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The Nutrition Transition model posits that vegetable oils, animal source foods (ASFs) and caloric sweeteners contribute to increases in adiposity and hence body mass index. Body mass index (BMI) is increasing more rapidly among Latin American populations of low versus high socioeconomic status (SES). The objectives of this study among Costa Rican women were to: (1) compare indicators of adiposity and dietary intake by SES and (2) evaluate the relationship between intake of foods high in vegetable oils, ASFs or caloric sweeteners and body fatness. This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2014–2015, included 128 low-, middle- and high-SES non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged between 25 and 45 years with 1–4 live births. Anthropometry was used to assess BMI, body composition and body fat distribution. Dietary recalls (n = 379) were used to assess dietary intake. Percentage body fat was greater in low- versus high-SES women (31.5 ± 3.9 vs 28.2 ± 4.7%). Skinfold measurements at four sites on the upper and lower body were greater in low- versus high-SES women. Body mass index did not vary in low- versus high-SES women. Intake frequency of foods high in vegetable oils was greater in low- and middle- (1.8 and 1.8 times/day, respectively) versus high- (1.1 times/day) SES women. For individual foods, intake frequency varied significantly by SES for high-fat condiments, fried vegetables, dairy, sweetened coffee/tea and pastries and desserts. Intake frequency of Nutrition Transition food categories was not associated with percentage body fat after adjustment for energy intake. Indicators of body composition provide additional information beyond BMI that are useful in understanding SES–adiposity associations in Latin America. Approaches to understanding diet and adiposity in Latin America that focus on vegetable oils, ASFs and caloric sweeteners should consider within-country variation in the pace of the Nutrition Transition, especially when explaining variation in adiposity by SES.
The objectives of the research described here were to describe the persistence of intramammary infections (IMI) caused by coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) in goats using strain-typing, and to evaluate the relationship between species-specific CNS IMI and somatic cell score (SCS) at the udder-half level. Udder-half milk samples were collected from all 909 lactating goats (1817 halves; 1 blind half) in a single herd. Milk samples were cultured on Columbia blood agar, and 220 goats with at least one half yielding a single colony type CNS were enrolled for two additional half-level samplings at approximately 1-month intervals. Isolates were identified to the species level by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry or PCR amplification and partial sequencing of tuf or rpoB. An IMI was defined as persistent when ≥1 follow-up sample yielded the same species and strain as on Day 0 based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A generalised mixed linear model was used to evaluate the odds of persistence as a function of CNS species. A mixed linear model was used to evaluate the relationship between IMI status on a given day and SCS. Among 192 IMI, 69.8% were persistent based on species and strain-type. Staphylococcus simulans IMI had higher odds of persistence than Staphylococcus arlettae IMI. In primiparous goats, Staphylococcus epidermidis IMI was associated with higher SCS than S. arlettae, Staphylococcus xylosus and ‘other CNS’ IMI. The differences detected in the present study between CNS species, with regard to persistence of IMI and association with SCS, highlight the need to study CNS at the species and strain level to understand the pathogenicity and epidemiology of CNS in goats.
An assembly consisting of an X-ray tube, a quartz crystal monochromator, and a vertical X-ray goniometer with proportional counter was mounted in a glove box for work with actinide metals and compounds. An evacuated camera containing the expander tube of a closed-cycle cryogenic system was fitted onto the goniometer. A thin layer of the powdered sample was fixed on the end-plate of the expander tube. Beryllium windows were provided in the camera wall for the incident and for the diffracted beam.
The cooling camera is suitable for use with thin powder layers or metallic foils. Thicker layers can be studied, but a strong thermal gradient perpendicular to the specimen surface is expected. The camera has been applied to the study of lattice contraction and phase transformation at low temperature In actinide metals and compounds .
