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Some evidence suggests that heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback might be an effective way to treat anxiety and stress symptoms. To examine the effect of HRV biofeedback on symptoms of anxiety and stress, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies extracted from PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library.
The search identified 24 studies totaling 484 participants who received HRV biofeedback training for stress and anxiety. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis.
The pre-post within-group effect size (Hedges' g) was 0.81. The between-groups analysis comparing biofeedback to a control condition yielded Hedges' g = 0.83. Moderator analyses revealed that treatment efficacy was not moderated by study year, risk of study bias, percentage of females, number of sessions, or presence of an anxiety disorder.
HRV biofeedback training is associated with a large reduction in self-reported stress and anxiety. Although more well-controlled studies are needed, this intervention offers a promising approach for treating stress and anxiety with wearable devices.
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.
Recently, in an intercomparison of the Hohenheim German oak chronology (Becker 1993) and the Göttingen chronology (Leuschner and Delorme 1988), an error was discovered in the former (Leuschner, in preparation). Due to an error in adding sections at 5241 bc, 41 yr are missing in the published Hohenheim chronology. After correction of the error, the two chronologies synchronize over their entire common length, back to 7200 bc.
Vector magnetogram data and Hα pictures together with data published by Chupp et al. lead us to conjecture that in the presented case a contact between the rising two-ribbon flare current sheet and a coronal loop connecting two nearby plage regions initiates efficient high-energy γ-ray emission.
We present four wave mixing experiments on GaN. We find an intrinsic homogeneous broadening of the A-exciton of 1.67 meV. A pronounced beating with a period of 0.52 ps is observed at excitation energies between the A- and the B-exciton and corresponds to an energy splitting of 7.98 meV of A- and B-exciton.
The presence of multiple fields during inflation might seed a detectable amount of non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations, which in turn becomes observable in present data sets like the cosmic microwave background (CMB) or the large scale structure (LSS). Within this proceeding we present a fully analytic method to infer inflationary parameters from observations by exploiting higher-order statistics of the curvature perturbations. To keep this analyticity, and thereby to dispense with numerically expensive sampling techniques, a saddle-point approximation is introduced whose precision has been validated for a numerical toy example. Applied to real data, this approach might enable to discriminate among the still viable models of inflation.
In February 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope atop Mount Graham in Arizona. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars in L' band (3.8 microns) as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1–2.3 microns). This part of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. In this proceedings, we present the science goals for LEECH and a preliminary contrast curve from some early data.
The effects of antidepressants for treating depressive disorders have been overestimated because of selective publication of positive trials. Reanalyses that include unpublished trials have yielded reduced effect sizes. This in turn has led to claims that antidepressants have clinically insignificant advantages over placebo and that psychotherapy is therefore a better alternative. To test this, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing psychotherapy with pill placebo.
Ten 10 studies comparing psychotherapies with pill placebo were identified. In total, 1240 patients were included in these studies. For each study, Hedges’ g was calculated. Characteristics of the studies were extracted for subgroup and meta-regression analyses.
The effect of psychotherapy compared to pill placebo at post-test was g = 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14–0.36, I2 = 0%, 95% CI 0–58]. This effect size corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 7.14 (95% CI 5.00–12.82). The psychotherapy conditions scored 2.66 points lower on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) than the placebo conditions, and 3.20 points lower on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Some indications for publication bias were found (two missing studies). We found no significant differences between subgroups of the studies and in meta-regression analyses we found no significant association between baseline severity and effect size.
Although there are differences between the role of placebo in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, psychotherapy has an effect size that is comparable to that of antidepressant medications. Whether these effects should be deemed clinically relevant remains open to debate.
We demonstrate that the anisotropic optical response of metal (cobalt) slanted columnar thin films (STF) at THz frequencies strongly depends on the dielectric properties of the dielectric ambient surrounding the slanted columnar thin films. An effective medium dielectric function approach is used to describe the combined optical response of metal slanted columnar thin film and dielectric ambient. Our observations indicate that metal (cobalt) slanted columnar thin films can be used as sensors which will enable detection and characterization of minute amounts of dielectrics at THz frequencies, such as for flow-based detection of liquid chemical constituents.
Although predictions suggest that ocean acidification will significantly impact polar oceans within 20–30 years, there is limited information regarding present-day pH dynamics of the Southern Ocean. Here, we present novel high-frequency observations of pH collected during spring of 2010 using SeaFET pH sensors at three locations under fast sea ice in the southern Ross Sea. During these deployments in McMurdo Sound, baseline pH ranged between 8.019–8.045, with low to moderate overall variation (0.043–0.114 units) on the scale of hours to days. The variation was predominantly in the direction of increased pH relative to baseline observations. Estimates of aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) were > 1 with no observations of subsaturation. Time series records such as these are significant to the Antarctic science community; this information can be leveraged towards framing more environmentally relevant laboratory experiments aimed at assessing the vulnerability of Antarctic species to ocean acidification. In addition, increased spatial and temporal coverage of pH datasets may reveal ecologically significant patterns. Specifically, whether such variation in natural ocean pH dynamics may drive local adaptation to pH variation or provide refugia for populations of marine calcifiers in a future, acidifying ocean.
