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To evaluate changes in ultra-processed food (UPF) intake and its major correlates during the first Italian lockdown (March 9 -May 3 2020).
Retrospective observational study.
We analysed 2,992 subjects (mean age 57.9±15.3 y, 40.4% men). Individual participant data were pooled from 2 retrospective cohorts: 1) The Moli-LOCK cohort consists of 1,501 adults, a portion of the larger Moli-sani Study (n=24,325; 2005-2010) who were administered a phone-based questionnaire to assess lifestyles and psychological factors during confinement; 2) the ALT RISCOVID-19 is a web-based survey of 1,491 individuals distributed throughout Italy who self-responded to the same questionnaire by using Google forms.
UPF was defined according to NOVA classification based on degree of food processing. An UPF score was created by assigning 1 point to increased consumption, -1 to decreased and 0 point for unchanged intakes of 19 food items, with higher values indicating an increase in UPF during confinement.
Overall, 37.5% of the population reported some increase in UPF (UPF score ≥1). Adults were more likely to decrease UPF (multivariable regression coefficient β=-1.94; 95%CI: -2.72,-1.17 for individuals aged >75 y as compared to 18-39 y) as did individuals from southern Italian regions as compared to Northern inhabitants (β=-1.32; -1.80,-0.84), while UPF lowering associated with increased exercise (β=-0.90; -1.46,-0.35) and weight loss (β=-1.05; -1.51, -0.59) during confinement.
During the first Italian lockdown, about 40% of our population switched to unfavourable eating as reflected by increased UPF intake and this may have long-term effects for health.
Is noun dominance in early lexical acquisition a widespread or a language-specific phenomenon? Thirty Singaporean bilingual English–Mandarin learning toddlers and their mothers were observed in a mother-child play interaction. For both English and Mandarin, toddlers’ speech and reported vocabulary contained more nouns than verbs across book reading and toy playing. In contrast, their mothers’ speech contained more verbs than nouns in both English and Mandarin but differed depending on the context of the interaction. Although toddlers demonstrated a noun bias for both languages, the noun bias was more pronounced in English than in Mandarin. Together, these findings support early noun dominance as a widespread phenomenon in the lexical acquisition debate but also provide evidence that language specificity also plays a minor role in children's early lexical development.
Central to the account of grounded procedures is the premise that mental experiences are grounded in physical actions. We complement this account by incorporating frameworks in cultural psychology and developmental neuroscience, with new predictions. Through the examples of vicarious experiences and demerit transfer, we discuss why, and how, separation and connection may operate somewhat differently across cultures.
This article discusses semiotic connections among linguistic prosody, the body, and forms of physical activity. A quantitative study of the instructional styles of bodybuilding and yoga instructors on YouTube shows that bodybuilding instructors employ faster articulation rates and higher pitch (F0) than yoga instructors. We argue that articulation rate and pitch become semiotically linked to notions of energy, and the differences in the instructors’ styles are rooted in differences in levels of embodied energy that bodybuilding and yoga are assumed to require. Instructors employ linguistic features that reflect these ideologies of their activities, and in doing so, present themselves as embodied instantiations of their respective practices. This study shows that ideologies of the body as a physically active doer of things provide an important source for the generation of iconic, energy-related meanings. Crucially, we show that ideological notions of energy and embodied iconicity can drive group-level patterns of linguistic variation. (Prosody, iconicity, style, embodiment, social meaning, ideology)*
Each day more than three-quarters of a million adults around the world experience the joys and heartaches just as they do the rewards and fears of becoming parents to a newborn infant. Each infant is an individual, of course, as is each parent and each parent–infant dyad. Yet, parents and infants around the globe share a large number of commonalities. No matter their homeland, parents have the same responsibilities to guide their infants’ survival and success in life, and their infants have the same biological needs and must meet and succeed at the same developmental tasks and challenges. Although infancy encompasses only a small fraction of the life span, it is a period that parents the world over attend to and invest in. Parenting an infant is a 168-hour-a-week job. With good reason: Parenting responsibilities are arguably the greatest during the time of their child’s infancy because human infants are totally dependent on caregiving and their ability to cope alone is minimal.
