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Wildlife is an essential component of all ecosystems. Most places in the globe do not have local, timely information on which species are present or how their populations are changing. With the arrival of new technologies, camera traps have become a popular way to collect wildlife data. However, data collection has increased at a much faster rate than the development of tools to manage, process and analyse these data. Without these tools, wildlife managers and other stakeholders have little information to effectively manage, understand and monitor wildlife populations. We identify four barriers that are hindering the widespread use of camera trap data for conservation. We propose specific solutions to remove these barriers integrated in a modern technology platform called Wildlife Insights. We present an architecture for this platform and describe its main components. We recognize and discuss the potential risks of publishing shared biodiversity data and a framework to mitigate those risks. Finally, we discuss a strategy to ensure platforms like Wildlife Insights are sustainable and have an enduring impact on the conservation of wildlife.
We obtain an asymptotic formula for the persistence probability in the positive real line of a random polynomial arising from evolutionary game theory. It corresponds to the probability that a multi-player two-strategy random evolutionary game has no internal equilibria. The key ingredient is to approximate the sequence of random polynomials indexed by their degrees by an appropriate centered stationary Gaussian process.
Very Brief Advice (VBA) on smoking is an evidence-based intervention and a recommended clinical practice for all healthcare professionals in the UK.
We report on experience from the FRESH AIR project in adapting the VBA model and training in three low-resource settings: Greece, Vietnam and Kyrgyzstan.
Using a participatory research process, UK experts and local stakeholders conducted an environmental scan and needs assessment to examine the VBA intervention model, training materials and recommend adaptations to the local context. Two VBA training sessions were piloted in each country to inform adaptation. A final training tool kit was developed in the local language.
In each country, the VBA on smoking intervention model remained primarily intact. The lack of a formal smoking cessation system to refer motivated clients in two countries required adaptation of the ACT component of the model. A range of local adaptations to the training resources were made in all three countries to ensure cultural appropriateness as well as enhance key messages including expanding training on nicotine addiction, second-hand smoke and pharmacotherapy.
Implementation of VBA requires sensitive, collaborative, local and cultural adaptation if it is to be achieved successfully.
To characterise subjective symptoms in patients undergoing surgical repair of superior semicircular canal dehiscence.
Questionnaires assessing symptom severity and impact on function and quality of life were administered to patients before superior semicircular canal dehiscence surgery, between June 2011 and March 2016. Questionnaire sections included general quality of life, internal amplified sounds, dizziness and tinnitus, with scores of 0–100 points.
Twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire before surgery. Section scores (mean±standard deviation) were: 38.2 ± 25.2 for general quality of life, 52.5 ± 23.9 for internal amplified sounds, 35.1 ± 28.8 for dizziness, 33.3 ± 30.7 for tinnitus, and 39.8 ± 22.2 for the composite score. Cronbach's α statistic averaged 0.93 (range, 0.84–0.97) across section scores, and 0.83 for the composite score.
The Gopen–Yang Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Questionnaire provides a holistic, patient-centred characterisation of superior semicircular canal dehiscence symptoms. Internal consistency analysis validated the questionnaire and provided a quantitative framework for further optimisation in the clinical setting.
There is a large literature linking current BMI to levels of cardiovascular risk biomarkers, but it is unknown whether measures of BMI earlier in the life course and maximum BMI are predictive of current levels of biomarkers. The objective of the current study was to determine how current, maximum and age-25 BMI among individuals over the age of 60 years are associated with their current levels of cardiovascular risk biomarkers.
Cross-sectional study with retrospective recall.
Costa Rica (n 821) and the USA (n 4110).
Nationally representative samples of adults aged 60 years or over.
We used regression models to examine the relationship between multiple meaures of BMI with four established cardiovascular risk biomarkers. The most consistent predictor of current levels of systolic blood pressure, TAG and HDL-cholesterol was current BMI. However, maximum BMI was the strongest predictor of glycosylated Hb (HbA1c) and was also related to HDL-cholesterol and TAG. HbA1c was independent of current BMI. We found that these relationships are consistent between Costa Rica and the USA for HbA1c and for HDL-cholesterol.
