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Un infirmier de secteur psychiatrique a élaboré en collaboration avec les personnels soignants d’une unité de soins ambulatoires « mère-bébé », un groupe d’entraînement aux « habiletés parentales » (adaptation du jeu « compétences » de J. Favrod) pour 6 à 8 parents souffrant de schizophrénie (DSM-IV). Des « habiletés sociales » aux « habiletés parentales », il n’y a qu’un pas… qui peut être travaillé de manière originale à partir des standards d’un groupe psychoéducatif :
– cartes « questions » (apport de connaissances) ;
– cartes « situations en jeux de rôle » (développement de savoir-faire) ;
– cartes « situations problèmes » (résolution de problème).
À partir de situations cliniques repérées comme problématiques, une soixantaine de cartes permettent d’aborder des contenus spécifiques à partir d’un support ludique : exemple : manque figure. Lors des séances hebdomadaires d’1 h 30, les participants sont amenés tour à tour à tirer une carte du jeu dans les 3 catégories concernées. S’ensuit un travail de réflexion individuel puis groupal sur la meilleure façon de répondre à la consigne. À l’issue, le joueur propose une version personnalisée qui sera évaluée à travers un consensus de l’ensemble des participants. Afin de favoriser un climat propice à l’apprentissage, les animateurs exercent l’empathie, l’interactivité, le coétayage groupal et le renforcement positif. Les sessions de 8 séances sont renouvelables sur tacite reconduction.
Alleles of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) and the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) genes were determined in 69 French Polynesian alcoholic patients and 57 controls matched for racial origin. Three racial groups were studied: pure Polynesians (PP), Polynesians mixed with Caucasian (PCA) ancestry and Polynesians mixed with Chinese (PCH) ancestry. DRD2 A1 allele frequencies in the alcoholics compared to their controls in these groups were: PP,.26 vs .32 (P = .69); PCA, .44 vs .35 (P = .46); PCH, .40 vs 0.39 (P = .88). ADH2 1 allele frequencies in alcoholics compared to their controls groups were: PP, .56 vs .62 (P = .66); PCA, .75 vs .56 (P = .09); PCH, .78 vs .32 (P = .009). In the PCA group, the combination of the DRD2 A1 genotypes and the ADH2 1 homozygotes was strongly associated with alcoholism (P = .0027). This preliminary study shows the importance of ascertaining racial ancestry in molecular genetic association studies. Moreover, it suggests that a combination of genes are involved in susceptibility to the development of alcoholism.
This work analyses the viscous flow and elastic deformation created by the forced axial motion of a rigid cylinder within an elastic liquid-filled tube. The examined configuration is relevant to various minimally invasive medical procedures in which slender devices are inserted into fluid-filled biological vessels, such as vascular interventions, interventional radiology, endoscopies and laparoscopies. By applying the lubrication approximation, thin shell elastic model, as well as scaling analysis and regular and singular asymptotic schemes, the problem is examined for small and large deformation limits (relative to the gap between the cylinder and the tube). At the limit of large deformations, forced insertion of the cylinder is shown to involve three distinct regimes and time scales: (i) initial shear dominant regime, (ii) intermediate regime of dominant fluidic pressure and a propagating viscous-peeling front, (iii) late-time quasi-steady flow regime of the fully peeled tube. A uniform solution for all regimes is presented for a suddenly applied constant force, showing initial deceleration and then acceleration of the inserted cylinder. For the case of forced extraction of the cylinder from the tube, the negative gauge pressure reduces the gap between the cylinder and the tube, increasing viscous resistance or creating friction due to contact of the tube and cylinder. Matched asymptotic schemes are used to calculate the dynamics of the near-contact and contact limits. We find that the cylinder exits the tube in a finite time for sufficiently small or large forces. However, for an intermediate range of forces, the radial contact creates a steady locking of the cylinder inside the tube.
We study pressure-driven propagation of gas into a two-dimensional microchannel bounded by linearly elastic substrates. Relevant fields of application include lab-on-a-chip devices, soft robotics and respiratory flows. Applying the lubrication approximation, the flow field is governed by the interaction between elasticity and viscosity, as well as weak rarefaction and low-Mach-number compressibility effects, characteristic of gaseous microflows. A governing equation describing the evolution of channel height is derived for the problem. Several physical limits allow simplification of the governing equation and solution by self-similarity. These limits, representing different physical regimes and their corresponding time scales, include compressibility–elasticity–viscosity, compressibility–viscosity and elasticity–viscosity dominant balances. Transition of the flow field between these regimes and corresponding exact solutions is illustrated for the case of an impulsive mass insertion in which the order of magnitude of the deflection evolves in time. For an initial channel thickness which is similar to the elastic deformation generated by the background pressure, a symmetry between compressibility and elasticity allows us to obtain a self-similar solution which includes weak rarefaction effects. The presented results are validated by numerical solutions of the evolution equation.
