To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The study of the history of the first excavations on prehistoric Therasia in the nineteenth century, which were carried out in the context of contemporary scientific interest in the volcanic eruptions of Santorini, has led to the systematic archaeological investigation of the island from 2007 onwards. The intensive archaeological surface survey, the geological survey of the geological structure and palaeotopography of Therasia, and geophysical investigations, undertaken in conjunction with the ongoing excavation of the prehistoric settlement at the site of Panaghia Koimisis at the southern end of modern Therasia, have created the conditions for a more comprehensive approach to the archaeological landscape of the island. Based on the results from the excavation trenches in the south and south-east terraces of the Koimisis hill, which have been excavated down to the virgin soil, we present findings on the organisation, architecture and habitation phases of the Koimisis settlement. The site emerges as an important settlement located on the imposing hilltop rising on the west side of the pre-eruption Santorini caldera in the Early Bronze Age, with a long period of habitation to the end of the Middle Cycladic period, when it was definitively abandoned. The excavation of the settlement provides new information on its architecture and spatial organisation during the Early and Middle Bronze Age, completing the picture from Akrotiri, whose early phases are preserved in a piecemeal fashion under the buildings of the Late Cycladic town.
Increased coexistence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with alcohol abuse/addiction is highlighted in the literature. Equally high is the coexistence of physical illnesses due to the harmful effects of alcohol.
To record the profile and the characteristics of individuals with psychiatric/somatic co-morbidity who attend the psychiatric emergency department/(PED) of the largest psychiatric hospital in Greece.
A total of 1058 individuals, with a mean age of 44.4 years, were identified having alcohol problems in a five-year time period (2010–2015) in the context of the PED, while the majority of them was found to have psychiatric co-morbidity. The most common diagnosis was psychotic syndromes (24.2%), followed by affective (23.8%), personality (12.5%), and somatoform and anxiety disorders (6.3%). About 3% of the sample presented acute alcohol poisoning or severe withdrawal symptoms, coexistence with severe somatic disease and organic mental disorders. More than a third (37%) of them had to be hospitalized, while the involuntary hospitalization rates (21%) were higher than the voluntary ones (16%). Finally, 13.65% suffered from co-morbid somatic diseases with need of immediate emergency and hospital care.
The abuse and/or dependence of alcohol are largely associated with the coexistence of psychiatric and physical diseases. The psychiatric and physical co-morbidity, as regards attendance and hospitalization–involuntary and voluntary–, present a higher rate in men (86%) and mainly affects people of productive age. Additional data are needed to explore detailed factors that could contribute to a better design of more appropriate services for patients with alcohol use disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
For the five hundred years since Thomas More first depicted the island of Utopia, the portrayal of an ideal social system has intrigued generations of authors. The concept served a double purpose: it applied to an ideal place (eutopia) but also an imaginary, unrealizable one (utopia). Although the search for utopia started from the Classical Age, More invented the genre and hundreds of utopian thinkers followed in his footsteps trying to predict how life would unfold and provide a detailed description of an ideal (or nonideal) future society. From H. G. Wells and Aldous Huxley to Arthur C. Clarke and Ursula Le Guin, successful and popular authors showed a deep concern for future living and working conditions. If the past is another country, the growing literature of utopian thought suggests that the future can be a whole continent. Several undiscovered countries lay in waiting and intellectual historians have often been fascinated by the dense explorations of the utopian writers.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
This paper reports turbulent boundary layer measurements made over open-cell reticulated foams with varying pore size and thickness, but constant porosity (
). The foams were flush-mounted into a cutout on a flat plate. A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to measure mean streamwise velocity and turbulence intensity immediately upstream of the porous section, and at multiple measurement stations along the porous substrate. The friction Reynolds number upstream of the porous section was
. For all but the thickest foam tested, the internal boundary layer was fully developed by
downstream from the porous transition, where
is the boundary layer thickness. Fully developed mean velocity profiles showed the presence of a substantial slip velocity at the porous interface (
of the free-stream velocity) and a mean velocity deficit relative to the canonical smooth-wall profile further from the wall. While the magnitude of the mean velocity deficit increased with average pore size, the slip velocity remained approximately constant. Fits to the mean velocity profile suggest that the logarithmic region is shifted relative to a smooth wall, and that this shift increases with pore size until it becomes comparable to substrate thickness
. For all foams, the turbulence intensity was found to be elevated further into the boundary layer to
. An outer peak in intensity was also evident for the largest pore sizes. Velocity spectra indicate that this outer peak is associated with large-scale structures resembling Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices that have streamwise length scale
. Skewness profiles suggest that these large-scale structures may have an amplitude-modulating effect on the interfacial turbulence.
