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Pulsed coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is a potential alternative to pulsed near-ultraviolet (NUV) wavelengths for atom probe tomography. EUV radiation has the benefit of high absorption within the first few nm of the sample surface for elements across the entire periodic table. In addition, EUV radiation may also offer athermal field ion emission pathways through direct photoionization or core-hole Auger decay processes, which are not possible with the (much lower) photon energies used in conventional NUV laser-pulsed atom probe. We report preliminary results from what we believe to be the world’s first EUV radiation-pulsed atom probe microscope. The instrument consists of a femtosecond-pulsed, coherent EUV radiation source interfaced to a local electrode atom probe tomograph by means of a vacuum manifold beamline. EUV photon-assisted field ion emission (of substrate atoms) has been demonstrated on various insulating, semiconducting, and metallic specimens. Select examples are shown.
Six precursors were evaluated for use as in situ electron beam-induced deposition capping layers in the preparation of atom probe tomography specimens with a focus on near-surface features where some of the deposition is retained at the specimen apex. Specimens were prepared by deposition of each precursor onto silicon posts and shaped into sub-70-nm radii needles using a focused ion beam. The utility of the depositions was assessed using several criteria including composition and uniformity, evaporation behavior and evaporation fields, and depth of Ga+ ion penetration. Atom probe analyses through depositions of methyl cyclopentadienyl platinum trimethyl, palladium hexafluoroacetylacetonate, and dimethyl-gold-acetylacetonate [Me2Au(acac)] were all found to result in tip fracture at voltages exceeding 3 kV. Examination of the deposition using Me2Au(acac) plus flowing O2 was inconclusive due to evaporation of surface silicon from below the deposition under all analysis conditions. Dicobalt octacarbonyl [Co2(CO)8] and diiron nonacarbonyl [Fe2(CO)9] depositions were found to be effective as in situ capping materials for the silicon specimens. Their very different evaporation fields [36 V/nm for Co2(CO)8 and 21 V/nm for Fe2(CO)9] provide options for achieving reasonably close matching of the evaporation field between the capping material and many materials of interest.
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.
A huge amount of data has been acquired with the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI), large-format facility cameras, and since 2016 with the High-resolution Fast Imager (HiFI). These data are processed in standardized procedures with the aim of providing science-ready data for the solar physics community. For this purpose, we have developed a user-friendly data reduction pipeline called “sTools” based on the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and licensed under creative commons license. The pipeline delivers reduced and image-reconstructed data with a minimum of user interaction. Furthermore, quick-look data are generated as well as a webpage with an overview of the observations and their statistics. All the processed data are stored online at the GREGOR GFPI and HiFI data archive of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP). The principles of the pipeline are presented together with selected high-resolution spectral scans and images processed with sTools.
We are developing a wide-field CCD camera system which is optimized for using weak gravitational lensing to study the distribution of dark matter in clusters of galaxies and eventually the field. The system will be used at the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5 meter telescope in New Mexico.
The onset of a diffusive phase transformation in thin film Zn0.70Mg0.29Ga0.01O deposited on c-oriented sapphire (α-Al2O3) was explored using dynamic heating experiments in a laser pulsed atom probe tomography (APT) instrument and correlated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Specimens were laser irradiated using 100–1000 pJ pulse energies with initial temperatures between 50 and 300 K for up to 8.64 × 1010 pulses. Using a finite element model, it was possible to estimate the temperatures reached by the specimen during laser pulsing, which were calculated to be 300 K to above 1000 K. Due to the small sample volume, quench rates were estimated to be 1013 K/s, allowing for nanosecond temporal resolution during the in situ heating experiments. The formation of Mg-spinel (MgAl2O4) at the transparent conductive oxide/α-Al2O3 substrate interface was observed using electron diffraction and confirmed by atom probe analysis. Subnanometer spatial resolution in the atom probe data reconstructions allowed for near atomic level diffusion to be observed. This work demonstrates the feasibility of conducting these experiments in situ using a combined TEM and APT instrument.
New wireless wearable monitoring systems integrated in professional garments require a high degree of reliability and autonomy. Active textile antenna systems may serve as platforms for body-centric sensing, localisation, and wireless communication systems, in the meanwhile being comfortable and invisible to the wearer. We present a new dedicated comprehensive design paradigm and combine this with adapted signal-processing techniques that greatly enhance the robustness and the autonomy of these systems. On the one hand, the large amount of real estate available in professional rescue worker garments may be exploited to deploy multiple textile antennas. On the other hand, the size of each radiator may be designed large enough to ensure high radiation efficiency when deployed on the body. This antenna area is then reused by placing active electronics directly underneath and energy harvesters directly on top of the antenna patch. We illustrate this design paradigm by means of recent textile antenna prototypes integrated in professional garments, providing sensing, positioning, and communication capabilities. In particular, a novel wearable active Galileo E1-band antenna is presented and fully characterized, including noise figure, and linearity performance.