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Basically, the safe dissipation of heat is among others an important protection objective of dual purpose casks. Gas-filled gaps within such casks can play a major role for the thermal behavior as they act as thermal barriers due to the lower heat conductivity of gaseous fluids in comparison to metallic materials. However, additional heat transmission mechanisms, such as natural convection and radiation can also occur in a gaseous medium. This leads to both an expanded modelling and a prolonged computing time in numerical simulations. Within the scope of a research project in cooperation with Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI a simulation tool for the fast thermal evaluation of dual purpose casks is developed which combines analytical methods and FEA. The innovation is that the thermal effects of gas-filled gaps are considered by using analytical equations. Main focus lies on the implementation of heat radiation as a non-linear transfer mechanism. Therefore, an iterative calculation process is used and the effects of the iteration number is investigated. Furthermore, the influence of radiation in comparison to pure conduction is examined depending on the gap width.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious illness leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. The treatment of AN very often is protracted; repeated hospitalizations and lost productivity generate substantial economic costs in the health care system. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the differential cost-effectiveness of out-patient focal psychodynamic psychotherapy (FPT), enhanced cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT-E), and optimized treatment as usual (TAU-O) in the treatment of adult women with AN.
The analysis was conducted alongside the randomized controlled Anorexia Nervosa Treatment of OutPatients (ANTOP) study. Cost-effectiveness was determined using direct costs per recovery at 22 months post-randomization (n = 156). Unadjusted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. To derive cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) adjusted net-benefit regressions were applied assuming different values for the maximum willingness to pay (WTP) per additional recovery. Cost–utility and assumptions underlying the base case were investigated in exploratory analyses.
Costs of in-patient treatment and the percentage of patients who required in-patient treatment were considerably lower in both intervention groups. The unadjusted ICERs indicated FPT and CBT-E to be dominant compared with TAU-O. Moreover, FPT was dominant compared with CBT-E. CEACs showed that the probability for cost-effectiveness of FTP compared with TAU-O and CBT-E was ⩾95% if the WTP per recovery was ⩾€9825 and ⩾€24 550, respectively. Comparing CBT-E with TAU-O, the probability of being cost-effective remained <90% for all WTPs. The exploratory analyses showed similar but less pronounced trends.
Depending on the WTP, FPT proved cost-effective in the treatment of adult AN.
On the Eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Sichuan province, China) dogs are regarded as important definitive hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis. We studied dog spatial behaviour in 4 Tibetan villages in order to determine the role of dogs in environmental contamination and their potential interactions with small mammal intermediate hosts. We identified definitive host species and Echinococcus spp. infection status of feces collected in the field by PCR methods and analysed the spatial distribution of canid feces. Nocturnal space utilization of GPS collared dogs in and around villages was also undertaken. E. multilocularis DNA was amplified in 23% of dog feces (n=142) and in 15% of fox feces (n=13) but this difference was not significant. However, dog feces were more frequently observed (78% of collected feces) than fox feces and are therefore assumed to largely contribute to human environment contamination. Feces were mainly distributed around houses of dog owners (0–200 m) where collared dogs spent the majority of their time. Inside villages, the contamination was aggregated in some micro-foci where groups of dogs defecated preferentially. Finally, small mammal densities increased from the dog core areas to grasslands at the periphery of villages occasionally used by dogs; male dogs moving significantly farther than females. This study constitutes a first attempt to quantify in a spatially explicit way the role of dogs in E. multilocularis peri-domestic cycles and to identify behavioural parameters required to model E. multilocularis transmission in this region.
Two novel approaches for diagnosis of intestinal Echinococcus multilocularis infection, the detection of E. multilocularis-specific coproantigens in ELISA and of copro-DNA by PCR, have been successfully implemented. These methods have proven their value for the post mortem and the intra vitam diagnosis of E. multilocularis in definitive hosts. They have also made novel approaches possible to study the transmission biology of the parasite as they allow detection of the infection in faecal samples collected in the environment. Coproantigen detection is the diagnostic method of choice as it is sensitive, fast and cheap. Studies on faecal samples collected in the field revealed that coproantigen detection did reflect the different prevalences in fox populations as assessed from foxes at necropsy and also the effect of deworming efforts in foxes as achieved by long-term distribution of praziquantel-containing baits. The use of PCR for routine diagnostic or large-scale purposes is hampered by the fact that DNA extraction from faecal material is a very laborious task. Therefore, PCR is rationally used for confirmatory purposes of copro-antigen-positive samples. As taeniid eggs cannot further be differentiated morphologically, PCR is the method of choice to identify E. multilocularis infections in faecal or environmental samples containing taeniid eggs. In intermediate rodent hosts, PCR is routinely used in epidemiological studies for identifying E. multilocularis from liver lesions which are often very small, atypical or calcified.
The transverse evolution of ions in front of two juxtaposed electrodes
whose electric potentials are independently applied is calculated. The particle motion
is described with nonlinear fluid equations and a self-consistent electric field.
As in all European countries, Germany's public health service expenditures have climbed significantly over the last few years, outstripping increases in GNP and cost of living increases. A detailed analysis of this development shows hospitals to be the sector where costs are escalating the most rapidly.
Various carcass measurements were obtained from 216 Hereford steers and evaluated in an attempt to find traits or combinations of traits which accurately estimate carcass composition. Carcass weight and trimmed retail cuts from the round proved to be the best single estimators of kilograms of retail cuts. Prediction equations were developed using carcass weight, trimmed retail cuts from the round, longissimus dorsi area, measures of fat thickness at the 12th rib, untrimmed round weight and weight of kidney, heart and pelvic fat in various combinations. Eighty-four to 94 % of the total variation in actual kilograms of retail cuts could be accounted for by using these equations.
Weed control constitutes one of the principal costs of onion production on muck soils. It has been estimated that cultivating and weeding make up nearly 40 per cent of the total labor cost in growing onions (5). The major component of this weed control cost is the hand labor required to remove weeds which come up in the onion row. During the past several years, research to find selective weedicides for onions and thus reduce weeding labor costs has been extensive.
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