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The formation of a collisional shock wave by the light pressure of a short-laser pulse at intensities in the range of 1018–1023 W/cm2 is considered. In this regime the thermodynamic parameters of the equilibrium states, before and after the shock transition, are related to the relativistic Rankine–Hugoniot equations. The electron and ion temperatures associated with these shock waves are calculated. It is shown that if the time scale of energy dissipation is shorter than the laser pulse duration a collisional shock is formed. The electrons and the ions in the shock-heated layer may have equal or different temperatures, depending on the laser pulse duration, the material density and the laser intensity. This shock wave may serve as a heating mechanism in a fast ignition scheme.
Recently, a new class of carbon allotrope called protomene was proposed. This new structure is composed of sp2 and sp3 carbon-bonds. Topologically, protomene can be considered as an sp3 carbon structure (∼80% of this bond type) doped by sp2 carbons. First-principles simulations have shown that protomene presents an electronic bandgap of ∼3.4 eV. However, up to now, its mechanical properties have not been investigated. In this work, we have investigated protomene mechanical behavior under tensile strain through fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF force field, as available in the LAMMPS code. At room temperature, our results show that the protomene is very stable and the obtained ultimate strength and ultimate stress indicates an anisotropic behavior. The highest ultimate strength was obtained for the x-direction, with a value of ∼110 GPa. As for the ultimate strain, the highest one was for the z-direction (∼25% of strain) before protomene mechanical fracture.
The current emphasis of schistosomiasis control is placed on preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel. However, reinfection may occur rapidly in the absence of complementary interventions. Recent studies from Senegal suggest that predatory prawns might feed on intermediate host snails and thus impact on schistosomiasis transmission. We designed a study with four repeated cross-sectional surveys pertaining to prawns and snails, coupled with a single cross-sectional parasitological survey among humans. We assessed for potential associations between the presence/density of prawns and snails and correlation with Schistosoma infection in a composite sample of school-aged children and adults. The study was carried out between October 2015 and December 2016 in 24 villages located near the Agnéby and Mé coastal river systems in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire. At each site, snails and prawns were collected, and in each village, 150 individuals were subjected to stool and urine examination for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. We found peaks of relative abundance of intermediate host snails in the villages of the Agnéby River system, while predatory prawns were predominantly recorded in the Mé River system. A negative association was observed between intermediate host snail densities and riverine prawns; however, no pattern was found between this trend in the predator–prey relationship and the prevalence of human schistosomiasis.
After achieving significant research results on laser-driven boron fusion, the essential facts are presented how the classical very low-energy gains of the initially known thermal ignition conditions for fusion of hydrogen (H) with the boron isotope 11 (HB11 fusion) were bridged by nine orders of magnitudes in agreement with experiments. This is possible under extreme non-thermal equilibrium conditions for ignition by >10 PW-ps laser pulses of extreme power and nonlinear conditions. This low-temperature clean and low-cost fusion energy generation is in crucial contrast to local thermal equilibrium conditions with the advantage to avoid the difficulties of the usual problems with extremely high temperatures.
Chemical-biological-radio-nuclear (CBRN) gas masks are the standard means for protecting the general population from inhalation of toxic industrial compounds (TICs), for example after industrial accidents or terrorist attacks. However, such gas masks would not protect patients on home mechanical ventilation, as ventilator airflow would bypass the CBRN filter. We therefore evaluated in vivo the safety of adding a standard-issue CBRN filter to the air-outflow port of a home ventilator, as a method for providing TIC protection to such patients.
Eight adult patients were included in the study. All had been on stable, chronic ventilation via a tracheostomy for at least 3 months before the study. Each patient was ventilated for a period of 1 hour with a standard-issue CBRN filter canister attached to the air-outflow port of their ventilator. Physiological and airflow measurements were made before, during, and after using the filter, and the patients reported their subjective sensation of ventilation continuously during the trial.