Nickel oxide-based materials have attracted significant interest for a variety of energy conversion applications although many of their structures remain unresolved. In this study, Density Functional Theory+U (DFT+U) and hybrid DFT calculations are used to analyze the properties of crystalline nickel oxyhydroxide (β-NiOOH) with hydrogen (H) vacancies. Hydrogen vacancies are found to lower the band gap without creating states inside the band gap. Inter-layer crossing is a possible transport pathway, while intra-layer transport is inhibited. Bulk modulus is not influenced by H vacancies in the crystal. β-NiOOH with H vacancies exhibits good electronic properties, essential for solid electrolytes and anodes in solid oxide fuel cells.
We examine transient axial creeping flow in the annular gap between a rigid cylinder and a concentric elastic tube. The gap is initially filled with a thin fluid layer. We employ an elastic shell model and the lubrication approximation to obtain governing equations for the elastohydrodynamic interaction. At long axial length scales viscous forces are balanced by elastic tension, while at shorter length scales the viscous–elastic balance is achieved by means of an interplay between elastic bending, tension and shear stresses. Based on a viscous gravity current analogy in the tensile–viscous regime, we devise propagation laws for displacement flows which are induced by a variety of boundary conditions and examine different limits of the prewetting thickness. Next we focus on the moving elastohydrodynamic contact line at the edge of a penetrating film. A uniform matched asymptotic solution connecting the interior tension-based region with a boundary layer region near the propagation front is presented. Finally, a constructive example is shown in which isolated moving deformation patterns are created and superimposed to form a travelling wave displacement field. The presented interaction between viscosity and elasticity may be applied to fields such as soft robotics and micro-scale or larger swimmers by allowing for the time-dependent control of an axisymmetric compliant boundary.
Viscous flows in contact with elastic structures apply both pressure and shear stress at the solid–liquid interface and thus create internal stress and deformation fields within the solid structure. We study the interaction between the deformation of elastic structures, subject to external forces, and an internal viscous liquid. We neglect inertia in the liquid and solid and focus on viscous flow through a thin-walled slender elastic cylindrical shell as a basic model of a soft robot. Our analysis yields an inhomogeneous linear diffusion equation governing the coupled viscous–elastic system. Solutions for the flow and deformation fields are obtained in closed analytical form. The functionality of the viscous–elastic diffusion process is explored within the context of soft-robotic applications, through analysis of selected solutions to the governing equation. Shell material compressibility is shown to have a unique effect in inducing different flow and deformation regimes. This research may prove valuable to applications such as micro-swimmers, micro-autonomous systems and soft robotics by allowing for the design and control of complex time-varying deformation fields.
We present continuous, monochromatic star formation rate (SFR) indicators over the mid-infrared wavelength range of 6–70 μm. We use a sample of 58 star forming galaxies (SFGs) in the Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) at z<0.2, for which there is a rich suite of multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from the ultraviolet through to the infrared. The data from the Spitzer infrared spectrograph (IRS) of these galaxies, which spans 5–40 μm, is anchored to their photometric counterparts. The spectral region between 40-70 μm is interpolated using dust model fits to the IRS spectrum anchored by Spitzer 70 and 160 μm photometry. Since there are no sharp spectral features in this region, we expect these interpolations to be robust. This spectral range is calibrated as a SFR diagnostic using several reference SFR indicators to mitigate potential bias. Our band-specific continuous SFR indicators are found to be consistent with monochromatic calibrations in the local universe, as derived from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel photometry. Additionally, in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope this will become a flexible tool, applicable to any SFG up to z∼3.
Completing the census of AGN in the Universe is the key to understanding the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBH) and galaxies, and to resolving the spectrum of the X-ray background (XRB). However, a large population of AGN, especially the heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGN, are still missing from even the deepest X-ray surveys. The infrared spectra energy distribution (SED) of distant star-forming galaxies can reveal the presence of bright AGN activity. Using some of the deepest infrared, X-ray and radio data available in the GOODS fields, we identify a population of infrared bright quasars at redshift z ~ 2, which are often missed in the X-ray band. Amongst these sources the number of obscured and heavily-obscured quasars is much higher than those previously found in several X-ray and optical selected samples. A unique view on these heavily-obscured quasars is now given at high energies by NuSTAR. I will present the first NuSTAR detection of a heavily obscured quasar at z 2. This source is a potential archetype of the heavily-obscured high-z AGN in which most of the black hole growth is happening, that can explain the mysterious missing fraction of the XRB.
