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In this study we sought to identify profiles of talk during Head Start preschool mealtime conversations involving teachers and students. Videos of 44 Head Start classrooms’ lunch interactions were analyzed for the ratio of teacher–child talk and amount of academic vocabulary, and then coded for instances of academic/food, social/personal, and management talk to highlight the degree of hybridity of talk within this unique setting. Cluster analysis revealed four distinct patterns of teacher–child mealtime interactions in 44 Head Start preschool classrooms: classroom discourse, home discourse, hybrid-low, and hybrid-high. Multilevel models further demonstrated a relationship among these clusters of teacher–child interactions and children's end-of-year expressive vocabulary scores controlling for ratio of teacher–child talk and pre-test scores. Children in classrooms displaying a hybrid style of mealtime discourse made the greatest gains on measures of expressive vocabulary in contrast to their peers in classrooms displaying other discourse styles.
Reliably dated surficial deposits for reconstructing palaeoclimate are rare in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. While many tephra have been found and dated, none is well characterized. In the Wright Valley, the Hart Ash is poorly dated and described. This paper reports profiles through tephra, the chemical signature of the glass shards and new high-precision multi-crystal laser fusion of 40Ar/39Ar ages. Major and trace element analyses of glass shards indicate the tephra are phonolitic and most probably sourced from Mount Discovery in the Erebus volcanic province. Two chemically distinct and stratigraphically separate tephra layers within the Hart Ash were found in three closely spaced soil profiles. The complex stratigraphy between these profiles could not be delineated without the geochemistry of the tephra. Importantly, our data suggest that only one tephra may be an in situ fall-out deposit, which gave a robust age of 2.97 ± 0.02 Ma. This new age for the Hart Ash tephra, which is 10 cm thick and is preserved at the current surface, provides a maximum age for surface deposits in the lower Wright Valley. This study highlights that well-characterized tephra enhance stratigraphic correlations in the Dry Valleys and improve the accuracy of palaeoenvironmental interpretations.
Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
In response to increasing numbers of older people in general hospitals who have cognitive impairment such as dementia and delirium, many hospitals have developed education and training programmes to prepare staff for this area of clinical practice.
To review the evidence on educational interventions on hospital care for older people with cognitive impairment.
A mixed methods systematic review and narrative synthesis was undertaken. The following electronic databases were searched: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews, ASSIA and Scopus, as well as Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), ProQuest, PubMed and SCIE: Social Care Online. Initial searches were run in August 2014 (update search September 2016). Titles and abstracts of studies retrieved were screened independently. The full text of eligible studies were then independently assessed by two review team members. All included studies were assessed using a standard quality appraisal tool.
Eight studies relating to delirium, six on dementia and two on delirium and dementia were included, each testing the use of a different educational intervention. Overall, the quality of the studies was low. In relation to delirium, all studies reported a significant increase in participants' knowledge immediately post-intervention. Two of the dementia studies reported an increase in dementia knowledge and dementia confidence immediately post-intervention.
The variety of outcomes measured makes it difficult to summarise the findings. Although studies found increases in staff knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that educational interventions for staff lead to improved patient outcomes.
The NPS MedicineWise pharmacist-delivered phone service, Medicines Line, aims to provide evidence-based medicines information to consumers. We evaluated outcomes of the Medicines Line, including common consumer inquiries and resultant decision-making, and explored consumer motivations for seeking medicines information.
The evaluation involved conducting paper-based and telephone surveys of a sample of 200 Medicines Line callers, and semi-structured telephone interviews of a subset of twenty callers. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis.
Preliminary analysis found that the majority of callers thought the Medicines Line had improved their knowledge (ninety-six percent), confidence (eighty-two percent) and decision-making (eighty-nine percent). The most common reasons for calling the Medicines Line were inquiries about side effects or medicine compatibility. The medicines most commonly asked about were antidepressants (twenty percent), analgesics (thirteen percent) and antibiotics (nine percent). Questions about sertraline accounted for thirty-six percent of antidepressant inquiries. Interview themes regarding motivations for using the service included: trust; efficiency and convenience; specialized drug knowledge; and reporting adverse drug reactions to protect others from medicine-related harm. Medicines Line was perceived to be especially useful as an alternative to family physician or specialist consultations when consumers had a non-urgent inquiry about a medicine, and as a service to provide medicines information in remote communities.