For all patients, and throughout the entire study, no deterioration in any of the measured physiological parameters and no changes in measured airflow parameters were detected. All patients felt no subjective difference in the sensation of ventilation with the CBRN filter canister in situ, as compared with ventilation without it. This was true even for those patients who were breathing spontaneously and thus activating the ventilator’s trigger/sensitivity function. No technical malfunctions of the ventilators occurred after addition of the CBRN filter canister to the air-outflow ports of the ventilators.
A CBRN filter canister can be added to the air-outflow port of chronically ventilated patients, without causing an objective or subjective deterioration in the quality of the patients’ mechanical ventilation. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:739-743)
The search for new ultra strong materials has been a very active research area. With relation to metals, a successful way to improve their strength is by the creation of a gradient of nanograins (GNG) inside the material. Recently, R. Thevamaran et al. [Science v354, 312-316 (2016)] propose a single step method based on high velocity impact of silver nanocubes to produce high-quality GNG. This method consists of producing high impact collisions of silver cubes at hypersonic velocity (∼400 m/s) against a rigid wall. Although they observed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the silver after the impact, the GNG creation and the strengthening mechanism at nanoscale remain unclear. In order to gain further insights about these mechanisms, we carried out fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations (MD) to investigate the atomic conformations/rearrangements during and after high impact collisions of silver nanocubes at ultrasonic velocity. Our results indicate the co-existence of polycrystalline arrangements after the impact formed by core HCP domains surrounded by FCC ones, which could also contribute to explain the structural hardening.
Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) present a high risk of developing psychosis. While clinical and cognitive predictors for the conversion towards a full-blown psychotic disorder are well defined and largely used in practice, neural biomarkers do not yet exist. However, a number of investigations indicated an association between abnormalities in cortical morphology and higher symptoms severities in patients with 22q11DS. Nevertheless, few studies included homogeneous groups of patients differing in their psychotic symptoms profile.
In this study, we included 22 patients meeting the criteria for an ultra-high-risk (UHR) psychotic state and 22 age-, gender- and IQ-matched non-UHR patients. Measures of cortical morphology, including cortical thickness, volume, surface area and gyrification, were compared between the two groups using mass-univariate and multivariate comparisons. Furthermore, the development of these measures was tested in the two groups using a mixed-model approach.
Our results showed differences in cortical volume and surface area in UHR patients compared with non-UHR. In particular, we found a positive association between surface area and the rate of change of global functioning, suggesting that higher surface area is predictive of improved functioning with age. We also observed accelerated cortical thinning during adolescence in UHR patients with 22q11DS.
These results, although preliminary, suggest that alterations in cortical volume and surface area as well as altered development of cortical thickness may be associated to a greater probability to develop psychosis in 22q11DS.
Graphene is a very promising material for nanoelectronics applications due to its unique and remarkable electronic and thermal properties. However, when deposited on metallic electrodes the overall thermal conductivity is significantly decreased. This phenomenon has been attributed to the mismatch between the interfaces and contact thermal resistance. Experimentally, one way to improve the graphene/metal contact is through high-temperature annealing, but the detailed mechanisms behind these processes remain unclear. In order to address these questions, we carried out fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF force field to investigate the interactions between multi-layer graphene and metallic electrodes (nickel) under (thermal) annealing. Our results show that the annealing induces an upward-downward movement of the graphene layers, causing a pile-driver-like effect over the metallic surface. This graphene induced movements cause a planarization (thermal polishing-like effect) of the metallic surface, which results in the increase of the effective graphene/metal contact area. This can also explain the experimentally observed improvements of the thermal and electric conductivities.
With the aim to overcome the problems of climatic changes and rising ocean levels, one option is to produce large-scale sustainable energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen and other very light nuclei similar to the energy source of the sun. Sixty years of worldwide research for the ignition of the heavy hydrogen isotopes deuterium (D) and tritium (T) have come close to a breakthrough for ignition. The problem with the DT fusion is that generated neutrons are producing radioactive waste. One exception as the ideal clean fusion process – without neutron production – is the fusion of hydrogen (H) with the boron isotope 11B11 (B11). In this paper, we have mapped out our research based on recent experiments and simulations for a new energy source. We suggest how HB11 fusion for a reactor can be used instead of the DT option. We have mapped out our HB11 fusion in the following way: (i) The acceleration of a plasma block with a laser beam with the power and time duration of the order of 10 petawatts and one picosecond accordingly. (ii) A plasma confinement by a magnetic field of the order of a few kiloteslas created by a second laser beam with a pulse duration of a few nanoseconds (ns). (iii) The highly increased fusion of HB11 relative to present DT fusion is possible due to the alphas avalanche created in this process. (iv) The conversion of the output charged alpha particles directly to electricity. (v) To prove the above ideas, our simulations show for example that 14 milligram HB11 can produce 300 kWh energy if all achieved results are combined for the design of an absolutely clean power reactor producing low-cost energy.