Using pure and alloyed silicon melt saturated with carbon we investigated systematically hollow defect elimination during SiC solution growth over a wide temperature range from 1500°C to 2100°C. In the process of solution growth all hollow defects present in a substrate demonstrate an evident tendency to act as growth centers and after an adequate period of treatment they were overgrown. Growth morphologies observed in the vicinity of hollow defects are rather different. A new visualization method is proposed, which reveals crystalline defects associated with hollow cores and allows to detect the quantity and the distribution of HD in a whole SiC wafer. Classification of hollow defects based on these observations is presented and the corresponding closing mechanisms are discussed.
The status of SiC vapor growth technique (PVT) is reviewed and related innovative aspects are introduced. Problems of the preparation of SiC crystals with uniform electronic properties are addressed, especially the growth of semiinsulating SiC. An overview about the performance of numerical modeling is given as tool for the optimization of the PVT process. Development activities in the field of liquid phase processing for the preparation of SiC bulk crystals and micropipe healing are presented. Finally recent results on the present understanding of filamentary void formation/elimination (micropipes, macrodefects) are summarized.
SiO2 nanospheres have been produced via a high temperature evaporation process and they have been Ni or Ag plated using electroless plating solutions. These samples were examined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Magnetic Resonance (MR). The initial SiO2 nanospheres were about 30 nm in diameter, and the Ni plating layer resulted in a 25nm thick metallic Ni coverage, while the Ag coverage was estimated to be in the 150 nm range. In the case of the Ni/SiO2 nanosphere composites, the MR signals show the presence of Ni+2 and Ni+3 paramagnetic centers, seen below 40K, and ferromagnetic metallic Ni, which is seen above 40K. The dried Ni plating solution (with no SiO2) shows only the presence of paramagnetic Ni+3. These results suggest that an interfacial reaction at the surface of the SiO2 nanospheres leads to the formation of ferromagnetic Ni, which deposits onto the spheres and forms a ferromagnetic Ni/SiO2 nanosphere composite. In the case of the Ag/SiO2 nanosphere composites, no MR signal is seen from the non-magnetic Ag, but strong paramagnetic behavior has been noted for Co+2, which originates from the plating solution.
We report the synthesis of a series of highly functional metal chelated silyl- and tert-butyl-protected 2, 3-diaminomethyl norbornene derivatives. Subsequent alterations to the previously synthesized norbornene adducts afford many other derivatives containing such functionalities as alkyl, cyano, esters, and ethers. These derivatives are then subjected to ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) employing a ruthenium homogeneous catalyst to afford phase separated block polymers. The block polymers formed serve as unique templates for the formation of size controlled metal nanoclusters having a narrow dispersion. These metal nanoclusters containing diblock polymers are evaluated as unique electrical and optical materials.
We report electron microscopy studies of nanoparticles ( 500 ≤ n ≤ 104, where n is the number of atoms in a given cluster) that are sputtered from the surface by high-energy ion impacts. Measurements of the sizes of these clusters yielded an inverse power-law distribution with an exponent of –2 that is independent of irradiating ion species and total sputtering yield. This inverse-square dependence indicates that these nanoclusters are produced when shock waves, generated by sub-surface displacement cascades, impact and ablate the surface. Such nanoparticles consist of simple fragments of the original surface, i.e., ones that have not undergone any large thermal excursion. As discussed below, this “ion ablation” technique should therefore be useful for synthesizing nanoparticles of a wide variety of alloy compositions and phases.
The red, tetragonal form of lead oxide, α-PbO, litharge, has been synthesized in the nanoparticle range using a rapid, one-step reaction sequence using water as the reaction medium. The product was characterized by powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. With time at room temperature, the original material slowly changed in color intensity, indicating its alteration to β-PbO, massicot. Grinding the aged material converted it back to the original litharge form. The role of impurities in the experimental synthesis of the material and microstructural variations in the final product are discussed, along with the PbO-phase compositions of commercial products.
Octanethiol-stabilized Si nanocrystals, ranging from 2 to 8 nm in diameter, were synthesized in cyclohexane heated and pressurized above its critical point at temperatures ranging from 400°C to 500°C. The nanocrystals exhibit crystalline cores and photoluminesce with relatively high efficiencies. These nanocrystals are suitable for single particle spectroscopic measurements that reveal optical information about the individual chromophores that are buried in ensemble measurements. The sterically-stabilized Si nanocrystals emit with relatively narrow emission spectra at room temperature, characteristic of molecules.
The recombination luminescence involving the A-center, a Cd vacancy paired with a nearest neighbour donor, was investigated in CdTe doped with group VII and III elements. Depending on the type of donor doping, distinct differences in the A-center acceptor binding energies and electron phonon couplings are resolved. Optically detected magnetic resonance shows that the A-center behaves as a shallow effective masstype acceptor consiscent with its small binding energy.
A one-dimensional charge control model based on the self-consistent numerical solution of the Schroedinger and Poisson equation has been developed for n- and p-channel quantum-well (QW) MOSFETs and MODFETs in the strained-layer SiGe heterostructure material system. Results are presented for prototype QW n-channel MODFET and MOSFET structures experimentally demonstrated in the literature. Side channel formation limits the maximum usable QW channel densities and voltage swings. The optimization of the charge control characteristics of the p-channel QW-MOSFET is achieved by maximizing the Ge content of the QW SiGe layer and minimizing the Si spacer thickness to the oxide. Channel densities on the order of 1×1013cm22 are feasible.