Current levels of cardiovascular risk biomarkers are not only the product of current levels of BMI, but also of maximum lifetime BMI, particularly for levels of HbA1c and for HDL-cholesterol. Managing maximum obtained BMI over the life course may be most critical for maintaining the healthiest levels of cardiovascular risk.
We find a positive relation between the amount of pension deficits and the cost of bank loans. The effect of pension deficits on the cost of bank loans is driven by financial constraints, information-asymmetry problems, and higher pension-investment risk. Banks tighten lending terms for firms with larger pension deficits by requiring collateral, increasing the number of loan covenants, and shortening loan maturity. Borrowers with larger pension deficits are also more likely to violate covenants in the future. Collectively, these findings indicate that pension deficits represent an additional source of risk priced by banks.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Exosomes are living nanoscale vesicles that can shuttle large amounts of bioactive cargo for intercellular communication. The potential of these nanovesicles to serve as both biomarkers for disease diagnosis and vehicles for delivery of therapeutics has only begun to be explored. To realize these potentials, molecular tools for effective exosome tracking and capturing must be invented in order to advance basic research and clinical translation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We utilize a surface display strategy that enables exosome modification in living mammalian systems. By reconfiguring the surface protein CD63 or viral envelope glycoprotein VSV-G, we generate 3 topologically distinctive protein chimeras for exosome imaging and capture in mammalian systems. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We have shown that these genetically encoded protein chimeras have the ability to correctly target and integrate into exosomes in cultured human cells. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the secreted exosomes could be successfully captured by an affinity peptide intentionally displayed on the outer surface of exosomes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our study highlights the potential of these fusion proteins for exosome tracking and provides novel genetic tools for exosome research and translation, one of which is loading protein therapeutics for targeted delivery.
Short sellers are known to have private information about security prices. Empirical evidence of short selling, however, is based on only half of short sellers’ trading activity; specifically, the opening of the position. Using disclosed large-short-position data from the Japanese stock market, we provide the first detailed evidence of covering trades and find a positive reaction to short covering that only partially reverses. Although these results are consistent with substantial transaction costs for closing large short positions, they also reveal that some short sellers are privately informed about positive future events and have timing ability in covering positions.
It is now commonplace to acknowledge Alexis de Tocqueville's support for Algerian colonization. Less well understood, however, is why he also endorsed the French strategy of “total war” in the regency. How was Tocqueville's liberalism linked to the specific shape of violence in Algeria? By situating his Algerian writings in the intersecting intellectual contexts of the 1840s, this essay argues that Tocqueville endorsed total war in Africa because of his passion for glory. Far from an aristocratic anachronism, that passion was the product of contemporary scientific debates over voluntarism in France. It was also shaped by the lingering legacies of revolutionary republicanism and Bonapartism which defined glory in terms of national defense. By tethering modern liberty to this conception of glory, Tocqueville provided resources for rationalizing settlerism's exterminationist violence.
The trial and execution of Louis XVI served as a founding act of French republican democracy. It was also a scene of irregular justice: no legal warrants or procedural precedents existed for bringing a king to justice before the law. This essay describes how Jacobins crafted a new language of popular agency to overcome that obstacle—the language of redemptive violence. Although redemptive violence had roots in prerevolutionary notions of penal justice and social cohesion, its philosophical ambitions were revolutionary and modern. Analyzing that language illuminates how republican democracy weaponized a distinctive ideology of extralegal violence at its origins. It also helps explain redemptive violence's enduring appeal during and after the French Revolution.
A major obstacle in the organic solar cell field is the inability to predict the relevant microstructural length scales that determine charge transport of the interpenetrating polymer/small molecule network based on the component chemical structures. This has led to a trial-and-error approach, which is extremely labor-intensive. This manuscript is our attempt to move toward forming a link between small molecule chemical structure and the morphological hierarchy of the blend. We focus on geometric motifs of small molecule organic semiconductors which have 2D, nonspherical 3D, and quasispherical 3D molecular orbital extent. We find that phase separation in these blends is a function of the molecular structure, and that the small molecule chemical structure is coupled to the crystallite orientation distribution of the polymer matrix. We further find that the ability of a molecule to form a network with a well-defined length scale of phase separation depends on the polymer persistence length.
