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Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: More men than women develop urinary stones and their prevalence alters in women with menopause suggesting a steroidal influence. In men the incidence of stones is highest during July and August suggesting that environmental factors such as Vitamin D (VitD), a steroid, may affect stone formation. Previous studies have found differences in the development of stones between men and women; however, the reasons for sex differences in stone formation and type remain unclear. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We examined VitD levels in men and women (n = 18,753) that had no diseases based on a lack of an ICD-9 or ICD-10 code in their electronic medical record. We found that normal, healthy women had significantly higher levels of sera VitD compared to men (p = 6x10-6). We then examined whether sex differences existed for key endpoints/data from the Mayo Clinic Urinary Stone Disease (USD) Registry, which has around 1,600 urinary stone patients that are well-phenotyped according to sex, age and stone type. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Control women were found to have higher sera VitD levels than men, but the sex difference no longer exists in kidney stone disease patients. When we further separated by race, we found that differences in VitD levels reappeared; this suggests that race also plays a role in sera VitD variances. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We are developing a disease severity score, which we will use to correlate to sera VitD levels in patients according to sex, age and race. Future analyses will take into account whether subjects had VitD and calcium supplementation. This project begins to explore the mechanism behind the sex differences known to exist in urinary stone disease, which is critically needed to provide improved diagnosis and therapy for this debilitating disease.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: o To review the community’s recommendations on how to rebuild trust in the Flint community. o To review effective community engagement strategies utilized with the Flint Special Projects for project conceptualization, participant recruitment, data analysis, project oversight, and dissemination. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The study population includes nearly two hundred residents representing seniors, youth and diverse ethnicities recruited to participate in eleven focus group meetings. The population also represents the general public who attended informational meetings in Flint, Michigan to learn about the crisis and allow residents to voice their opinions and concerns during the onset of the crisis. The project is a mixed methods community based participatory research effort that utilized community decision making in all phases of the effort such as pre-conception, implementation, dissemination and advocacy to encourage the community’s recommendations are adopted at policy and institutional responsiveness levels. It includes three community engaged research efforts: (project 1) A qualitative analysis of community sentiment provided during 17 recorded legislative, media and community events, and (projects 2-3) two mixed methods efforts utilizing purposive sampling of stakeholders whose voice may not have been heard. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The project presents a qualitative analysis of the community’s voice during the onset of the man-made disaster when the community first became aware of the emergency manager’s plans to switch the water source. It also reflects current perspectives of community voice since the projects are scheduled to end late February 2019. Findings from a trust measure administered to nearly two hundred residents will be presented, along with a qualitative analysis of focus group findings among segments of the population (seniors, youth, and diverse ethnicities) who may have been left out of narratives on the water crisis. Finally, the project will compare empowerment and resiliency approaches being utilized in Flint, Michigan to recover from the disaster with other approaches grounded in literature and theory. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Communities of color often experience social determinants of health which negatively impact their health, well-being and human rights. Some Flint citizens are experiencing negative health consequences (i.e., rashes, brain and behavioral sequelle, fertility, etc.) as a result of the disaster, and are uncertain of health outcomes in the future. This is the first project to rigorously document and analyze levels of trust and mistrust in the city of Flint since the water disaster occurred. The qualitative research will guide future clinical research that will benefit this traumatized community experiencing high levels of mistrust (i.e., government, elected officials, etc.). The community engaged methodology involved residents and study participants in all phases of the project including project oversight, validating