The mid-infrared range contains many spectral features associated with large molecules and dust grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silicates. These are usually very strong compared to fine-structure gas lines, and thus valuable in studying the spectral properties of faint distant galaxies. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of low-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys of galaxies that could be performed by SPICA. The surveys are designed to address the question how star formation and black hole accretion activities evolved over cosmic time through spectral diagnostics of the physical conditions of the interstellar/circumnuclear media in galaxies. On the basis of results obtained with Herschel far-infrared photometric surveys of distant galaxies and Spitzer and AKARI near- to mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of nearby galaxies, we estimate the numbers of the galaxies at redshift z > 0.5, which are expected to be detected in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features or dust continuum by a wide (10 deg2) or deep (1 deg2) blind survey, both for a given observation time of 600 h. As by-products of the wide blind survey, we also expect to detect debris disks, through the mid-infrared excess above the photospheric emission of nearby main-sequence stars, and we estimate their number. We demonstrate that the SPICA mid-infrared surveys will efficiently provide us with unprecedentedly large spectral samples, which can be studied further in the far-infrared with SPICA.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3–4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12–350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 < z ≲ 6–7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.
A far-infrared observatory such as the SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, with its unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity, would unveil the role of feedback in galaxy evolution during the last ~10 Gyr of the Universe (z = 1.5–2), through the use of far- and mid-infrared molecular and ionic fine structure lines that trace outflowing and infalling gas. Outflowing gas is identified in the far-infrared through P-Cygni line shapes and absorption blueshifted wings in molecular lines with high dipolar moments, and through emission line wings of fine-structure lines of ionised gas. We quantify the detectability of galaxy-scale massive molecular and ionised outflows as a function of redshift in AGN-dominated, starburst-dominated, and main-sequence galaxies, explore the detectability of metal-rich inflows in the local Universe, and describe the most significant synergies with other current and future observatories that will measure feedback in galaxies via complementary tracers at other wavelengths.
We present new measurements of the power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using the Planck 2015 full-mission HFI data at 353, 545, and 857 GHz over 20 000 square degrees. Unlike previous Planck measurements of the CIB power spectra, we do not rely on external HI data to remove Galactic dust emission from the Planck maps. Instead, we model the Galactic emission at the level of the power spectra, using templates constructed directly from the Planck data by exploiting the statistical isotropy of all extragalactic emission components. This allows us to work at the full resolution of Planck over large sky areas. We construct a likelihood based on the measured spectra (for multipoles 50 ≤ ℓ ≤ 2500) using analytic covariance matrices that account for masking and the realistic instrumental noise properties. The results of an MCMC exploration of this likelihood are presented, based on simple parameterised models of the CIB power that arises from clustering of infrared galaxies. We explore simultaneously the parameters describing the clustered power, the Poisson power levels, and the amplitudes of the Galactic power spectrum templates across the six frequency (cross-)spectra. The best-fit model provides a good fit to all spectra. As an example, Fig. 1 compares the measured auto spectra at 353, 545, and 857 GHz over 40% of the sky to the power in the best-fit model. We find that the power in the CIB anisotropies from galaxy clustering is roughly equal to the Poisson power at multipoles ℓ =2000 (the clustered power dominates on larger scales), and that our dust-cleaned CIB spectra are in good agreement with previous Planck and Herschel measurements. A key feature of our analysis is that it allows one to make many internal consistency tests. We show that our results are stable to data selection and choice of survey area, demonstrating both our ability to remove Galactic dust power to high accuracy and the statistical isotropy of the CIB signal.
