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Given the potential of Titanium Dioxide in diverse areas including alternative energy, drug delivery and protein adsorption, it is imperative that the underlying mechanism of surface-water interactions be thoroughly understood. Interaction lifetimes between the surface and the surface-adjacent water molecules have a major bearing on interfacial behaviour. Our study employs Molecular Dynamics simulations to understand interfacial interactions of water with a Titanium Dioxide surface, with focus on these interfacial interaction lifetimes. Two polymorphs of Titanium Dioxide, Anatase (101) and Rutile (110) are studied.
This study investigated health-related quality of life outcomes for children with cochlear implants in India using the Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory questionnaire. Cochlear implantation is associated with improved language outcomes. Some studies show this gives higher quality of life after implantation. Previous research demonstrates that India presents unique circumstances that impact perspectives regarding cochlear implantation.
Children (aged under 18 years) who had undergone cochlear implantation were recruited from Vani Pradan Kendra, an organisation for individuals with hearing loss based in Bangalore, India. Demographic data including age, sex, duration of hearing loss and age at implant were collected, and the children's parents or caregivers completed the Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory questionnaire.
Sixty-nine children (mean age: 8.0 ± 3.89 years) were recruited, and all reported improved quality of life after cochlear implantation. There was no effect of age, gender or education on reported benefits. However, a younger age at implant and longer experience with an implant were associated with greater quality of life improvements.
Cochlear implantation leads to improved quality of life, with greater improvements associated with earlier implantation. This supports early intervention in children with profound hearing loss.
The intensity of turbidite sedimentation over long timescales is driven by sea-level change, tectonically driven rock uplift and climatically modulated sediment delivery rates. This study focuses on understanding the effect of sea-level fluctuations and climatic variability on grain-size variations. The grain size and environmental magnetic parameters of Arabian Sea sediments have been documented using 203 samples, spanning the last 200 ka, obtained from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1457. Grain-size end-member modelling suggests that between ~200 and 130 ka there was an increase in the coarse silt fraction caused by sediment transport following reworking of the Indus Fan and development of deep-sea canyons. The sediment size and enhanced magnetic susceptibility indicate a dominant flux of terrestrial sediments. Sedimentation in the distal Indus Fan at c. 200–130 ka was driven by a drop in sea level that lowered the base level in the Indus and Narmada river systems. The low sea-stand caused incision in the Indus delta, canyons and fan area, which resulted in the transportation of coarser sediment at the drilling site. Magnetic susceptibility and other associated magnetic parameters suggest a large fraction of the sediment was supplied by the Narmada River during ~200–130 ka. Since ~130 ka, clay-dominated sedimentation is attributed to the rise in sea level due to warm and wet climate.
We develop a classical macroeconomic model to examine the growth and distributional consequences of education. Contrary to the received wisdom, we show that human capital accumulation is not necessarily growth-inducing and inequality-reducing. Expansive education policies may foster growth and reduce earning inequalities between workers, but only by transferring income from workers to capitalists. Further, the overall effect of an increase in education depends on the actual characteristics of the educational system and on the nature of labor market relations. Although the primary aim of the paper is theoretical, we argue that the model identifies some causal mechanisms that can contribute to shed light on recent stylized facts on growth, distribution, and education for the USA.
The flow of particles through confined volumes has appeared under different contexts in nature and technology. Some examples include the flow of red blood cells or drug delivery vehicles through capillaries, or surfactant-based particles in nano- or microfluidic cells. The molecular composition of the particles along with external conditions and the characteristics of the confined volume impact the response of the particle to flow. This review focuses on the problem of phospholipid vesicles constrained to flowing in channels. The review examines how experimental and computational approaches have been harnessed to study the response of these particles to the flow.
The Acrididæ are characterised by a very uniform karyotype. With a few exceptions, the species so far studied contain 23 chromosomes in the male, which are very similar in size and structure. Attempts to deduce the probable mechanism of speciation within the Acrididæ were restricted only to metrical studies of chromosomes. Recently, however, Coleman (1943) has established in two species the subterminal position of the primary constriction or centromere and the variation in the length of the two arms in different chromosomes of the same karyotype. In the present paper additional evidence is presented which shows a linear differentiation of some chromosomes of the Acrididæ. Furthermore, in view of the fact that chromosome behaviour during meiosis is a more reliable criterion of ascertaining linear differentiation, the meiosis was studied in three genera.