and analyzing data, and dissemination. This methodology will contribute to existing literature and theory on community based participatory research, community engaged research, team science and citizen science. The approaches empowered a call to action among residents, for example, seniors who attended two senior focus group sessions shared “they are hopeful and have a purpose,” resulting in the creation of a council (with officers) at their housing complex to advocate for the well-being of seniors during the recovery process. Recruitment methodologies were extremely successful due to resident level trust in community leaders and community partner organizations. Finally, the project’s examination of approaches encouraging empowerment and resiliency will provide lessons learned for other communities challenged with crisis.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by plants are generally involved in host recognition and host selection for many phytophagous insects. However, for leafhoppers and planthoppers, host recognition is mainly thought to involve a phototactic response, but it is not clear if a host plant could be selected based on the volatile cues it emits. In this study we evaluated olfactory responses in dual choice tests of two Hemiptera species, Dalbulus maidis (De Long) (Cicadellidae) and Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Delphacidae), vectors of maize-stunting diseases, to three maize (Zea mays L.) germplasms, a temperate and a tropical hybrid and a landrace. VOCs emitted by the germplasms were collected and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The temperate hybrid released significantly more VOCs than the tropical hybrid and the landrace, and its volatile profile was dominated by (±)-linalool. D. maidis preferred odours emitted from the temperate hybrid, whereas P. maidis preferred odours from the tropical hybrid and the landrace over the temperate one. In order to test if linalool plays a role in the behavioural responses, we assayed this compound in combination with the tropical hybrid, to provide other contextual olfactory cues. D. maidis was attracted to the tropical hybrid plus a 0.0001% linalool solution, indicating that this compound could be part of a blend of attractants. Whereas addition of linalool resulted in a slight, though not significant, reduction in host VOC attractiveness for P. maidis. Both hopper species responded to olfactory cues in the absence of supplementary visual cues.
Soldier operational performance is determined by their fitness, nutritional status, quality of rest/recovery, and remaining injury/illness free. Understanding large fluctuations in nutritional status during operations is critical to safeguarding health and well-being. There are limited data world-wide describing the effect of extreme climate change on nutrient profiles. This study investigated the effect of hot-dry deployments on vitamin D status (assessed from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration) of young, male, military volunteers. Two data sets are presented (pilot study, n 37; main study, n 98), examining serum 25(OH)D concentrations before and during 6-month summer operational deployments to Afghanistan (March to October/November). Body mass, percentage of body fat, dietary intake and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured. In addition, parathyroid hormone (PTH), adjusted Ca and albumin concentrations were measured in the main study to better understand 25(OH)D fluctuations. Body mass and fat mass (FM) losses were greater for early (pre- to mid-) deployment compared with late (mid- to post-) deployment (P<0·05). Dietary intake was well-maintained despite high rates of energy expenditure. A pronounced increase in 25(OH)D was observed between pre- (March) and mid-deployment (June) (pilot study: 51 (sd 20) v. 212 (sd 85) nmol/l, P<0·05; main study: 55 (sd 22) v. 167 (sd 71) nmol/l, P<0·05) and remained elevated post-deployment (October/November). In contrast, PTH was highest pre-deployment, decreasing thereafter (main study: 4·45 (sd 2·20) v. 3·79 (sd 1·50) pmol/l, P<0·05). The typical seasonal cycling of vitamin D appeared exaggerated in this active male population undertaking an arduous summer deployment. Further research is warranted, where such large seasonal vitamin D fluctuations may be detrimental to bone health in the longer-term.
The development by ruminants of strong conditioned flavour aversions (CFAs) to foods associated with the administration of LiCl (an artificial toxin) has demonstrated their potential to avoid feeds that cause negative postingestive consequences (Provenza, 1995). Weaker CFAs are formed when they ingest foods with the detrimental secondary plant compound, oxalic acid (Kyriazakis et al. 1997). Moreover, animals may exhibit conditioned preferences (CFPs) for foods supplying appropriate amounts of nutrients such as nitrogen (Provenza, 1995). In this study we tested whether a continuum exists in the formation of CFAs and CFPs to foods that are associated with increasing availability of sulphur (S) in crossbred ewes.
