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Establishing the specific habitat requirements of forest specialists in fragmented natural habitats is vital for their conservation. We used camera-trap surveys and microhabitat-scale covariates to assess the habitat requirements, probability of occupancy and detection of two terrestrial forest specialist species, the Orange Ground-thrush Geokichla gurneyi and the Lemon Dove Aplopelia larvata during the breeding and non-breeding seasons of 2018–2019 in selected Southern Mistbelt Forests of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A series of camera-trap surveys over 21 days were conducted in conjunction with surveys of microhabitat structural covariates. During the wet season, percentage of leaf litter cover, short grass cover, short herb cover, tall herb cover and saplings 0–2 m, stem density of trees 6–10 m and trees 16–20 m were significant structural covariates for influencing Lemon Dove occupancy. In the dry season, stem density of 2–5 m and 10–15 m trees, percentage tall herb cover, short herb cover and 0–2 m saplings were significant covariates influencing Lemon Dove occupancy. Stem density of trees 2–5 m and 11–15 m, percentage of short grass cover and short herb cover were important site covariates influencing Orange Ground-thrush occupancy in the wet season. Our study highlighted the importance of a diverse habitat structure for both forest species. A high density of tall/mature trees was an essential microhabitat covariate, particularly for sufficient cover and food for these ground-dwelling birds. Avian forest specialists play a vital role in providing ecosystem services perpetuating forest habitat functioning. Conservation of the natural heterogeneity of their habitat is integral to management plans to prevent the decline of such species.
Evidence-based treatment for panic disorder consists of disorder-specific cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) protocols. However, most measures of CBT competence are generic and there is a clear need for disorder-specific assessment measures.
To fill this gap, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Therapy Competence Scale (CTCP) for panic disorder.
CBT trainees (n = 60) submitted audio recordings of CBT for panic disorder that were scored on a generic competence measure, the Cognitive Therapy Scale – Revised (CTS-R), and the CTCP by markers with experience in CBT practice and evaluation. Trainees also provided pre- to post-treatment clinical outcomes on disorder-specific patient report measures for cases corresponding to their therapy recordings.
The CTCP exhibited strong internal consistency (α = .79–.91) and inter-rater reliability (ICC = .70–.88). The measure demonstrated convergent validity with the CTS-R (r = .40–.54), although investigation into competence classification indicated that the CTCP may be more sensitive at detecting competence for panic disorder-specific CBT skills. Notably, the CTCP demonstrated the first indication of a relationship between therapist competence and clinical outcome for panic disorder (r = .29–.35); no relationship was found for the CTS-R.
These findings provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the CTCP for assessing therapist competence in CBT for panic disorder and support the use of anxiety disorder-specific competence measures. Further investigation into the psychometric properties of the measure in other therapist cohorts and its relationship with clinical outcomes is recommended.
This concluding chapter ties together key themes presented throughout this volume, the first book on social justice for children and youth that takes an international perspective. The primary conclusion for this work is that there are significant problems with social injustice for children and youth all around the world, in less-developed and developed nations. This is a foundational human rights issue that should be prioritized in all communities; yet in reality progress has been very limited. While there is some emerging literature, important guiding policy documents, and a number of networks trying to deepen this work, there is a relative dearth of coordinated efforts taking this challenge head on, to assure that policies and practices build a linked agenda that promotes wellness for children and youth, while assuring social justice for them.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth face many challenges in today’s global environment. In addition to the expansive range of attitudes, social pressures, and unique personal development, LGBTQ youth are often faced with issues of social injustice. In many parts of the world, continued discrimination and punishment occurs against LGBTQ individuals and the lack of legal protection is an extra burden for young people in an already oppressive environment. Access to proper developmental support and psychological support can be limited or inappropriate for many of these young people. Inclusive legislation, education, and truthful information relevant to LGBTQ issues can help reduce the consequences of stress seen by many LGBTQ youth. Legislative and social advocacy to reduce stigma and provide healthy, supportive development of LGBTQ individuals are additional ways of reducing social injustice.
