reform since it involves a change of approach regarding private property and strengthens the regulatory powers of the state over private property, which might be applied to the protection of cultural property.
We estimate a number of macroeconomic variables as logistic smooth transition autoregressive (LSTAR) processes with uncertainty as the transition variable. The notion is that the effects of increases in uncertainty should not be symmetrical with the effects of decreases in uncertainty. Nonlinear estimation allows us to answer several interesting questions left unanswered by a linear model. For a number of important macroeconomic variables, we show that (i) a positive shock to uncertainty has a greater effect than a negative shock and (ii) the effect of the uncertainty shock is highly dependent on the state of the economy. Hence, the usual linear estimates for the consequences of uncertainty are underestimated in circumstances such as the recent financial crisis.
Novel and more conventional boron carbides were combined with n-type silicon to make heterojunction diodes, with neutron capture signal at zero applied bias. The boron carbides were based on the cross linking of closo-1,2-dicarbadodecaborane (ortho-carborane; 1,2-B10C2H12), and cross linking based on the combination of closo-1,2-dicarbadodecaborane (ortho-carborane; 1,2- B10C2H12) and pyridine. In the latter devices, pyridine concentration was varied; samples with a closo-1,2-dicarbadodecaborane (ortho-carborane; 1,2- B10C2H12) to pyridine ratio of 1:1 (BC:Py1) and 1:3 (BC:Py3). The result is a nonvolatile robust p-type semiconductor of boron carbide (B10C2Hx):(C5NHx)y. The I(V) curves for the resulting heterojunction diodes exhibit strong rectification where the normalized reverse bias leakage currents are largely unperturbed with increasing pyridine inclusion. The devices are largely gamma insensitive and yet neutron voltaic properties of these boron carbides is demonstrated. The neutron capture generated pulses from these heterojunction diodes were obtained at zero bias voltage although without the characteristic signatures of complete charge collection from boron neutron capture generated electron-hole pair production. These results, nonetheless, suggest that modifications to boron carbide may result in better neutron voltaic materials with linking groups chosen from family of aromatic compounds that stretch between borazine (B3N3H6) and benzene that point the way to a whole family of future studies that may ultimately lead to boron carbides better suited to low power and low flux neutron detection.
The recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples has been on the political agenda in Latin America since the 1980s, although it has not always been reflected in the legal systems of the countries in the region. Most of them have passed laws that grant legal recognition to indigenous communities and have recognized their rights in the national constitutions. However, these rules do not always refer to some particular aspects of the indigenous culture, such as those related to their cultural heritage. In general, the archaeological remains are ruled by specific laws that do not consider, or vaguely mention, the indigenous peoples’ rights and their participation in the decision-making process. As a result of the lack of consistency between the indigenous and cultural heritage laws in most countries, the participation of indigenous peoples in heritage management is still exceptional.