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Less than half of stool samples from people symptomatic with infectious intestinal disease (IID) will identify a causative organism. A secondary data analysis was undertaken to explore whether symptomology alone could be used to make inferences about causative organisms. Data were utilised from the Second Study of Infectious Intestinal Disease in the Community. A total of 844 cases were analysed. Few symptoms differentiated individual pathogens, but grouping pathogens together showed that viral IID was more likely when symptom onset was in winter (odds ratio (OR) 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–3.75) or spring (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.11–3.33), the patient was aged under 5 years (OR 3.63, 95% CI 2.24–6.03) and there was loss of appetite (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.29–3.72). The odds of bacterial IID were higher with diarrhoea in the absence of vomiting (OR 3.54, 95% CI 2.37–5.32), diarrhoea which persisted for >3 days (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.82–3.99), bloody diarrhoea (OR 4.17, 95% CI 1.63–11.83) and fever (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.11–2.53). Symptom profiles could be of value to help guide clinicians and public health professionals in the management of IID, in the absence of microbiological confirmation.
Gut microbiota have been shown to play a critical role in the maintenance of host health. Probiotics, which regulate gut microbiota balance, could serve as an effective alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. Since changes in the gastrointestinal tract, caused by a variety of different strains, groups and amounts of microorganisms, may be reflected in its histological structure, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of rising doses of a mixed probiotic preparation on the structure and development of the small intestine of female turkeys. Eighty, three-day-old, healthy, female turkeys (Big-6 breed) were used in the current (16-week) study. The turkeys were randomly allocated to four weight-matched (59.70 ± 0.83 g) groups (n = 20), according to probiotic treatment dose (0, 107 cfu•g−1, 108 cfu•g−1 or 109 cfu•g−1, in 500 g•1000 kg−1) (cfu – a colony-forming unit). Three, non-genetically modified strains of probiotic cultures obtained from poultry, four bacterial and one yeast culture, were used. Histomorphometric analysis of the structure of the small intestinal wall of the duodenum and jejunum was performed. All probiotic doses used in the current study exerted a beneficial effect on the histological structure of the small intestine; however, the observed effect was dose and region dependent. Significant increases in villi height, crypt depth, villi and crypt width, mucosa thickness, epithelial height, enterocyte number, absorption surface and intestinal ganglia geometric indices were observed, specifically in the duodenum of birds receiving an intermediate dose of probiotic (108 cfu•g−1). The probiotic doses used in the current study differed significantly in their effect on the small intestine (P < 0.01), with the intermediate dose (108 cfu•g−1) significantly improving 58% of the parameters assessed, compared to the control. The duodenum was more susceptible to the favourable effects of the probiotic than the jejunum (56% v. 31% improvement in the parameters assessed) (P < 0.01). The weakest favourable effect was observed in the group that received the highest dose of probiotic.
When Edmund Spenser (1552?–99) published his Faerie Queene in 1590 and 1596, two pervasive structural features would have seemed surprising: the abbreviation Cant. in sectional and running titles, used instead of Canto; and a four-line stanza of common meter for each section's argument, instead of a more expansive and prestigious stanza. Study of the relevant early modern Italian and English norms of publication indicates that these were complementary and innovative means of merging heroic form with divine poetry and hymnic discourse, and recognized as such. Cant. readily suggested canticle and the Solomonic Canticles, and the poet himself calls one of his so-called cantos a “canticle” (4.5.46). In style and prosodic form, his arguments would have particularly evoked the nationally distinctive Elizabethan Protestant psalmody and hymnody, as well as popular ballads. By incorporating these two metamorphic devices into The Faerie Queene's framework, Spenser reconfigured the heroic poem to serve his different, English vision.
Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors were successfully fabricated with different contact materials and structures and were tested with ultrafast lasers. The experimental results were compared with the finite element simulations based on APSYS and showed consistent trend with respect to the device I–V properties and response behaviors. Persistent photoconductivity (PPC) was observed for devices with both gold and aluminum contacts and various structures, and the decay time can be longer than 10 ms. The response time and responsivity were found to be affected by the bias voltage, operating temperature, and incident power. The mechanism behind the long decay time is analyzed from the perspective of the materials properties and factors influencing the decay time are examined. The nature of the metal–semiconductor contact is studied to help understand the PPC effect, and the contact showed ohmic-like behavior.
New field observations of certain harrisite occurrences are presented, including: interruption of layers; splitting of very thick layers into several smaller ones; existence of small isolated lenses and pods of harrisite and of upwardly extending tongues of harrisite; harrisite forming parts of the matrix of breccias; and isolated pods of harrisite along the western margin of the intrusion. These layers, lenses, tongues, and pods seem to have crystallized within the cumulus mush rather than at the mush magma boundary. It is proposed that the rock in these instances represents segregated, intercumulus melt which ‘ponded’ beneath relatively impermeable layers in the cumulus mush. Several ways in which supercooling may have arisen to cause skeletal olivine growth are considered and previous estimates are thought to need reduction by 10–20°C. It is suggested that segregation of upward-filtering melt in other layered intrusions might produce layers indistinguishable from ‘uniform’ cumulate.
Invasive rodents detrimentally affect native bird species on many islands worldwide, and rodent eradication is a useful tool to safeguard endemic and threatened species. However, especially on tropical islands, rodent eradications can fail for various reasons, and it is unclear whether the temporary reduction of a rodent population during an unsuccessful eradication operation has beneficial effects on native birds. Here we examine the response of four endemic land bird species on subtropical Henderson Island in the Pitcairn Island Group, South Pacific Ocean, following an unsuccessful rodent eradication in 2011. We conducted point counts at 25 sampling locations in 14 survey periods between 2011 and 2015, and modelled the abundance trends of all species using binomial mixture models accounting for observer and environmental variation in detection probability. Henderson Reed Warbler Acrocephalus taiti more than doubled in abundance (2015 population estimate: 7,194-28,776), and Henderson Fruit Dove Ptilinopus insularis increased slightly between 2011 and 2015 (2015 population estimate: 4,476–10,072), while we detected no change in abundance of the Henderson Lorikeet Vini stepheni (2015 population estimate: 554–3014). Henderson Crake Zapornia atra increased to pre-eradication levels following anticipated mortality during the operation (2015 population estimate: 4,960–20,783). A temporary reduction of rat predation pressure and rat competition for fruit may have benefitted the reed warbler and the fruit dove, respectively. However, a long drought may have naturally suppressed bird populations prior to the rat eradication operation in 2011, potentially confounding the effects of temporary rat reduction and natural recovery. We therefore cannot unequivocally ascribe the population recovery to the temporary reduction of the rat population. We encourage robust monitoring of island biodiversity both before and after any management operation to better understand responses of endemic species to failed or successful operations.
Cet article examine l’évolution de la négation phrastique en ancien français dans une optique sociohistorique. En ancien français, la négation simple (ne + verbe) se voit de plus en plus concurrencée par la variante novatrice renforcée (ne + verbe + pas/mie/point). Partant de l'hypothèse que la répartition des variantes conservatrice et novatrice varie en partie selon le registre, leurs fréquences sont analysées dans l'oral représenté et dans le récit, deux registres distincts au sein d'un même texte. Dans certains textes, la distribution des variantes s'avère conditionnée par le registre, l'oral représenté contenant davantage de négation renforcée que le récit. En outre, les données laissent entrevoir un effet du sexe, l'oral représenté des hommes étant plus novateur quant à la négation que celui des femmes. Ces résultats indiqueraient que le choix de forme de négation possédait une valeur sociostylistique à l’époque en question.