This paper considers the heating of a target in a shock wave created in a planar geometry by the ponderomotive force induced by a short laser pulse with intensity higher than 1018 W/cm2. The shock parameters were calculated using the relativistic Rankine–Hugoniot equations coupled to a laser piston model. The temperatures of the electrons and the ions were calculated as a function of time by using the energy conservation separately for ions and electrons. These equations are supplemented by the ideal gas equations of state (with one or three degrees of freedom) separately for ions and electrons. The efficiency of the transition of the work done by the laser piston into internal thermal energy is calculated in the context of the Hugoniot equations by taking into account the binary collisions during the shock wave formation from the target initial condition to the compressed domain. It is shown that for each laser intensity there is threshold pulse duration for the formation of a shock wave. The explicit calculations are done for an aluminum target.
Pericopes on the cities of refuge to which an unintentional manslayer may flee
appear in the Pentateuch in two places: in Numbers 35 and Deuteronomy 19. This
article demonstrates that the differences between these pericopes emerge from
the differing internal logic of each text. In Numbers, the unintentional
manslayer defiles the land where the Lord abides by spilling blood on it. In
order to prevent the divine presence from departing, a manslayer must purge the
land with his own blood. When the act was unintentional, the law commands
removing the unintentional manslayer from the land, exiling him to a city of
refuge until the land is purged by the death of the high priest. In Deuteronomy,
an unwitting killer is untainted, and therefore anyone who kills him spills
innocent blood. The Lord, watching from heaven, is concerned primarily with the
human heart; if the killing was inadvertent, God considers the killer innocent.
Therefore, the unwitting killer goes to the city of refuge to protect himself
from the blood-avenger, only until the latter ceases to be a threat to his
Alterations of the reward system have been proposed as one of the core mechanisms underlying the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Specifically, deficits in specific reward components and white matter (WM) integrity of the reward system have been highlighted. The putative link between negative symptoms and the hedonic experience, or structural connectivity of the reward system has never been examined in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a condition with increased risk for psychosis.
Anticipatory and consummatory dimensions of pleasure were assessed in participants with 22q11DS (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 55). In patients with 22q11DS, the association between pleasure scores and positive or negative symptoms was investigated. Furthermore, WM integrity of the accumbofrontal tract was quantified using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Associations between DTI measures, pleasure dimensions and negative symptoms were examined.
Patients with 22q11DS showed reduced anticipatory and consummatory pleasure compared to controls. Furthermore, anticipatory pleasure scores were negatively correlated to negative and positive symptoms in 22q11DS. WM microstructural changes of the accumbofrontal tract in terms of increased fractional anisotropy and reduced radial anisotropy were also identified in patients. However, no significant correlation between the DTI measures and pleasure dimensions or psychotic symptoms was observed.
This study revealed that participants with 22q11DS differed in their experience of pleasure compared to controls. The anticipatory pleasure component appears to be related to negative and positive symptom severity in patients. Alterations of WM integrity of the accumbofrontal tract seem to be related to myelination abnormalities in 22q11DS patients.