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), can survive in residual coffee berries during the inter-harvest period, while new fructification only appears 2–3 months after the last harvest. The dispersal of colonizing females is an adaptation that enables the life cycle of the species to go ahead whenever his flight aptitude allows. This paper focuses on accurately determining the rate of inseminated females ready to reproduce when emerging from residuals berries to colonize new ones, which constitutes a characteristic of the live cycle far from common in Curculionidae. We dissected females caught in traps baited with a mixture of alcohols during the inter-harvest season, females from infested residual berries collected from branches, and virgin females obtained from pupae reared individually in the laboratory. After microscopic preparation with Giemsa stain, spermathecae were observed to identify the physiological status of each specimen. Out of the females found in the traps, 98.4% displayed recent and abundant insemination and 1.6% sporadic insemination. In contrast, in residual berries, most of females were recently inseminated (84.5%), followed by virgin females (10.5%) and older inseminated females (5%). In addition, the flight tests of the virgin females were negative. These results indicate that all colonizing females were inseminated, ready for flying and oviposition, females inside residual berries showed different physiological status, and virgin females could not migrate since they could not flight. The large number of inseminated females inside the residual berries, and the capacity of migrating females to colonize and reproduce, suggest that it is necessary to control residual berries and use traps to stop the dispersal and reproduction of this pest.
In two semantic priming experiments, this study examined how southern French speakers process the standard French [o] variant in closed syllables in comparison to their own variant [ɔ]. In Experiment 1, southern French speakers showed facilitation in the processing of the associated target word VIOLET whether the word prime mauve was pronounced by a standard French speaker ([mov]) or a southern French speaker ([mɔv]). More importantly, Experiment 1 has also revealed that words of type mauve, which are subject to dialectal variation, behave exactly in the same way as words of type gomme, which are pronounced with [ɔ] by both southern and standard French speakers, and for which we also found no modulation in the magnitude of the priming effect as a function of the dialect of the speaker. Experiment 2 replicated the priming effect found with the standard French variant [mov], and failed to show a priming effect with nonwords such as [mœv] that also differ from the southern French variant [mɔv] by only one phonetic feature. Our study thus provides further evidence for efficient processing of dialectal variants during spoken word recognition, even if these variants are not part of the speaker’s own productions.
Assessing dietary exposure or nutrient intakes requires detailed dietary data. These data are collected in France by the cross-sectional Individual and National Studies on Food Consumption (INCA). In 2014–2015, the third survey (INCA3) was launched in the framework of the European harmonization process which introduced major methodological changes. The present paper describes the design of the INCA3 survey, its participation rate and the quality of its dietary data, and discusses the lessons learned from the methodological adaptations.
Two representative samples of adults (18–79 years old) and children (0–17 years old) living in mainland France were selected following a three-stage stratified random sampling method using the national census database.
Food consumption was collected through three non-consecutive 24 h recalls (15–79 years old) or records (0–14 years old), supplemented by an FFQ. Information on food supplement use, eating habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, health status and sociodemographic characteristics were gathered by questionnaires. Height and body weight were measured.
In total, 4114 individuals (2121 adults, 1993 children) completed the whole protocol.
Participation rate was 41·5% for adults and 49·8% for children. Mean energy intake was estimated as 8795 kJ/d (2102 kcal/d) in adults and 7222 kJ/d (1726 kcal/d) in children and the rate of energy intake under-reporters was 17·8 and 13·9%, respectively.
Following the European guidelines, the INCA3 survey collected detailed dietary data useful for food-related and nutritional risk assessments at national and European level. The impact of the methodological changes on the participation rate should be further studied.
In dairy herds, application of antimicrobials at drying-off is a common mastitis control measure. This article describes a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis to address three crucial points regarding antimicrobial usage at drying-off: (1) comparative efficacy of antimicrobials used for preventing new and eliminating existing intramammary infections (IMI); (2) comparison of selective and blanket dry cow therapy approaches in preventing new and eliminating existing IMI; and (3) assessment of the extra prevention against new IMI that can be gained from using antimicrobial-teat sealant combinations versus antimicrobials alone. Five PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) questions were formulated to cover the three objectives of the review. Medline, CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, and conference proceedings will be searched along with iterative screening of references. Articles will be eligible if: (1) published after 1966; (2) written in English or French; and (3) reporting field clinical trials and observational studies, conducted on dairy cows at drying-off, with at least one antimicrobial-treated group and one IMI-related outcome. Authors will independently assess the relevance of titles and abstracts, extract data, and assess bias and the overall quality of evidence. Results will be synthesized and analyzed using pairwise and network meta-analysis. The proposed study will significantly update previously conducted reviews.