These results indicate that pharmacist-delivered medicines information telephone services are an effective and efficient way of handling medicines inquiries. Medicines information telephone services are effective in improving health literacy, by increasing callers’ knowledge and confidence to source evidence-based medicines information and improving their ability to make informed decisions about medicine use. This evaluation identified knowledge gaps in medicine side effects and antidepressant use. Identifying such knowledge gaps may be useful in informing future health professional education programs, community campaigns, and shared decision-making resources.
Woodrow Wilson's name remains forever entwined with the Paris Peace Conference and efforts to transform geopolitics after 1918. Despite recent emphases on the power of this so-called ‘Wilsonian Moment,’ initiatives by the American president remain controversial, and his principal global legacy has come to be defined as the rise of nationalism in the developing world. In the historiography of modern Japan, Wilson and the Paris Conference have long been identified less as opportunities than as challenges, embodied unmistakably in Prince Konoe Fumimaro's 1918 condemnation of the conference and the proposed League of Nations as beneficial only to the USA and Britain. Reading back from 1931, historians of modern Japan have located in the Versailles settlement seeds of an epic new expansionary effort from the Manchurian Incident to the destruction of Imperial Japan. This paper, by contrast, analyzes the interwar years on their own terms and, in so doing, locates the structural foundations of a dramatic Japanese national departure. Wilson is more than a ‘moment’ in interwar Japan. Embraced at the very moment that a largely agricultural and regional nineteenth-century Japan becomes a twentieth-century industrial state and world power, it is potent enough to withstand the illiberal tide of the 1930s and 40s to blossom again after the Second World War.
CYRIL Scott's centenary in 1979, nine years after his death, was a low moment. Christopher Palmer wrote: ‘Few composers of the “lost generation” of English Romantics stand in such urgent need of rehabilitation as Cyril Scott.’ The Cyril Scott Society had become defunct even earlier, soon after it was founded in 1964. I was aware of Scott's crippling neglect at a time when I was giving many recitals with my sister, the mezzo Meriel Dickinson, and proposed a modest centenary programme of songs and piano music to BBC Radio 3 – where Scott had been neglected or condescended to for many years. This programme was called Two Post Impressionists and coupled Scott with the American Charles Tomlinson Griffes (1884–1920). They both had anniversaries in the same month; they were pioneers in a modern idiom, especially in harmony; they were involved in oriental thought; and they studied in Germany at a time when their own countries were not regarded as suitable training grounds for composers. They were both professional pianists with important piano works, and Scott's First Sonata (1909) was ground-breaking in both harmony and metre. Thanks to Sarah Collins we now know far more about Scott's integrated range of activities – literary, philosophical, medical and occult – and his music can be approached from a wider perspective than in the past.
What has transformed the whole climate for Scott's music is the flood of recordings in the twenty-first century. This began after Scott's partner, Marjorie Harston- Scott, died in 1997 and his son, Desmond Scott, came into possession of his father's papers. He found a quantity of unpublished and even unperformed music. Recent recordings allow us to assess much of it for the first time.
The first category contains early works that did achieve performance. The First Symphony in G major was written in 1899 and played the following year by the Darmstadt Opera Orchestra under Willem de Haan. Scott attributed this only known performance to the influence of his friend the poet Stefan George. The score comes from the Grainger Museum and some completion was required. The first two pages of the third movement have been provided from internal evidence by Leslie De'Ath, who has recorded the complete piano works.