The application of laser pulses with psec or shorter duration enables nonthermal efficient ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks with homogeneous high ion energies exceeding ion current densities of
. The effects of ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks with high energy proton beams are proposed for muon production in a compact magnetic fusion device. The proposed new scheme consists of an ignition fusion spark by muon catalyzed fusion (
CF) in a small mirror-like configuration where low temperature D–T plasma is trapped for a duration of
. This initial fusion spark produces sufficient alpha heating in order to initiate the fusion process in the main device. The use of a multi-fluid global particle and energy balance code allows us to follow the temporal evolution of the reaction rate of the fusion process in the device. Recent progress on the ICAN and IZEST projects for high efficient high power and high repetition rate laser systems allows development of the proposed device for clean energy production. With the proposed approaches, experiments on fusion nuclear reactions and
CF process can be performed in magnetized plasmas in existing kJ
PW laser facilities as the GEKKO-LFEX, the PETAL and the ORION or in the near future laser facilities as the ELI-NP Romanian pillar.
The aim of this work was to assess the corrosion and degradation effects of a biofuel on metallic materials tested in an experimental internal combustion engine (ICE). Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel for diesel, for industrial applications ranging from boilers to ICE. The experimental vehicle motor, fitted with carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys was operated with local biodiesel. The corrosion performance was evaluated by gravimetric, chemical and electrochemical techniques, following the practices recommended in ASTM and NACE standards for corrosion testing. This work is the result of an international cooperation between the Institute of Engineering, Autonomous University of Baja California, Mexico and the Corrosion Research Center, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Israel. The characteristics and conditions of the ICE operated with biodiesel, and the results of the corrosion essays are presented, analyzed and discussed.
Two machines: The human body and the vehicle motor are made of structural and functional, natural and man-produced materials. They generate energy by chemical oxidation of two fluids: ethanol and gasoline. The characteristics of these fluids: a nutritive beverage and a fuel, providing motion to the vehicle, are described. The damage due to diseases in the body by excessive ethanol consumption and deterioration of the motor by corrosion are treated by means of preventive and curative methods: body rehabilitation and car repair, maintaining both machines in permanent, healthy, working operation. The chemical reactions of ethanol oxidation and gasoline combustion and their effects on the machines and their materials are presented, illustrated and discussed.
Measured highly elevated gains of proton–boron (HB11) fusion (Picciotto et al., Phys. Rev. X 4, 031030 (2014)) confirmed the exceptional avalanche reaction process (Lalousis et al., Laser Part. Beams 32, 409 (2014); Hora et al., Laser Part. Beams 33, 607 (2015)) for the combination of the non-thermal block ignition using ultrahigh intensity laser pulses of picoseconds duration. The ultrahigh acceleration above
for plasma blocks was theoretically and numerically predicted since 1978 (Hora, Physics of Laser Driven Plasmas (Wiley, 1981), pp. 178 and 179) and measured (Sauerbrey, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4712 (1996)) in exact agreement (Hora et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 072701 (2007)) when the dominating force was overcoming thermal processes. This is based on Maxwell’s stress tensor by the dielectric properties of plasma leading to the nonlinear (ponderomotive) force
resulting in ultra-fast expanding plasma blocks by a dielectric explosion. Combining this with measured ultrahigh magnetic fields and the avalanche process opens an option for an environmentally absolute clean and economic boron fusion power reactor. This is supported also by other experiments with very high HB11 reactions under different conditions (Labaune et al., Nature Commun. 4, 2506 (2013)).
The laser-induced relativistic shock waves are described. The shock waves can be created directly by a high irradiance laser or indirectly by a laser acceleration of a foil that collides with a second static foil. A special case of interest is the creation of laser-induced fusion where the created alpha particles create a detonation wave. A novel application is suggested with the shock wave or the detonation wave to ignite a pre-compressed target. In particular, the deuterium–tritium fusion is considered. It is suggested that the collision of two laser accelerated foils might serve as a novel relativistic accelerator for bulk material collisions.
Development of a detonation wave due to α heating following short pulse laser irradiation in pre-compressed deuterium–tritium (DT) plasma is considered. The laser parameters required for development of a detonation wave are calculated. We find that a laser irradiance and energy of IL = 1.75 × 1023 W/cm2 and 12.8 kJ accordingly during 1.0 ps in a pre-compressed target at 900 g/cm3 creates an α heating fusion detonation wave. In this case, the nuclear fusion ignition conditions for the pre-compressed DT plasma are achieved along the detonation wave orbit.