Three species belonging to three different genera were studied. They are Spathosternum prasiniferum Walker, Oxya sp. and Phlœoba sp. The former two belong to the sub-family Catantopinæ and the latter one to Acrididæ. Adult male specimens have been captured from the field adjoining the Biological Departments, Calcutta University, mostly in the months of August and September 1943–44. The testes were dissected out in Ringer's solution (cold-blooded formula) and fixed in Medium Flemming, Belling's, and Kahle's fixatives. The two latter were very suitable for smear preparations. Sections were cut at 25 to 30 micra in thickness and stained in iodine-crystal violet and in Heidenhain's hæmatoxylin. A 2 per cent, solution of safranin also gave good results. Squash preparations were stained by Feulgen's method. Diplotene stages in Phlœoba were studied from temporary aceto-carmine preparations.
Jamming of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is more difficult than the conventional radars because of its high processing gain. The defocusing of fake or virtual scatterers is the main problem that any jamming technique needs to tackle. An algorithm based on fractional Fourier transform is proposed for the efficient jamming of SAR. The results show that the performance of proposed algorithm is better than conventional Range Doppler Algorithm.
These three essays on distinct research areas and case studies cover a broad history of educational institutions in India, their focus on theatre and cultural education, and their role in creating citizens active in the public sphere and civic communities. The common point of reference for all the three essays is the historical transition from pre- to post-independence India, and they represent three dominant genres of Indian theatre practice: the amateur progressive theatre emerging out of sociopolitical movements; the State Drama School, which has remained at the core of the state's policy and vision of a national theatre; and college theatre, which comprises the field from which the National School of Drama sources its acting students, as well as new audiences for urban theatres.
On September 13, 1849, Yucatecan forces at Chac Creek, near the port city of Bacalar (in present-day Quintana Roo), stopped and searched a vessel named Four Sisters, owned by the Belizean merchant, Austin W. Cox. Inside they uncovered kegs containing 73 arrobas (25-pound kegs) of gunpowder and 16 arrobas of lead. Manned by three black men, the vessel also carried a Maya on whom the search party found incriminating evidence, in the form of a letter from Cox to Maya rebel leader Jacinto Pat. The letter made it clear that the gunpowder was meant for the Maya insurgents who were fighting against Mexican authorities in the Yucatán's raging Caste War. Historians of the Caste War period have consistently recognized that the Belizean authorities ignored the munitions trade that flourished between Mexico and Belize during the conflict. Largely unexplored has been the critical role that merchants and munitions traders played in shaping the British government's attitude, and consequently its policies, toward Maya groups during this volatile period.
During the monsoon of 1956 the Geological Survey of India sponsored an expedition to the Bara Shigri Glacier (lat. 32° 16′N., long. 77° 40′E), Kangra District, in the great Himalayan ranges of the Punjab, as part of the Indian programme for the International Geophysical Year 1956–57. Topographical maps of the terminal 3 miles of the glacier, on scales of 1:63.360 and 1:10,000, were prepared for comparison of morphological changes since it was last surveyed 50 years ago. The glacier appears to have shrunk considerably but its full extent could not be assessed because of insufficient earlier data. The Shigri Stream now emerges from a different part of the glacier snout. In order to assist future surveys three photographic stations were established.
Bioclastic carbonate deposits that formed because of a combination of nearshore marine, fluvial, and aeolian processes, occur along the Saurashtra coast and in the adjacent interior regions of western India. Whether these carbonates formed by marine or aeolian processes has been debated for many decades. The presence of these deposits inland poses questions as to whether they are climate controlled or attributable to postdepositional tectonic uplift. In particular, the debate centres on chronologic issues including (1) appropriate sampling strategies and (2) the use of 230Th/234U and 14C ages on the bulk carbonates. Using traces (<1%) of quartz grains trapped in carbonate matrices, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz grains, deposited along with the carbonate grains, provides ages for the most recent deposition events. The OSL ages range from >165 to 44 ka for the shell limestones, 75–17 ka for the fluvially reworked sheet deposits, and 80–11 ka for miliolites deposited by aeolian processes. These are younger than the 230Th/234U and 14C ages and suggest that the inland carbonate deposits were reworked from older carbonate sediments that were transported during more arid phases.