This paper furthers our understanding of the social forces driving prosodic variation by reporting on production and perception studies of phrase-final posttonic lengthening in American English. Building on past research showing gender-based variation in the production of phrase-final lengthening, I show that this gender effect surfaces only when comparing straight men and straight women. Gay men and straight women lengthen their phrase-final posttonic syllables equally, and both groups do so more than straight men. A matched-guise social-perception experiment shows that listeners associate increased lengthening not only with femininity and male gayness, but with expressive affect. I suggest that the link between increased lengthening and expressive affect is forged iconically and that this link underlies the gender and sexuality patterns observed in the production study. What surfaces from this work theoretically is how variability in expressions of affect may drive correlations between gender/sexuality-based categories and linguistic variants.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Environmental factors may significantly increase the risk of or buffer against Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, yet strategies to address cognitive decline and impairment to date largely overlook the role of neighborhoods. This mixed-methods study is the first to examine potential links between access to eateries and cognitive function. The goal is to inform place-specific interventions to help aging individuals reduce risk for cognitive impairment through neighborhood community and design. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Following an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design, seated and mobile interviews with 125 adults aged 55-92 (mean age 71) living in the Minneapolis (Minnesota) metropolitan area suggest that eateries, including coffee shops and fast-food restaurants, represent popular neighborhood destinations for older adults and sources of wellbeing. To test the hypothesis that these sites, and the benefits they confer, are associated with cognitive welfare, we analyzed data from urban and suburban dwelling participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a national racially diverse sample of older Americans followed since 2003 (n = 16,404, average age at assessment 72 years). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Qualitative thematic analysis of how older adults perceived and utilized local eateries include sites of familiarity and comfort; physical and economic accessibility; sociability with friends, family, staff, and customers; and entertainment (e.g., destinations for outings and walks, free newspapers to read). Quantitative results from multilevel linear regression models demonstrate a positive association between density of eateries and cognitive functioning. Taken together, these results complicate our understanding of fast-food settings as possible sites of wellbeing through social interaction and leisure activities. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The results contribute new evidence towards an emerging ecological model of cognitive health. Understanding whether and how retail food environments can help buffer against cognitive decline among older adults provides novel opportunities to promote wellbeing in later life through community interventions and neighborhood design.
To construct and test the validity of a new psychometric questionnaire to assess psychological impact of facial lipoatrophy (ABCD-F), that is the most stigmatizing feature of HIV-related lipodystrophy.
Construction: The development went through Focus groups and Content Validity, Item reduction and Exploratory Factor Analysis.
Validation: ABCD-F questionnaire was administered together with ABCD and MOS HIV questionnaires. The Cronbach's Alfa was used to test internal consistency, while convergent validity and divergent validity were analyzed by the correlations with MOS, ABCD items and BMI and CD4 counts respectively.
42 HIV+ people participated to focus groups. In the EFA the 17 Items were aggregated around psychological distress and role functioning domains.
ABCD-F showed high internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha = 0.95). Both convergent and divergent validity were confirmed. ABCD-F scores were highly correlated to Physical Health Summary (B 0.59; 95% [CI] 0.35; 0.84; p< 0.0001), Mental Health Summary (B-1.54; 95% [CI] 1.15; 1.93; p< 0.0001), and weakly correlated to CD4 count (B-0.02; 95% [CI] -0.01; 0.06; p=0.54) and HIV viral load (B-0.004; 95% [CI] -2.69; 2.69; p=1.00).
ABCD-F is a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess psychological impact of facial lipoatrophy (FLA).
ABCD-F may result as a useful tool both in clinical and research settings: it's able to identify people experiencing greater psychological impact due to FLA. It may become an objective instrument to evaluate priority and efficacy of plastic surgery to treat lipodystrophy. In research setting may be used to compare different populations or different treatments of FLA.
Delusional disorder, also known as paranoia, is a low prevalence psychotic disorder in our environement. Usually, patients who have this disorder are very difficult to treat adequately besides its poor adherence to medical treatment, and the ineffectiveness of some therapies are well documented.
The aims of this study were to describe clinical, socio-demographic and pharmacological variables among a large stable sample in the community, and quantify the association between these variables and mental health care adherence.
Hospital Clinico San Carlos Hospital covers three local health areas; the sample was taken from one of them, wich provides health care to 268,000 people, approximately.We identified 130 out-patients with delusional disorder, but only 90 of these fulfilled DSM IV criteria. We recorded socio-demographic, clinical, pharmacological and legal data from 71 medical history patients. We also included number of visits and number of times patients didn't attend to an appointment among the total in one year. We defined mental health care adherence as good, irregular, or abandoned, in relation to missed appointments.
Delusional disorder incidence was 1,6 per 100,000 habitants, with a prevalence of 36 per 100,000 habitants, according to other studies results. Among all treatments, risperidone was the most prescribes neuroleptic. We found association almost significant between tratment with benzodiacepinesn and good adherence (x2 = 0,059).
