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The current review aimed to synthesise the literature on food literacy interventions among adolescents in secondary schools, the attitudes and perceptions of food literacy interventions in secondary schools, and their effects on dietary outcomes.
The systematic review searched five electronic databases from the earliest record to present.
The studies selected for the review were from sixteen countries: Australia (n 10), Canada (n 1), China (n 1), France (n 1), Greece (n 2), Iran (n 1), South Africa (n 1), South India (n 1), Kenya (n 1), Norway (n 2), Portugal (n 1), Denmark (n 1), Northern Ireland (n 1), USA (n 17), UK (n 1) and Sweden (n 2).
Adolescents aged 10–19 years.
Forty-four studies were eligible for inclusion. Adolescents with greater nutritional knowledge and food skills showed healthier dietary practices. Studies found a mixed association between food literacy and long-term healthy dietary behaviour. Two studies showed an improvement in adolescents’ cooking skills and food safety knowledge; six studies showed an improvement in overall food safety knowledge; six studies showed an improvement in overall food and nutritional knowledge; and two studies showed an improvement in short-term healthy dietary behaviour.
Food literacy interventions conducted in a secondary-school setting have demonstrated a positive impact on healthy food and nutritional knowledge. However, there appears to be limited evidence supporting food literacy interventions and long-term dietary behaviours in adolescents. More evidence-based research is required to adequately measure all domains of food literacy and more age-specific food literacy interventions.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders including constipation affect up to 14 % of the world's population. Treatment is difficult and challenging resulting in a need for alternative safe and effective therapies. The present study investigated whether daily consumption of three gold-fleshed kiwifruit could alleviate constipation and improve gastrointestinal discomfort in mildly constipated individuals with and without pain. A total of thirty-two participants were enrolled in a 16-week randomised, single-blind, crossover study. Participants received either three ‘Zesy002’ kiwifruit or 14·75 g Metamucil® (5 g dietary fibre/d (a positive control)) for 4 weeks each with a 4-week washout between treatments. A 2-week washout period was included at the beginning and end of the study. Daily bowel habit diaries were kept throughout the study. The primary outcome measure was differences in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBM). Secondary outcome measures were bowel movement frequency and stool form as well as digestive symptoms and comfort. The number of CSBM per week was significantly greater during daily consumption of three kiwifruit compared with the baseline (6·3 v. 3·3; P < 0·05) and the Metamucil® treatment (6·3 v. 4·5; P < 0·05). Stool consistency was also improved, with kiwifruit producing softer stools and less straining (P < 0·05). Gastrointestinal discomfort was also improved compared with baseline for abdominal pain, constipation and indigestion (P < 0·05) during the kiwifruit intervention and constipation during the Metamucil® intervention (P < 0·05). This randomised controlled trial demonstrates that daily consumption of three gold-fleshed kiwifruit is associated with a significant increase of two CSBM per week and reduction in gastrointestinal discomfort in mildly constipated adults.
The continuing development in recent years of mercuric iodide room temperature x-ray spectrometers has led to steady improvment in the spectral energy resolution capability of these systems. This has been due largely to the continuing reduction in the electronic noise level of the associated preamplification electronics. It has been demonstrated that a system consisting of a mercuric iodide detector in combination with a pulsed-optical feedback preamplifier provides superior energy resolution performance in x-ray spectrometry in comparison to the other types of preamplification. Previously, results have been reported by us of the energy resolution of such systems with both the detector and input FET of the preamplifier at room temperature and with the input FET cooled by liquid nitrogen and the mercuric iodide x-ray detectors lightly cooled.
The performance of a room temperature mercuric iodide X-ray detector was investigated as a function of detector bias, amplifier time constant, and detector temperature. A Mn Kα line of 200 eV FWHM was obtained by using low noise electronics developed for Si(Li) detectors, including a cooled input PET. Measurements of the detector's resolution at various X-ray energies result in a Fano factor of 0.20.
Reciprocal space mapping can be efficiently carried out using a position-sensitive x-ray detector (PSD) coupled to a traditional double-axis diffractometer. The PSD offers parallel measurement of the total scattering angle of all diffracted x-rays during a single rocking-curve scan. As a result, a two-dimensional reciprocal space map can be made in a very short time similar to that of a one-dimensional rocking-curve scan. Fast, efficient reciprocal space mapping offers numerous routine advantages to the x-ray diffraction analyst. Some of these advantages arc the explicit differentiation of lattice strain from crystal orientation effects in strain-relaxed heteroepitaxial layers; the nondestructive characterization of the size, shape and orientation of nanocrystalline domains in ordered-alloy epilayers; and the ability to measure the average size and shape of voids in porous epilayers. Here, the PSD-based diffractometer is described, and specific examples clearly illustrating the advantages of complete reciprocal space analysis are presented.
Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry has the potential for making very rapid analyses of multi-element samples. In order to fully exploit this capability several studies have been carried out with the goal of improving performance at high input count rates. A refined amplifier permits operation at input count rates up to 80000 per second with minimal peak shift and distortion. Optimum choice of tube parameters and filters permits utilization of a single Mo transmission target tube to analyze a broad range of elements in minimum time. Use of a pulsed tube further reduces the time required for analysis without sacrifice of precision or resolution. Dead time necessarily increases with increasing input count rate. It can be reduced by selecting a short amplifier time constant, but only with a loss of resolution. Digital processing permits recovery of the lost resolution. Some illustrations are given of spectra that have been processed on-line using a computer based multi-channel analyzer.