This chapter deals with the entanglement of health and beauty. I discuss how concepts and states of “health” are entwined with concepts and states of “beauty”, and in particular what problems this creates for medical practice.
My analysis is grounded in a historical case study: Nazi medicine (Efstathiou 2012). I argue that Nazi medicine conflated notions of health with notions of beauty and pursued aesthetic standards using medical means. The political exception of Jews, among other civilian populations, was a means to realizing the vision of a “healthy German race”, where “health” was understood within a particular aesthetic ideological frame as equated to “purity” and “beauty”.
Nazi medicine may seem too extreme to be an example of anything but horror, but it exemplifies the consequences of conflating health and beauty, a common and indeed live issue, as well as several broader philosophical issues.
Our notions of health and beauty overlap; the ambiguity can prove profitable for some and injurious to others. Consider the covers of magazines devoted to “healthy living”: such publications present models of “health” that are rarely unattractive, seemingly implying that securing health is tantamount to a particular beautiful look. The popular media are not the only ones to identify health and beauty. Various conditions are classed as medical disorders purely for cosmetic reasons: for example, birthmarks, hair loss or common psoriasis. Conversely, descriptors of “health” often equivocate between saying that an organism is beautiful and healthy; for example, when we talk about an animal's “glossy coat” or “bright eyes”.
We present a new model for the infrared emission of the high redshift hyperluminous infrared galaxy IRAS F10214+4724 which takes into account recent photometric data from Spitzer and Herschel that sample the peak of its spectral energy distribution. We first demonstrate that the combination of the AGN tapered disc and starburst models of Efstathiou and coworkers, while able to give an excellent fit to the average spectrum of type 2 AGN measured by Spitzer, fails to match the spectral energy distribution of IRAS F10214+4724. This is mainly due to the fact that the ν Sν distribution of the galaxy falls very steeply with increasing frequency (a characteristic of heavy absorption by dust) but shows a silicate feature in emission. We propose a model that assumes two components of emission: clouds that are associated with the narrow-line region and a highly obscured starburst. The emission from the clouds must suffer significantly stronger gravitational lensing compared to the emission from the torus to explain the observed spectral energy distribution.
The Antikythera Mechanism is the most sophisticated extant ancient astronomical instrument and analogue computer known and was assembled sometime between 150 and 100 BCE, almost a century after the death of Archimedes. The mechanism has a great educational potential as it appeals to inquiring minds as an astonishing artefact of science and technology. The latest research findings reveal significant cultural and social functions in its operations. This astonishing astronomical instrument has a clear interdisciplinary valueand it has that it may be used as an educational medium, to engage the general public, and especially to attract students both to/from exact sciences and to/from the humanities. The astronomical and technical knowledge embedded in the mechanism can also be used to introduce some aspects of modern science through the unknown technological achievements of Hellenic antiquity.
Primary infection with HSV-1 or HSV-2 results in productive replication of the virus at the site of infection, following the pattern of gene expression described elsewhere in this volume. During this initial phase, virus enters sensory neurons via their termini and retrograde transport takes the genome to the neuronal nuclei in the sensory ganglia that innervate the infected dermatome. At early times after infection, virus replication occurs in ganglionic neurons but within a few days no virus can be detected. The genome, however, persists in neurons in a latent state from which it reactivates periodically to resume replication and produce infectious virus. This reactivation event may be “spontaneous” but is generally thought to be provoked by stress stimuli that act on the neuron, or at a peripheral site innervated by the infected ganglion, or systemically. Three phases of latency are recognized. Establishment occurs during the period following primary infection, and although virus replication can be detected in a proportion of neurons during this phase, the initiation and normal progression of productive infection and cell death is arrested in those neurons destined to become latently infected. Unravelling the way in which the seemingly inexorable progression of the gene expression program is blocked constitutes a major challenge for the molecular virologist. The maintenance phase of latency is characterized by the lifelong retention of the HSV genome in a silent state, characterized by repression of all viral lytic genes. One region, encoding the latency-associated transcripts (LATs), remains active during latency.