These results give as a more realistic view of delusional disorder in our enviroment, and let us to reconsider aspects of mental health care adherence and a posible association with benzodiazepine treatment.
The aim in the current study was to investigate the efficacy of the PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System) in a sample of children with Autistic Disorder (AD) in the development of the communication, alternating gaze and pointing in children with Autistic Disorder (AD).
The sample included 5 children diagnosed with AD (DSM-IV-TR), no verbal language, followed by the team of the Rehabilitation Centre belonging to Scientific Institute “E. Medea”, Association “La Nostra Famiglia” Branch of Ostuni (Italy). The children were tested on their ability with neuropsychiatric, psycholinguistics and psychological assessment at the pre and post of the trial.
The treatment PECS has gone on for two years with a frequency of three times a week (45 minutes each one).
The observed behavioral variables were: spontaneous request of objects using the notebook PECS, alternating gaze, pointing, and possible vocalizing and verbalizing on imitation.
The data were collected at the beginning and at the end of the trial, using play-interaction videotapes, lasting 20 minutes each. Segments (10 min) of videos were randomly selected for coding.
The behaviours were coded using the Observer XT. 7 and the results were analyzed statistically with the SPSS programme.
The results show a significant increase in the number of spontaneous requests, in the capacity of alternating gaze, pointing, vocalizing and verbalizing on imitation.
Finally the PECS seems to allow not only to develop a functional communication in AD, but also to increase social communicative behaviours of children with AD. Nevertheless further studies are necessary.
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue, whose cardinal features affect eyes, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular system. Despite prevalence and natural history of cardiovascular manifestation are well known in adults, little is known about children and young adult patients. The aim of this study was to describe a well-characterised cohort of consecutive children and young patients with marfan syndrome, looking at the impact of family history and presence of bicuspid aortic valve on disease severity.
A total of 30 consecutive children and young patients with Marfan syndrome were evaluated. All patients underwent a comprehensive clinical–instrumental–genetic evaluation. Particular attention was posed to identify differences in prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities between patients with and without family history of Marfan syndrome or bicuspid aortic valve.
Of these 30 patients, family history of Marfan syndrome and bicuspid aortic valve were present in 76 and 13%, respectively. Compared to patients with family history of Marfan syndrome, those without showed higher prevalence of aortic sinus dilation (87 versus 32%, p-value = 0.009), greater aortic sinus diameters (4.2 ± 2.1 versus 1.9 ± 1.1 z score, p-value = 0.002), and higher rate of aortic surgery during follow-up (37 versus 0%, p-value = 0.002). Compared to patients with tricuspid aortic valve, those with bicuspid aortic valve were younger (3.2 ± 4.3 versus 10.7 ± 6.8 years old, p-value = 0.043), showed greater aortic sinus diameters (4.2 ± 0.9 versus 2.2 ± 1.6 z score, p-value = 0.033), and underwent more frequently aortic root replacement (50 versus 4%, p-value = 0.004).
In our cohort of patients with Marfan syndrome, the absence of family history and the presence of bicuspid aortic valve were associated to severe aortic phenotype and worse prognosis.
The oculomotor system is closely linked to the neural circuits of attention. Recent evidence shows a novel role for eye vergence in orienting visual attention.
Identify patterns of attention disruption through eye vergence.
We investigated whether modulation in attention related eye vergence is disrupted in ADHD.
We measured eye vergence in children previously diagnosed with ADHD while performing a cue/no-cue task and compared the results to agematched controls.
We observed a strong modulation in the angle of vergence in the control group but not in the ADHD group. In addition, in the control group the modulation in eye vergence was different between the cue and no-cue condition. This difference was absent in the ADHD group.
Our study supports the observation of deficient binocular vision in ADHD children. We argue that the observed disruption in eye vergence modulation in ADHD children is proof of a deficient cognitive processing of sensory information. Our work may provide new insights into attention disorders, like ADHD.
Taste perception is a complex phenomenon modulated by different factors, such as taste receptors and memory brain circuitry. The palatability of the food, that activates central reward pathways, also plays an important role in taste perception. It means that taste is able to influence the choice of food and then the eating behavior.
It's well known that people with anorexia nervosa (AN) have lower sensitivity to reward stimuli and recent studies have shown that altered function of taste neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in AN.
The aim of this study is to evaluate, in patients suffering from AN, the activation of the brain areas involved in taste perception and in central reward mechanisms to both pleasant and aversive taste stimuli and to correlate gustatory neural circuitry activity with eating behaviors, temperament measures and/or sensitivity to reward and to punishment.