Background: We investigated motor function associations with age, gender, and D4Z4 fragment size among participants with infantile FSHD. Methods: We collected standardized motor assessments including goniometry, manual muscle testing (MMT), quantitative muscle testing (QMT), and FSHD clinical severity scores (CSS) at 12 CINRG sites. To measure associations, we used linear regression models adjusted for age at enrollment, onset of weakness, gender, and D4Z4 repeats. Results: 53 participants (59% female, mean age 23.1±14.6 years) were enrolled. Weakness was most pronounced at the shoulder girdle and rectus abdominis (median MMT 30-38% of normal). Older enrollment age was associated with greater CSS (p=0.005) and reduced range of motion in shoulder abduction, shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion (all p<0.01). Females and participants with larger D4Z4 repeats had milder shoulder/arm weakness and lesser disease severity (all p<0.05). Increased age at onset of facial weakness was significantly associated with greater total muscle strength, as measured by QMT and MMT (both p=0.002). Conclusions: We confirm the descending pattern of muscle involvement and milder disease severity in females or those with larger D4Z4 repeats. Furthermore, earlier age at onset of facial weakness was associated with greater muscle weakness. Future longitudinal assessments will describe rates of disease progression in this population.
This paper describes the Raman and infrared spectroscopy of SrSO4 or celestine from the Muschelkalk of Winterswijk, The Netherlands. The infrared absorption spectrum is characterised by the SO42-modes V1 at 991 cm-1, v3 at 1201, 1138 and 1091 cm-1, and v4 at 643 and 611 cm-1. An unidentified band is observed at 1248 cm-1. In the Raman spectrum at 293 K the V1 mode is found at 1000 cm-1 and is split in two bands at 1001 and 1003 cm-1 upon cooling to 77 K.The v2 mode, not observed in the infrared spectrum, is observed as a doublet at 460 and 453 cm-1. The v3 mode is represented by four bands in the Raman spectrum at 1187, 1158, 1110 and 1093 cm-1 and the v4 mode as three bands at 656, 638 and 620 cm-1. Cooling to 77 K results in a general decrease in bandwidth and a minor shift in frequencies. A decrease in intensities is observed upon cooling to 77 K due to movement of the Sr atom towards one or more of the oxygen atoms in the sulfate group.
The presence of a magnesian vivianite (Fe2+)2.5(Mg,Mn,Ca)0.5(PO4)2·8H2O, has been identified in a soil sample from a Roman camp near Fort Vechten, The Netherlands, using a combination of Raman microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. An unsubstituted vivianite and baricite were characterised for comparative reasons. The split phosphate-stretching mode is recognised around 1115, 1062 and 1015 cm−1, while the corresponding bending modes are found around 591, 519, 471 and 422 cm−1. The substitution of Mg and Mn for Fe2+ in the crystal structure causes a shift towards higher wavenumbers compared to pure vivianite. As shown by the baričite sample substitution causes a broadening of the bands. The observed broadening however is larger than can be explained by substitution alone. The low intensity of the water bands, especially in the OH-stretching region between 2700 and 3700 cm−1 indicates that the magnesian vivianite is partially dehydrated, which explains the much larger broadening than the observed broadening caused by substitution of Mg and Mn in vivianite and baričite.
Prehospital care, including patient transport, is integral in the patient care process during the Ebola response. Transporting ill persons from the community to Ebola care facilities can stop community spread. Vehicles used for patient transport in infectious disease outbreaks should be evaluated for adequate infection prevention and control.
An ambulance driver in Sierra Leone attributed his Ebola infection to exposure to body fluids that leaked from the patient compartment to the driver cabin of the ambulance.
A convenience sample of 14 vehicles used to transport patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola in Sierra Leone were assessed. The walls separating the patient compartment and driver cabin in these vehicles were evaluated for structural integrity and potential pathways for body fluid leakage. Ambulance drivers and other staff were asked to describe their cleaning and decontamination practices. Ambulance construction and design standards from the National Fire Protection Association, US General Services Administration, and European Committee on Standardization (CEN) were reviewed.