It is now almost eighty years since Michal Kalecki published his formal mathematical model of the business cycle. In this paper, we want to examine the vision embedded in that early model and the writings he published at around the same time. Sections II and III center on Kalecki’s approach to local and global (in)-stability, and section IV suggests a simplified model designed to pinpoint key aspects of Kalecki’s thinking related to the issue of endogenous cycles, ‘class struggle,’ and growth.
Self-assembly of biocompatible nanoparticles is part of a promising field in drug delivery and biomaterials. Virus capsids are an example of nanoparticles capable of being tethered with functional groups for specific targeting. There have been experimental efforts on grafting polymers to virus capsids to synthesize tailored nanostructures. To provide insight at the nanoscale, we perform a highly coarse-grained molecular dynamics study, simulating the self-aggregation of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsids decorated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PEG polylactic acid (PLA) block polymers. We examined the effects of grafting architecture and volume fraction on equilibrated clusters. Characterization of the aggregation dynamics are summarized by the radius of gyration of the clusters, coordination number distributions, and average cluster size. When the system and methods are parameterized with respect to atomistic models or empirical results, the results can serve as the basis in broadly mapping the theoretical design space for controlled self-assembly of polymer-decorated virus capsids.
In this paper, an X-shaped fractal antenna with defected ground structure (DGS) is presented for multiband and wideband applications. The X shape is used due to its simple design and DGS is utilized to achieve size reduction with multiband and wideband features in the frequency range of 1–7 GHz. The proposed structure is fabricated on FR4 substrate with 1.6 mm thickness. We have proposed two different antennas both are having X-shaped fractal patch with a slotted ground plane to have more impedance bandwidth and better return loss. Various parameters like scale factor, width of ground plane, number of slots with their dimensions and feed line length are optimized to have size reduction and for enhancing the performance of antenna. Reflection coefficient shows the multiband and wideband features of proposed antenna. One of the proposed antennas covers various applications like IEEE802.11y at 3.65 and 4.9 GHz, IEEE 802.11a at 5.4 GHz, 802.11P at 5.9 GHz. Other antenna covers applications like IEEE802.16 at 3.5 GHz; 5 cm band for amateur radio and satellite and future 5 G communication systems over 6 GHz. The antenna designing was done using CST software and simulation results were compared with experimental results (using E5071C network analyzer).
Operational methodologies are available to retrieve several parameters related to the land, air and oceans from satellite data which is capable of providing well calibrated data/observations over large areas giving a synoptic view on a repetitive and reliable basis. The capability of satellites to provide data in various spectral, spatial and temporal scales is of great advantage in studying the dynamic aspects of earth atmosphere system. The present day capabilities of satellites include spatial resolutions ranging from 10 m and above and repetition of a few hours (geosynchronous Satellite) to few days. Higher spatial resolutions and all weather capabilities (through microwave sensing) are becoming available in the immediate future. Towards utilising the potentials of space based systems, India has been operating INSAT series of satellite for weather monitoring and 1RS series of satellites for natural resources monitoring/management. The INSAT is a series of geostationary satellites stationed over Indian region to provide meteorological observations on a continuous basis in visible and thermal regions in addition to providing services for disaster warning related to Cyclones and remote location data collection platforms. The space based observations on meteorology over the past 5 years is proving to be a valuable data base for studies related to monsoon dynamics and tropical cyclones.
In this paper, a rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) with a parasitic gap-coupled microstrip resonator (MSR) is investigated; analytically, and experimentally. The proposed antenna uses an open-ended half-wavelength MSR patch as a hybrid radiator. Radiating modes are identified for both the radiators. Two separate and fully independent modes are merged together to get an enhanced bandwidth. The antenna can offer three modes of operation, mode 1 (only DRA is active), mode 2 (only MSR is active), and the mode 3 (both DRA and MSR are active). In mode 3, the antenna offers a single wideband operation with ≈11% bandwidth by merging modes 1 and 2 with a broadside radiation pattern. Two switches are proposed to realize the three modes of operation. A p–i–n diode is utilized as switching element in simulations. Multiple antennas have been fabricated using a small metal strip as a switch to validate the proposal. Analytical, simulated, and measured results are found in harmony. A parametric study is done to describe the antenna characteristics. An approximate lumped element model is also extracted and presented.