Nutrient profiling (NP) is a method for evaluating the healthfulness of foods. Although many NP models exist, most have not been validated. This study aimed to examine the content and construct/convergent validity of five models from different regions: Australia/New Zealand (FSANZ), France (Nutri-Score), Canada (HCST), Europe (EURO) and Americas (PAHO). Using data from the 2013 UofT Food Label Information Program (n15342 foods/beverages), construct/convergent validity was assessed by comparing the classifications of foods determined by each model to a previously validated model, which served as the reference (Ofcom). The parameters assessed included associations (Cochran–Armitage trend test), agreement (κ statistic) and discordant classifications (McNemar’s test). Analyses were conducted across all foods and by food category. On the basis of the nutrients/components considered by each model, all models exhibited moderate content validity. Although positive associations were observed between each model and Ofcom (all Ptrend<0·001), agreement with Ofcom was ‘near perfect’ for FSANZ (κ=0·89) and Nutri-Score (κ=0·83), ‘moderate’ for EURO (κ=0·54) and ‘fair’ for PAHO (κ=0·28) and HCST (κ=0·26). There were discordant classifications with Ofcom for 5·3 % (FSANZ), 8·3 % (Nutri-Score), 22·0 % (EURO), 33·4 % (PAHO) and 37·0 % (HCST) of foods (all P<0·001). Construct/convergent validity was confirmed between FSANZ and Nutri-Score v. Ofcom, and to a lesser extent between EURO v. Ofcom. Numerous incongruencies with Ofcom were identified for HCST and PAHO, which highlights the importance of examining classifications across food categories, the level at which differences between models become apparent. These results may be informative for regulators seeking to adapt and validate existing models for use in country-specific applications.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
Assistive technologies (ATs) are being ‘mainstreamed’ within dementia care, where they are promoted as enabling people with dementia to age in place alongside delivering greater efficiencies in care. AT provision focuses upon standardised solutions, with little known about how ATs are used by people with dementia and their carers within everyday practice. This paper explores how people with dementia and carers use technologies in order to manage care. Findings are reported from qualitative semi-structured interviews with 13 people with dementia and 26 family carers. Readily available household technologies were used in conjunction with and instead of AT to address diverse needs, replicating AT functions when doing so. Successful technology use was characterised by ‘bricolage’ or the non-conventional use of tools or methods to address local needs. Carers drove AT use by engaging creatively with both assistive and everyday technologies, however, carers were not routinely supported in their creative engagements with technology by statutory health or social care services, making bricolage a potentially frustrating and wasteful process. Bricolage provides a useful framework to understand how technologies are used in the everyday practice of dementia care, and how technology use can be supported within care. Rather than implementing standardised AT solutions, AT services and AT design in future should focus on how technologies can support more personalised, adaptive forms of care.
Like the Bible, which exerted a strong influence on him, John Ruskin's writing is substantial in volume, contains apparent contradictions, and is designed to change and improve lives by sharing knowledge, that is, by teaching. Steeped in biblical models, Ruskin understood the importance of parables and stories as a means to connect, to pass on a lesson, and thus to inspire. He was skilled at using vivid, and often deeply personal, narratives to speak directly to the diverse individuals who formed his many audiences. He knew the perception of a shared human moment, a common experience, could help others to glimpse and share his vision of a possible future; verbal vignettes, extended metaphors, anecdotes and parables drawing on specific moments of human experience became his dominant mode of expression and communication. This helped make him an exceptionally engaging educator. In the same way that the Bible can be mined for particularly apt verses to support an argument, so too Ruskin's often gleefully contradictory writing can be broken into the equivalent of verses and extracted to serve a point. This chapter focuses on just such a specific extracted element and uses it to present an argument: that Ruskin utilizes textiles to teach. References to cloth and clothing are scattered across his oeuvre and, in his hands, these allusions become a means of educating his audiences, so they might come to share and help to achieve his vision of a better society.
Such pedagogical use of textiles as a recurring image employed to connect on an intellectual and emotional level is in keeping with his biblical model. The first recorded parable offered by Jesus – and one of the few to appear in all three synoptic gospels – is offered in the Gospel of Matthew as: ‘No man putteth a piece of new cloth unto an old garment, for that which is put in to fill it up taketh from the garment, and the rent is made worse.’ The lesson is simple, and it is easily understood: if a piece of new fabric is used to patch a hole, it will soon tear from the stitches, making an even larger hole in the original fabric.
The growing use of cyberspace by state and nonstate actors is testing the limits of our international legal rules. And the recent issuance of the Tallinn Manual, both in its first iteration and now in its second version as Tallinn 2.0, attempts to identify the emerging law in this area. But many of the principles it asserts are controversial. This panel grapples with some of the key contested issues in this emerging domain.
To examine dietary Na and K intake at eating occasions in Australian adults and identify the contribution of major food sources to Na and K at different eating occasions.
Secondary analysis of 24 h recall diet data from the Australian Health Survey (2011–2013).
Nationally representative survey in Australia.
Male and female Australians aged 18–84 years (n 7818).
Dinner contributed the greatest proportion to total daily Na intake (33 %) and K intake (35 %). Na density was highest at lunch (380 mg/MJ) and K density highest at between-meal time eating occasions (401 mg/MJ). Between-meal time eating occasions provided 20 % of daily Na intake and 26 % of daily K intake. The major food group sources of Na were different at meal times (breads and mixed dishes) compared with between-meal times (cakes, muffins, scones, cake-type desserts). The top food group sources of K at meal times were potatoes and unprocessed meat products and dishes.
Foods which contributed to Na and K intake differed according to eating occasion. Major food sources of Na were bread and processed foods. Major food sources of K were potatoes and meat products and dishes. Public health messages that emphasise meal-based advice and diet patterns high in vegetables, fruits and unprocessed foods may also aid reduction in dietary Na intake and increase in dietary K intake.