In this paper we study the numerical approximation of the optimal long-run average cost of a continuous-time Markov decision process, with Borel state and action spaces, and with bounded transition and reward rates. Our approach uses a suitable discretization of the state and action spaces to approximate the original control model. The approximation error for the optimal average reward is then bounded by a linear combination of coefficients related to the discretization of the state and action spaces, namely, the Wasserstein distance between an underlying probability measure μ and a measure with finite support, and the Hausdorff distance between the original and the discretized actions sets. When approximating μ with its empirical probability measure we obtain convergence in probability at an exponential rate. An application to a queueing system is presented.
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), is a multivoltine species closely associated with coffee crops worldwide, causing severe damage to the bean. In Mexico, as in all tropical regions, CBB survives during the inter-harvest period in residual berries on the ground or in dry berries remaining on the branches, and then disperses in search of the first suitable berries. In this study, we investigated how CBB dispersed from the first infested nodes during the fruiting period of Coffea canephora Pierre, which provides a favourable trophic level for this insect. Forty-five branches equally distributed in 15 coffee trees, with one infested node and four uninfested nodes, were selected. The branches were subjected to three treatments over nine weeks: 1) glue between nodes with full protection, 2) glue between nodes without protection, and 3) no glue and no protection. In addition, 45 CBB-free branches were selected and subjected to the same three treatments. CBB colonization can occur in three ways: 1) from an infested node to an uninfested node on the same branch, 2) from infested berries to uninfested berries within the nodes, 3) from branches to other branches. We also found that CBB dispersal between nodes of the same branches never occurred by walking but by flying. Thus, in this context of coffee berry development and ripening, and unlike the phenological situation of the inter-harvest period, CBB continuously travels very short distances, thus limiting its control.
During winter 1999 three large avalanche events were triggered by explosives at SLF’s avalanche test site, Vallée de la Sionne, canton Valais, Switzerland. One important goal of these large-scale field experiments was to measure the release and deposition volumes of avalanches by photogrammetric methods. In this paper, the photogrammetric measurements of all three avalanches are summarized. For one avalanche event it was possible to realize the whole measuring procedure as planned, and to obtain volume measurements before and after the avalanche triggering In the other two avalanche events, the photographs before the triggering of the avalanche failed. Nevertheless the photographs taken after the avalanche provide valuable information on the fracture depth at the fracture line. The mean fracture depth of the largest avalanche was about 2.10 m, varying between 1 and 3.5 m over a width of > 1000 m. The total volume of the deposition of all three avalanche events was about 1300 000 m3. The deposits are distributed over a length of > 1000 m with depths up to 30 m. The difference between the released and deposited volumes proved that avalanches entrain a large amount of snow along the avalanche track. Furthermore, the snow distribution in the deposition zone provides important information about the behaviour of a dense flowing avalanche in the runout zone.
Little quantitative information is available concerning the size of ice particles in the turbulent clouds of powder-snow avalanches. To quantify particle size distributions, we have developed an experimental device that collects particles in real-scale powder avalanches. The device was placed on the concrete bunker of the Swiss Vallée de la Sionne avalanche dynamics test site. On 31 January 2003, a large powder-snow avalanche struck the bunker and we were able to collect particle samples. The collected particles have been photographed and the pictures digitized. An image analysis tool allows us to determine an equivalent particle radius. The captured particles have a geometric mean of 0.16 mm; the largest particles were 0.8 mm in size and the smallest particles 0.03 mm.
IUE spectra of the Ring Nebula (M57=NGC 6720) were taken 16–18 May 1991 using the large aperture (10 × 20 arc sec oval) at low dispersion. SWP and LWP spectra of seven locations were acquired at 10 arc sec intervals extending along a PA = 124° line and passing through the central star of the nebula. This direction was such that the long axis of the large aperture was aligned and overlapped, thus enabling the line profiles to be “spliced” together. This provided continuous spatial variation curves at approximately 1 arc sec spatial resolution over the entire diameter (80 arc sec) of the main body of the Ring Nebula.