According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the goal of a social justice approach for children is to ensure that children “are better served and protected by justice systems, including the security and social welfare sectors.” Despite this worthy goal, the UN documents how children are rarely viewed as stakeholders in justice rules of law; child justice issues are often dealt with separate from larger justice and security issues; and when justice issues for children are addressed, it is often through a siloed, rather than a comprehensive approach. This volume actively challenges the current youth social justice paradigm through terminology and new approaches that place children and young people front and center in the social justice conversation. Through international consideration, children and young people worldwide are incorporated into the social justice conversation.
This introductory chapter presents the goal of social justice for children and young people to ensure that children are served and protected within their countries and communities. Despite this important goal, children and young people are often overlooked as critical social justice stakeholders with adults and other country experiences prioritized instead. When social justice issues among young people are addressed, it is often through specific interventions rather than taking a comprehensive approach to social justice for children on a macro level. The chapter discusses the importance of children and young people’s involvement as critical stakeholders in systemic social justice reform. Prior models of social justice are critiqued and a call for a contemporary, global approach to social justice for children and young people is warranted. The chapter introduces the parameters of the volume that follows and how it takes an international approach that includes the presentation of case studies from low- and lower-middle-income countries, as well as upper-middle- and high-income countries as per the World Bank’s 2018–2019 new country classifications.
This chapter takes up the Tengu Insurrection of 1864–1865 to consider how the Japanese people reacted to the threat of civil war in the years before the Meiji Restoration. It focuses on a small domain, Ōno in Echizen province, to highlight the reactions of domain leaders and subjects to the intrusion of the Mito rebels - loyalist samurai who tried to rid the country of foreigners after the opening of ports. Before their defeat, the Mito rebels marched through several smaller domains that refrained from confronting them due to a lack of military training and resources. Although its leadership had been an early adopter of Western learning and weaponry, the Ōno domain ended up bribing the rebels to make them bypass the domain’s castle town. The chapter details the profound fear of warfare among local commoners and even samurai. In this region far away from the treaty ports, educated commoners were well-informed of current events in other parts of Japan, yet also drew on the cultural memory of the sixteenth-century Warring States period to make sense of the fighting. The chapter emphasizes the open-endedness of thinking about war in Japan on the eve of the age of military conscription.
Differences in alcoholism rates exist between Indo- and Afro-Trinidadians. We investigated whether these differences are explained by variations in the genes encoding the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase.
ADH1B, ADH1C, ALDH1 and ALDH2 polymorphisms were determined as well as serum alanine aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels.
Forty-four percent of Indo-Trinidadians had one ADH1C∗2 and one ADH1C∗1 allele and 5 percent were homozygous. Twenty-three percent of Afro-Trinidadians had one ADH1C∗2 allele and 1 percent were homozygous. The allele was associated with alcohol dependence. Alcoholics with at least one ADH1C∗2 allele had elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Forty-one percent of the Afro-Trinidadians had at least one ADH1B∗3 allele, and three were homozygous. One Indo-Trinidadian had at least one ADH1B∗3 allele. Subjects with at least one ADH1B∗3 allele were less likely to be alcohol dependent and had lower alcohol consumption levels. Among alcohol dependent subjects, ADH1B∗3 was associated with significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase. None of the subjects carried the ALDH2∗2 allele. About 10 percent of the people studied carried one copy of the ALDH1A1∗2 allele. Indo-Trinidadians with at least one ALDH1A1∗2 allele were more likely to be alcohol dependent.
The presence of ADH1C∗1 in Indo-Trinidadians and ADH1B∗3 in Afro-Trinidadians is associated with reduced risk for alcoholism. The presence of at least one copy of the ALDH1A1∗2 allele was found to be associated with an increase in alcohol dependence in Indo-Trinidadians.