One of the more consistent characterizations of both American Fundamentalism and other versions of conservative Evangelicalism is that these groups represent authoritarian religious and social systems. Such characterizations are not entirely without some basis in fact. Fundamentalism will almost always appear authoritarian, and so too will forms of Pentecostalism which, like Fundamentalism, place a heavy emphasis on correct thinking and combine a belief in the infallibility of scripture with a commitment to literal readings. Outsiders are sometimes disconcerted to find that “authoritarian” and related concepts are not assessed negatively in conservative Evangelical circles. Quite the contrary is the case: the Bible, infallible, inerrant, “God-breathed,” is the clear center of Evangelical authority. Many a Fundamentalist sermon has sought to clinch its case with the phrase, “on authority of the holy Word of God.”
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Explore perceptions of Flint stakeholders on the water crisis regarding trust and the capacity of faith and community-based organizations providing public health services to address community needs. Analyze the community’s voice shared at (1) 17 key community communications (community/congressional meetings and events), and (2) during 9 focus group sessions, in which residents, faith-based leadership and other stakeholders discuss issues and concerns on the Flint Water Crisis, and recommend ways to address them. Develop a framework that defines core theories, concepts and strategies recommended by the community to help rebuild trust and the quality of life in Flint, Michigan, and support other communities experiencing environmental stress. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Study population: faith-based leaders, seniors, youth, Hispanic/Latino and African American stakeholders, and others experiencing inequities in the city of Flint. Convene 9 focus group sessions (recorded and transcribed) to learn community perceptions on trust and ways to address it. Validate accuracy of the transcriptions with community consultants to reconcile any inaccurate information. Through a community engaged research (CEnR) process, review and analyze qualitative data from the 9 focus group sessions, and quantitative data from 2 surveys documenting (1) demographic backgrounds of focus group participants, and (2) their perceptions on trust and mistrust. Prepare a codebook to qualitatively analyze the focus group data summarizing community input on trust, mistrust, changes in service delivery among community and faith-based organizations, and ways to re-build trust in the city of Flint. Transcribe the community’s voice shared during 17 key events, identified by a team of community-academic stakeholders (i.e., UM Flint water course, congressional and community events, etc.), in which residents and other stakeholders discuss issues and concerns on the Flint Water Crisis, and recommend ways to address it. Qualitatively analyze the transcriptions, using a CEnR process to prepare a codebook on key themes from the community’s voice shared at these events, and recommendations on ways to address it. Compare and contrast findings between the two codebooks developed from (1) the focus group data and (2) qualitative analysis of community voice during public meetings and events. Synthesize this information into a framework of core theories, concepts and rebuilding strategies for Flint, Michigan. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is important to note many undocumented immigrant populations in Flint fear deportation and other consequences, hampering their ability to obtain service and provide community voice. Through our purposive sampling approach, we will hear from community voices not often included in narratives (i.e., seniors, youth, Hispanic/Latino residents). The presentation will present findings documenting levels of trust and mistrust in the city of Flint; and a framework of recommendations, core theories and concepts on ways to reduce, rebuild and eliminate stress that will be helpful to other communities experiencing distress. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: To our knowledge, levels of trust and mistrust in Flint have not been documented thus far. We will compare and contrast common themes presented by the community at public meetings and events with themes presented in our focus group effort on trust. Faith and community-based providers were among the first responders to the Flint Water Crisis. The effort will also share perceptions on changes in public health service delivery, and observations on preparedness for these roles that occurred among community and faith-based providers. Finally, the effort will (1) support the design of a research agenda, (2) define a framework of core theories, concepts and recommendations developed by the community to help rebuild trust in Flint, Michigan; and (3) support other communities addressing environmental distress.