Many vehicles used by ambulance staff in Sierra Leone were not traditional ambulances, but were pick-up trucks or sport-utility vehicles that had been assembled or modified for patient transport. The wall separating the patient compartment and driver cabin in many vehicles did not have a waterproof seal around the edges. Staff responsible for cleaning and disinfection did not thoroughly clean bulk body fluids with disposable towels before disinfection of the patient compartment. Pressure from chlorine sprayers used in the decontamination process may have pushed body fluids from the patient compartment into the driver cabin through gaps around the wall. Ambulance design standards do not require a waterproof seal between the patient compartment and driver cabin. Sealing the wall by tightening or replacing existing bolts is recommended, followed by caulking of all seams with a sealant.
Waterproof separation between the patient compartment and driver cabin may be essential for patient transport vehicles in infectious disease outbreaks, especially when chlorine sprayers are used for decontamination or in resource-limited settings where cleaning supplies may be limited.
CaseyML, NguyenDT, IdrissB, BennettS, DunnA, MartinS. Potential Exposure to Ebola Virus from Body Fluids due to Ambulance Compartment Permeability in Sierra Leone. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(6):625–627.
This article looks at two contemporary films by Vietnamese women. In Việt Linh's Travelling Circus (1988) and Phạm Nhuệ Giang's The Deserted Valley (2002), a female gaze is sutured to that of an ethnic minority character's, a form of looking that stresses a shared oppression between women and the ethnic Other. While clearing a space for a desiring female gaze in Vietnamese film, they nonetheless extend an Orientalist view of racialised difference. A feminist film optic, one that does not consider industry history and constructions of race, fails to mark out the layered relations of looking underlying Vietnamese filmmaking. This study attends to the ways women filmmakers investigate gendered forms of looking, sexual desire and otherness within the constraints of a highly male-dominated film industry.
We present the observed “continuum” levels of polarization as a function of time for four well-observed Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P; Fig. 1), the class of SNe decisively determined to arise from red supergiant stars (Smartt 2009). All four objects show temporally increasing degrees of polarization through the end of the photospheric phase, with some exhibiting early-time polarization that challenge existing models (e.g., Dessart and Hillier 2011) to reproduce. A fundamental ejecta asymmetry is present in this photometrically diverse sample of type II SNe, and it probably takes different forms (e.g., 56Ni blobs/fingers, large scale deformation). We acknowledge support from NSF grants AST-1009571 and AST-1210311.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was printed into a nanostructured carbon nanopillar arrays using a quick, simple, and highly efficient method called spin-on nanoprinting (SNAP). The mold used to print PAN nanostructures could easily be reproduced via printing an inverse replica of carbon nanopillar arrays. The as-printed carbon nanopillar arrays were further prepared as supercapacitor electrodes. As a result, these nanostructured carbon electrodes display an order of magnitude enhancement in specific capacitance compared to non-nanostructured carbon electrodes.
Does democracy end in terror? This essay examines how this question acquired urgency in postwar French political thought by evaluating the critique of totalitarianism after the 1970s, its antecedents, and the shifting conceptual idioms that connected them. It argues that beginning in the 1970s, the critique of totalitarianism was reorganized around notions of “the political” and “the social” to bring into view totalitarianism's democratic provenance. This conceptual mutation displaced earlier denunciations of the bureaucratic nature of totalitarianism by foregrounding anxieties over its voluntarist, democratic sources. Moreover, it projected totalitarianism's origins back to the Jacobin discourse of political will to implicate its postwar inheritors like French communism and May 1968. In so doing, antitotalitarian thinkers stoked a reassessment of liberalism and a reassertion of “the social” as a barrier against excessive democratic voluntarism, the latter embodied no longer by Bolshevism but by a totalitarian Jacobin political tradition haunting modern French history.
Interfacing organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) with biological systems holds considerable promise for building-sensitive biosensors and diagnostic tools. We present a simple model that describes the performance of biosensors in which an OECT is integrated with a biological barrier layer. Using experimentally derived parameters we explore the limits of sensitivity and find that it is dependent on the resistance of the barrier layer. This work provides guidelines on how to optimize biosensors in which OECTs transduce changes in the impedance of biological layers, including lipid bilayer membranes and confluent cell layers.