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are ideal candidates for gas sensors due to their small size, low cost of production and high sensitivity. Increasing restrictions on pollution and emissions create the necessity for sensors that can operate in the harsh environments found in vehicle exhaust systems and industrial production. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a robust, chemically inert, piezoelectric semiconductor, making it an attractive material for SAW devices designed to detect and monitor gases in harsh environments. In this work, SAW devices designed to operate at the 5th and 7th harmonics are fabricated on GaN thin films and their performance is measured through insertion loss, signal to noise ratio, operating frequency and quality factor. Devices are directly exposed to the exhaust gas of a common diesel engine. Device performance is then re-measured and compared. SAW devices fabricated in this work have measured operating frequencies above 1 GHz, and quality factors up to and higher than 2000, depending on the harmonic mode. SAW devices on GaN showed good chemical stability and measured changes in device performance after exhaust exposure was negligible.
We quantitatively explore in a unbiased way the evolution of dust attenuation up to z ≈ 4 as a function of galaxy properties. We have used one of the deepest datasets available at present, in the GOODS-N field, to select a star forming galaxy sample and robustly measure galaxy redshifts, star formation rates, stellar masses and UV restframe properties. Our main results can be summarized as follows: i) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a main driver of UV dust attenuation in star forming galaxies: more massive galaxies are more dust attenuated than less massive ones; ii) strikingly, we find that the correlation does not evolve with redshift: the amount of dust attenuation is the same at all cosmic epochs for a fixed stellar mass; iii) this finding explains why and how the SFR–AUV relation evolves with redshift: the same amount of star formation is less attenuated at higher redshift because it is hosted in less massive galaxies; iv) combining our finding with results from line emission surveys, we confirm that line reddening is larger than continuum reddening, at least up to z ≈ 1.5; v) given the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation, we predict that star forming galaxies at a fixed metal content are more attenuated at high redshift. Finally, we explored the correlation between UV dust attenuation and the spectral slope: vi) the correlation is evolving with redshift with star forming galaxies at lower redshift having redder spectra than higher redshift ones for the same amount of dust attenuation.
Titanium-based ceramic supports designed for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells were synthesized, and catalytic activity was explored using electrochemical analysis. Synthesis of high surface area TiO2 and TiO supports was accomplished by rapidly heating a gel of polyethyleneimine-bound titanium in a tube furnace under a forming gas atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed anatase phase formation for the TiO2 materials and crystallite sizes of less than 10 nm in both cases. Subsequent disposition of platinum through an incipient wetness approach leads to highly dispersed crystallites of platinum, less than 6 nm each, on the conductive supports. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive x-ray analysis results showed a highly uniform Ti and Pt distribution on the surface of both materials. The supports without platinum are highly stable to acidic aqueous conditions and show no signs of oxygen reduction reactivity (ORR). However, once the 20 wt% platinum is added to the material, ORR activity comparable to XC-72-based materials is observed.
The degree of reproductive isolation between the B and Q biotypes of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is currently not clear. Laboratory experiments have shown that the two biotypes are capable of producing viable F1 hybrids but that these females are sterile as their F2 generation failed to develop, indicating, most likely, a post-zygotic reproductive barrier. Here, we confirm, by molecular and ecological tools, that the B and Q biotypes of Israel are genetically isolated and provide two independent lines of evidence that support the existence of a pre-zygotic reproductive barrier between them. Firstly, monitoring of mating behaviors in homogeneous and heterogeneous couples indicated no copulation events in heterogeneous couples compared to ∼50% in homogeneous B and Q couples. Secondly, we could not detect the presence of sperm in the spermathecae of females from heterogeneous couples, compared to 50% detection in intra-B biotype crosses and 15% detection in intra-Q biotype crosses. The existence of pre-zygotic reproductive barriers in Israeli B and Q colonies may indicate a reinforcement process in which mating discrimination is strengthened between sympatric taxa that were formerly allopatric, to avoid maladaptive hybridization. As the two biotypes continued to perform all courtship stages prior to copulation, we also conducted mixed cultures experiments in order to test the reproductive consequences of inter-biotype courtship attempts. In mixed cultures, a significant reduction in female fecundity was observed for the Q biotype but not for the B biotype, suggesting an asymmetric reproductive interference effect in favour of the B biotype. The long-term outcome of this effect is yet to be determined since additional environmental forces may reduce the probability of demographic displacement of one biotype by the other in overlapping niches.
We discuss evidence that quasars, and more generally radio jets, may have played an active role in the formation stage of galaxies by inducing star formation, i.e., through positive feedback. This mechanism first proposed in the 1970s has been considered as anecdotal until now, contrary to the opposite effect that is generally put forward, i.e., the quenching of star formation in massive galaxies to explain the galaxy bimodality, downsizing, and the universal black hole mass over bulge stellar mass ratio. This suggestion is based on the recent discovery of an ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e., an extreme starburst, that appears to be triggered by a radio jet from the QSO HE 0450-2958 at z = 0.2863, together with the finding in several systems of a positional offset between molecular gas and quasars, which may be explained by the positive feedback effect of radio jets on their local environment.