12 underweight AN patients and 12 normal-weight healthy subjects underwent a functional MRI to measure brain areas activation to repeated stimuli of a pleasant taste, a sucrose solution, alternated with an aversive taste, a bitter solution, and a water taste.
Preliminary results showed, in patients with AN, a dysfunctional activation of brain areas involved in both taste perception and reward mechanisms following both the pleasant and aversive stimulus.
These results, if confirmed in future analyses, may improve our knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanism of AN.
Eye movement recordings can provide information about higher-level processing of visual information. Recent evidence shows a novel role for eye vergence in orienting attention (Solé Puig et al., 2013). Based on such eye tracking data, the BGaze method (Braingaze; Spain) detects visual attention. The outcomes of the BGaze method have been applied to classify ADHD patients from healthy controls.
In this study, we validated the BGaze method.
We therefore recorded eye movements in children while performing a visual detection task.
We evaluated the BGaze method using 4 types of supervised machine learning algorithms. In total, 138 different trained models were tested. Nineteen ADHD diagnosed patients (children 7–14 years of age) and 19 healthy age matched controls were used to build the 138 models. We performed 30 times repeated random sub-sampling validation. In each repeated random split, training set consisted of 80% of the data and test set of the remaining 20%. Finally, all the 138 models were tested with a validation set consisting of 232 children, including 22 ADHD patients.
Across all the 138 models, BGaze method showed an average accuracy of 90.84% (minimum 86.21%; maximum, 95.26%) and an average AUC of 0.95 (minimum 0.90; maximum, 0.97). Best models gave accuracies of 92%, AUCs of 0.96 and FN and FP rates of 4.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Mean scores during the training-testing phase averaged 99.63%.
The BGaze method is robust, accurate, and can provide an objective tool supporting the clinical diagnosis of ADHD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The functional interplay between brain hemispheres is fundamental for behavioral, cognitive and emotional control. Several pathophysiological aspects of eating disorders (EDs) have been investigated by the use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).
The objective of the study was to investigate functional brain asymmetry of resting-state fMRI correlations in symptomatic patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN).
We aimed at revealing whether brain regions implicated in reward, cognitive control, starvation and emotion regulation show altered inter-hemispheric functional connectivity in patients with AN and BN.
Using resting-state fMRI, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) and regional inter-hemispheric spectral coherence (IHSC) analyses in two canonical slow frequency bands (“Slow-5”, “Slow-4”) were studied in 15AN and 13BN patients and 16 healthy controls (HC). Using T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging MRI scans, regional VMHC values were correlated with the left-right asymmetry of corresponding homotopic gray matter volumes and with the white matter callosal fractional anisotropy (FA).
Compared to HC, AN patients exhibited reduced VMHC in cerebellum, insula and precuneus, while BN patients showed reduced VMHC in dorso-lateral prefrontal and orbito-frontal cortices. The regional IHSC analysis highlighted that the inter-hemispheric functional connectivity was higher in the ‘Slow-5′Band in all regions except the insula. No group differences in left-right structural asymmetries and in VMHC vs callosal FA correlations were found.
These anomalies indicate that AN and BN, at least in their acute phase, are associated with a loss of inter-hemispheric connectivity in regions implicated in self-referential, cognitive control and reward processing.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In parents of autistic children there are high levels of stress. For parents, counseling can help them face the world of autism through the many stressors they experiment.
To evidence a possible effect of the counseling intervention on parental stress.
The sample consisted of 24 parents (mean age = 38.7) of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder related to the treatment centre “Una breccia nel muro”. Parents’ group was randomly divided into two subgroups, the first (EG experimental group) consists in 12 parents, which were included in a counseling treatment of six months (one meeting of 2 hours every 15 days), while the other subgroup parents, (CG control group) were not included. We used parenting stress index–short form (PSI-SF) before counseling intervention (T0) and after (T1) with every parent. PSI values stress level in following scales: parental distress (PD), parent-child dysfunctional interaction (PCDI) and difficult child characteristics (DC). Figure 1 shows all the variables in each group at T0 and T1.
Then a 2-tail t-test was separately carried out for each group (Counseling Yes; Counseling No). Counseling Yes: PD (t22 = .70, P = .49); PCDI (t22 = .72, P = .47); DC (t22 = 2.23, P = .03); Tot Stress (t22 = 1.04, P = .3). Counseling No: PD (t22 = .82, P = .42); PCDI (t22 = 1.7, P = .09); DC (t22 = .59, P = .56); Tot Stress (t22 = .72, P = .48)
Our data confirm the positive effects of counseling especially on the difficulties related to children (DC scale).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.