Introduction: The effectiveness of intravenous alteplase is highly time dependent, and very short door-to-needle times (DNT) of 30 minutes or less have been reported in single centre hospitals, but never in an entire population. QuICR (Quality Improvement and Clinical Research) Alberta Stroke Program aimed to reduce DNT to a median of 30 minutes across the Canadian province of Alberta. Methods: We used the Improvement Collaborative Methodology from early 2015 to September 2016 with participation from all 17 Stroke Centres in Alberta. This methodology included 4 face-to-face workshops, site visits, webinars, data collection, data feedback, intensive process mapping, and process improvements. We compared data in the pre-intervention period from 2009-2014 (collected during the Alberta Provincial Stroke Strategy) to data in the post-intervention period from March 2016-February 2017 (collected during the QuICR DTN Collaborative). Data from January 2015-February 2016 were excluded, as improvements were being implemented during this time. Results: There were a total of 2,322 treated cases in the pre- and post-intervention periods. The results show that the median DNT dropped from 68 minutes (n=1846) in the pre-intervention period to 36 minutes (n=476) in the post-intervention period (p<0.001). There were reductions in DNT across all hospital types: median DNT dropped from 63 to 32 minutes in Urban Tertiary Centres (p<0.001), from 73 to 32 minutes in Community with 24/7 neurology (p<0.001), from 85 to 62 minutes in Community with limited/no neurology (p<0.001), and from 74 to 52.5 minutes in rural centres (p<0.001). Conclusion: There were 21.5 to 41 minute reductions in median DNT across all hospital types including smaller rural and community hospitals. A targeted multi-site improvement collaborative can be an effective intervention to reduce DNT across an entire population.
Recent findings highlight that there are prenatal risks for affective disorders that are mediated by glucocorticoid mechanisms, and may be specific to females. There is also evidence of sex differences in prenatal programming mechanisms and developmental psychopathology, whereby effects are in opposite directions in males and females. As birth weight is a risk for affective disorders, we sought to investigate whether maternal prenatal cortisol may have sex-specific effects on fetal growth. Participants were 241 mothers selected from the Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) using a psychosocial risk stratifier, so that responses could be weighted back to the general population. Mothers provided saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol, at home over 2 days at 32 weeks gestation (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening). Measures of infant birth weight (corrected for gestational age) were taken from hospital records. General population estimates of associations between variables were obtained using inverse probability weights. Maternal log of the area under the curve cortisol predicted infant birth weight in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term P=0.029). There was a positive and statistically significant association between prenatal cortisol in males, and a negative association in females that was not statistically significant. A sex interaction in the same direction was evident when using the waking (P=0.015), and 30-min post-waking (P=0.013) cortisol, but not the evening measure. There was no interaction between prenatal cortisol and sex to predict gestational age. Our findings add to an emerging literature that suggests that there may be sex-specific mechanisms that underpin fetal programming.
Selective breeding has been an important component in the increased output and efficiency of animal production since the 1950's. At the same time there has been increasing moral concern over the welfare of modern farmed animals with much of the focus on the environment and management of farm animals and relatively little consideration of the impact of genetic change on welfare. This is now changing, partly because of some well-publicised examples where selection has led to ‘undesirable’ side effects, and because of the perceived welfare risk of emerging biotechnologies. This paper will address whether and how moral concerns over animal welfare should place limitations on genetic change in animal production.
According to current theories, the radicals optically identified in cometary spectra stem from more complex parent compounds which have no transitions at visible wavelengths. In recent years radio transitions of likely molecules have repeatedly been searched for but were never found (e.g., Huebner and Snyder, 1970; Clark et al., 1971). Only in Comet Kohoutek 1973f have microwave lines of three molecules been detected, OH (Biraud et al., 1974; Turner, 1974), CH3CN (Ulich and Conklin, 1974), and HCN (Snyder et al., 1974). Here we report on our search for transitions in the 22-25 GHz band of the molecules H2O, NH3, and CH3OH in this Comet and give upper limits on line temperatures and column densities.
In this brief report, computed tomography perfusion (CTP) thresholds predicting follow-up infarction in patients presenting <3 hours from stroke onset and achieving ultra-early reperfusion (<45 minutes from CTP) are reported. CTP thresholds that predict follow-up infarction vary based on time to reperfusion: Tmax >20 to 23 seconds and cerebral blood flow <5 to 7 ml/min−1/(100 g)−1 or relative cerebral blood flow <0.14 to 0.20 optimally predicted the final infarct. These thresholds are stricter than published thresholds.