We assess the gas-phase abundances of Si, C, and Fe from our recent measurements of Si++, C++, and Fe++ in the Orion Nebula by expanding on our earlier “blister” models. The Fe++ 22.9 μm line measured with the KAO yields Fe/H ~ 3 × 10−6 - considerably larger than in the diffuse ISM, where relative to solar, Fe/H is down by ~ 100. However, in Orion, Fe/H is still lower than solar by a factor ~ 10. The C and Si abundances are derived from new IUE high dispersion spectra of the C++ 1907, 1909 Å and Si++ 1883, 1892 Å lines. Gas-phase Si/C = 0.016 in the Orion ionized volume and is particularly insensitive to uncertainties in extinction and temperature structure. The solar value is 0.098. Gas-phase C/H = 3 × 10−4 and Si/H = 4.8 × 10−6. Compared to solar, Si is depleted by 0.135 in the ionized region, while C is essentially undepleted. This suggests that most Si and Fe resides in dust grains even in the ionized volume.
Eta Carinae has provided more incisive clues to the evolution of the most massive stars than any other individual object. Its luminosity is comparable to that of a very massive O3 star, but it appears to have evolved beyond the O3 stage, to the limit where its surface is rather unstable. We think that it has begun to lose mass semi-catastrophically, in outbursts which may recur at intervals of perhaps several hundred years. The suspected binary nature of Eta Carinae introduces some conceptual uncertainty but is most likely not crucial.
The state of our knowledge concerning the chemical composition of H II regions in the Magellanic Clouds is reviewed. New abundances derived from all modern published spectroscopy are presented. Some of the implications of the results regarding the nucleosynthesis of the elements and galactic chemical evolution are noted.
Research on gendered political behaviour has been heavily influenced by feminist scholarship in understanding gender inequalities. Yet it has been more difficult to integrate the insights of more recent waves of feminist critics, notably among intersectional scholars. The focus has been on differences between women and men, rather than among differently situated women. This article addresses the difficulties of integrating intersections into large-n style studies of political behaviour using “situated comparisons” (Dhamoon, 2010). It then provides an analysis of gender gaps in turnout and civic engagement across ethnoracial groups in Canada using the Ethnic Diversity Survey (2002).It concludes by arguing that the study of gender and political behaviour must find a place for intersectional feminist approaches.
The travelling and appropriation of queer theory by francophone feminists in Quebec have been particularly long and arduous, prompting an inquiry into not only the reasons for this delay, but also into the elements that ultimately allowed for an integration of queer theory among francophone feminists. Combining tools from social movement literature on diffusion (brokerage, frames, repertoire of contention, etc.) and a political theory approach, this article divides the integration of queer theory among francophone feminists into two moments. In the first instance, activists and academic feminists have generally received queer theory with considerable criticism, which we have regrouped into 3 axes: 1) the deconstruction of women and lesbians as political subjects; 2) the investment in the symbolic aspects of politics, to the detriment of material relations and structures of power, and 3) the erasure of lesbian specificity and the absence of male privilege examination. In the second moment, the work of the Pink Panthers–a radical queer group–allows for frame bridging and the use of a recognisable repertoire of collective action to address two out of the three axes of criticism. This article suggests that the process of brokerage creates a crack in the wall of resistance that will quickly become a space for the insertion and integration, even if still conflictual, of queer theory into francophone feminism.
No established liberal democracy has achieved sex balance in its national legislature. Scholars agree skewed candidate pools put forward by parties during elections cause sex-disproportionate seat distribution, but disagree as to whether disproportionality is caused by too few women aspirant candidates coming forward (supply) or party selectors preferring men (demand). This paper uses a multistage method to explore supply and demand during the British Labour party's candidate selection process. Rare data from three elections and 4622 aspirants allow for an unobstructed look inside the secret garden of politics and reveal the party is not fully feminized insofar that women aspirants are disproportionally filtered out of its selection process and are disproportionally underrepresented in its candidate pool. Testing reveals a lack of selector demand for women aspirants has a greater impact on women's underrepresentation than an undersupply of women aspirants, a finding which supports using sex quotas to level imbalanced candidate slates.