We present a simple, largely empirical but physically motivated model, which is designed to interpret consistently multi-wavelength observations from large samples of galaxies in terms of physical parameters, such as star formation rate, stellar mass and dust content. Our model is both simple and versatile enough to allow the derivation of statistical constraints on the star formation histories and dust contents of large samples of galaxies using a wide range of ultraviolet, optical and infrared observations. We illustrate this by deriving median-likelihood estimates of a set of physical parameters describing the stellar and dust contents of local star-forming galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Sample (SINGS) and from a newly-matched sample of SDSS galaxies observed with GALEX, 2MASS, and IRAS. The model reproduces well the observed spectral energy distributions of these galaxies across the entire wavelength range from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. We find important correlations between the physical parameters of galaxies which are useful to investigate the star formation activity and dust properties of galaxies. Our model can be straightforwardly applied to interpret observed ultraviolet-to-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from any galaxy sample.
An experimental and numerical systematic study of the growth of the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability-induced mixing following a re-shock is made, where the initial shock moves from the light fluid to the heavy one, over an incident Mach number range of 1.15–1.45. The evolution of the mixing zone following the re-shock is found to be independent of its amplitude at the time of the re-shock and to depend directly on the strength of the re-shock. A linear growth of the mixing zone with time following the passage of the re-shock and before the arrival of the reflected rarefaction wave is found. Moreover, when the mixing zone width is plotted as a function of the distance travelled, the growth slope is found to be independent of the re-shock strength. A comparison of the experimental results with direct numerical simulation calculations reveals that the linear growth rate of the mixing zone is the result of a bubble competition process.
Haemodialysis patients display an increased cardiac mortality, which may be partly related to increased sympathoadrenal activity and insulin resistance. Fish oil decreases adrenal activation induced by mental stress and has an insulin sensitizing effect in healthy subjects. Whole-body glucose metabolism after oral glucose was studied in eight haemodialysis patients before and after a 3-week oral fish oil supplementation (i.e. EPA + DHA at 1·8 g/d). Plasma glucose fluxes were traced by using [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion. Substrate oxidation was determined by using indirect calorimetry. Each patient was studied in the basal state and over the 6 h following absorption of a 1 g/kg glucose load. Energy expenditure in response to glucose re-increased over the last 2 h of the experiment (P < 0·05), which coincided with an increase in plasma catecholamines, especially epinephrine (P < 0·05), strongly suggesting a sympathoadrenal overactivity. Fish oil supplementation blunted both re-increase in thermogenic response and concomitant increase in plasma epinephrine, but not in plasma norepinephrine, over the last 2 h of the experiment. Fish oil did not alter either whole-body glucose metabolism or substrate oxidation. These data show that in haemodialysis patients, fish oil attenuates adrenal overactivity induced by oral glucose but does not modulate whole-body glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
A sample of distant ($z>0.4$) luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) selected from ISOCAM deep survey fields (CFRS, UDSR, UDSF) have been studied on the basis of their high-quality optical spectra from VLT/FORS2 (R=5Å). Robust estimates of dust extinction can be considered via the energy balance between the infrared and H$\beta$ luminosities, after correcting the underlying Balmer absorption properly. Oxygen abundances [12+log(O/H)] in the interstellar medium of the sample galaxies estimated from the “strong-line” method show a range from 8.36 to 8.93, with a median value of 8.67, which is 0.5 lower than that of local bright disks (i.e. $L^*$) at the given magnitude. The timescale to double the stellar masses of such LIRGs can be very short, 0.1-1 Gyr. A significant fraction of distant large disks are indeed LIRGs. Such massive disks could have formed $\sim50$% of their metals and stellar masses since $z\sim1$.
L'ébranlement d'Israël, Philosophie de
l'histoire juive, Shmuel Trigano, Paris : Editions du Seuil, 2002.
Dans L'ébranlement d'Israël, Shmuel Trigano s'étend d'abord sur les circonstances de la création de l'Etat d'Israël en 1948. Reprenant nombre d'idées déjà développées dans ses publications antérieures, il définit le sionisme
comme le mouvement de libération nationale du peuple juif opprimé, qui a sauvegardé son unité et sa
continuité pendant son exil bi-millénaire. L'Etat d'Israël a été légalement créé par un vote de L'ONU, a été dûment reconnu par les nations, pour servir de refuge aux
rescapés de la Shoa - l'extermination des juifs
européens pendant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale.